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BRITANNIC  A 
BOOK    OF    THE    YEAR 

I  95  1 


BRITANNICA 
BOOK  OF  THE   YEAR 


1951 


*i768  * 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA    BRITANNICA,    LTD 

CHICAGO  LONDON  TORONTO 


COPYRIGHT    BY 

ENCYCLOPEDIA    BR1TANNICA,    LTD. 
LONDON,   1951 


PRINTED    AND    BOUND    BY 

KNIGHT      £     FORSTFR,     LTD. 

LPEDS 


PREFACE 

FOR  this,  the  1951  edition  of  the  Britannica  Book  of  the  Year,  the  opportunity 
was  taken  to  emphasize  by  an  increase  in  length  the  importance  of  a  few  articles 
dealing  with  topics  especially  prominent  in  1950.  One  of  the  selected  articles 
was  COMMUNIST  MOVEMENT.  For,  as  the  contributor  has  said  in  his  introductory 
sentence  to  it,  "  it  was  generally  recognized  by  1950  that  the  Communist  movement 
in  the  world  was  a  much  more  complicated  affair  than  had  often  been  realized." 
It  was  hoped,  therefore,  that  the  article  would  give  to  all  a  better  understanding  of 
the  subject's  facets.  A  corollary  to  this  decision  was  a  fuller  treatment  for  the  article 
CHINA,  a  country  which  by  Oct.  1950  had  completed  its  first  full  year  of  control  by 
the  People's  Republic.  A  third  choice  fell  most  deservedly  but  less  dramatically 
upon  the  British  domestic  topic  of  LIBRARIES  to  mark  the  centenary  of  the  passing 
of  the  Public  Libraries  act  in  1850. 

The  year  also  demanded  a  number  of  new  titles.  One  of  these,  HOLY  YEAR, 
though  by  its  nature  transitory,  offered  the  opportunity  for  some  good  descriptive 
writing;  another,  unwelcome,  was  KOREAN  WAR.  The  barometers  of  opinion  and 
emotion  were  seldom  steady  about  this  war  but  at  the  start  the  mood  of  the  Western 
world  was  captured  by  the  cartoon  reproduced  from  Punch  on  page  649. 

Other  new  articles  to  be  introduced  included  CIVIL  DEFENCE,  EUROPEAN  COAL 
AND  STEEL  POOL  (Schuman  Plan),  EASTERN  EUROPEAN  ECONOMIC  PLANNING  and 

HEAVY  ENGINEERING  and  LIGHT  ENGINEERING.     It  had  been  felt  for  some  time 

» 

that  the  articles  on  individual  industries,  which  were  retained,  had  failed  by 
themselves  to  give  the  general  reader  a  sufficiently,  clear  picture  of  industrial 
achievements  and  developments.  The  articles  on  heavy  and  light  engineering  were 
planned  to  overcome  this  defect. 

An  innovation  was  the  assigning  of  separate  articles  to  all  British  and  French 
colonies,  the  article  FRENCH  UNION  now  becoming  a  general  review  like  its  counter- 
part COMMONWEALTH  OF  NATIONS.  Marching  with  the  times  COMMONWEALTH  OF 
NATIONS  was  itself  a  change  of  title  taking  the  place  of  the  former  BRITISH  EMPIRE. 
Other  changes  of  title  were  YOUTH  EMPLOYMENT  for  JUVENILE  EMPLOYMENT; 
JEWRY,  WORLD  for  JUDAISM.  Grave  and  gay,  as  much  as  possible  of  the  happenings 
of  1950  were  recorded.  KASHMIR  was  conspicuous;  Brumas  was  remembered. 

JOHN   ARM1TAGE 

London  Editor. 


EDITORS    AND    CONTRIBUTORS 

WALTER    YUST,    Editor  in   chief    of   Encyclopaedia    Britannica 
JOHN    ARM  IT  AGE,    London    Editor 

The  initials  and  names  of  contributors  to  the  Britannica  Book  of  the  Year  with  the  principal 
articles  written  by  them  are  given  below.     The  arrangement  is  alphabetical  by  initials. 


A.A.P.  Greece 

ALEXANDER  ALEXANDROU  PALLIS.  B.A.  Minister  Pleni- 
potentiary attached  to  the  Greek  Embassy;  Director,  Greek  Office  of 
Information,  London.  Author  of  Greece's  Anatolian  Venture  — 
and  After;  etc. 

A.C.Ch.  X-Ray  and  Radiology 

ARTHUR  C.  CHRISTIE,  M.D.  Chief,  Department  of  Radiology, 
Doctors  Hospital  Medical  Centre,  Washington. 

A.Ck.  English  Literature  (in  part) 

ARTHUR  CROOK.  Literary  Critic,  London. 

A. Da.  Football  (in  part) 

ALLISON  DANZIG.  Member  of  sports  staff,  The  New  York  Times. 
Author  of  The  Racquet  Game;  etc. 

A.D.Ls.  Entomology 

ANTHONY  DAVID  LEES,  M.A.,  Ph.D.  Senior  Scientific  Officer, 
Agricultural  Research  Council,  Unit  of  Insect  Physiology,  Great 
Britain. 

A,Dr.  Textile  Industry  (in  part) 

ALFRED  DAWBER,  Mem.  Text.  Inst.  Editor  of  Textile  Manu- 
facturer, Manchester;  compiler  of  Textile  Manufacturer  Year  Book; 
etc. 

Ae.  Rackets;  Tennis 

LORD  ABERDARE.  Chairman,  National  Association  of  Boys' 
Clubs.  Former  rackets  and  tennis  amateur  champion  of  Britain, 
U.S.  and  Canada.  Author  of  First  Steps  to  Rackets  (with  E.  B.  Noel). 

A.Flo.  Spanish-American  Literature 

ANGEL  FLORES.  Chairman,  Latin  American  Area  Studies,  and 
Professor  of  Latin  American  Literature,  Queens  College,  Flushing, 
New  York.  Author  of  Lope  de  Vega;  Cervantes  Across  the  Centuries; 
The  Kafka  Problem;  Fiesta  in  November. 

A.G.Br.  Dyestuffs  (in  part) 

ANSCO  G.  BRUINIER,  Jr.  Technical  Advertising  Manager, 
Dyestuffs  Division,  Organic  Chemicals  Department,  E.  I.  du  Pont 
de  Nemours  and  Company,  Inc.,  Wilmington,  Delaware. 

A.G.L.I.  Hospitals  (in  part);  Nursing 

A.  G.  L.  IVES,  M.V.O.,  M.A.  Secretary,  King  Edward's  Hospital 
Fund  for  London.  Author  of  British  Hospitals. 

A.G.Ne.  Munitions  of  War  (in  part) 

A.  G.  NOBLE.  Rear  Admiral,  U.S.  Navy.  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of 
Ordnance,  Department  of  the  Navy,  Washington. 

A.H.H.  Venereal  Diseases  (in  part) 

ARTHUR  HERBERT  HARKNESS,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P.  Director, 
Endell  Street  Clinic  (Institute  of  Urology),  London;  Civil  Consultant 
to  the  Royal  Navy.  Author  of  Non-gonococcal  Urethritis. 

A.H. J.B.  Docks  and  Harbours  (in  part) ;  etc. 

ALFRED  HENRY  JAMES  BOWN,  F.C.I.S.,  M.I.T.  General 
Manager  and  Clerk,  River  Wear  Commissioners,  Sunderland. 
Author  of  Port  Operation  and  Administration  (with  C.  A.  Dove). 

A.H.Ld.  Forestry  (in  part) 

ARTHUR  HENRY  LLOYD,  O.B.E.,  M.C.,  T.D.,  M.A.  Lecturer 
in  Forestry,  University  of  Oxford.  Author  of  Engineering  for  Forest 
Rangers. 

A.H.Md.  Betting  and  Gambling  (in  part} ;  Contract  Bridge  (in  part) 
ALBERT  H.  MOREHEAD.  Editor,  The  Official  Rules  of  Card 
Games',  Bridge  Editor,  The  New  York  Times.  Author  of  The  Modern 
Hoyle;  etc. 

A.J.A.  Social  Security,  U.S. 

A.  J.  ALTMEYER.  Commissioner,  Social  Security  Administration, 
Federal  Security  Agency,  Washington. 

A. J.Ar.  Industrial  Health  (in  part) 

ARTHUR  JOSEPH  AMOR,  C.B.E.,  M.D.,  M.Sc.,  D.l.H.  Principal 
Medical  Officer,  Imperial  Chemical  Industries,  Ltd.,  London. 
Author  of  An  X-ray  Atlas  of  Silicosis;  The  Chemical  Aspects  of 
Silicosis;  Notes  on  the  Toxicity  of  Solvents. 

A.J.Coe.  South  African  Literature  (in  part) 

ABEL  JACOBUS  COETZEE,  M.A.,  D.Litt.,  D.Litt.  et  Phil.  Pro- 
fessor of  Afrikaans  Language  and  Folklore,  University  of  the 
Witwatersrand,  Johannesburg,  South  Africa.  Author  of  Opkoms 
van  die  Afrikaanse  Kultuurgedagte  aan  die  Rand;  Afrikaanse 
Volksgeloof\  etc. 

A.J.Hy.  Advertising  (in  part) 

ARTHUR  JAMES  HEIGHWAY.  Editor,  World's  Press  News, 
London. 

A.J.L1.  Spirits  (in  part) 

ALFRED  J.  LIEBMANN.  President,  Schenley  Research  Institute, 
New  York. 


A.J.Mac.  Anglican  Communion;  Church  of  England;  etc. 

ALAN  JOHN  MACDONALD,  D.D.,  F.S.A.,  F.R.Hist.S.  Pre- 
bendary of  St.  Paul's;  Rural  Dean  of  the  City  of  London  and  Rector 
of  St.  Dunstan-in-the-West.  Author  of  Lanfranc,  His  Life,  Work 
and  Writings',  Hildebrand;  etc. 

A.J.P.  Rifle  Shooting 

ARTHUR  JOHN  PALMER.  Secretary,  National  Small-Bore 
Association,  London.  Editor  of  the  Rifleman. 

A.Kk.  Printing  (in  part) 

ALBERT  KIRK.  Technical  Secretary,  British  Federation  of  Master 
Printers. 

A.L.Blr.  Scandinavian  Literature 

ALAN  LEIGH  BLAIR.  Translator  and  writer  on  Scandinavian 
literature. 

A.L.HI.  •  Dance  (in  part) 

ARNOLD  LIONEL  H  ASK  ELL,  M.A.  Director/Principal,  Sadler's 
Wells  School,  London;  Vice  President  and  Chairman  of  the  Education 
Committee  of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Dancing;  Joint  Director  of 
the  Teacher's  Training  Course;  Chairman  of  the  Ballet  Benevolent 
Fund.  Author  of  Balletotnania',  Diaghlleff;  etc. 

A.L.W.S.  Stocks  and  Shares  (in  part) 

A.  L.  W.  SHILLADY.  Chief  Market  Editor,  Financial  Times, 
London. 

A.M.Ds.  Local  Government  (in  part) 

AUDREY  M.  DAV1ES.  Librarian,  Institute  of  Public  Adminis- 
tration, New  York. 

A.M.F.  Cartography 

ANTHONY  MARGARET  FERRAR,  B.Sc.  Assistant  Map 
Curator,  Royal  Geographical  Society,  London. 

A.Mjd.  Islam 

ABDUL  MAJID,  M.A.  The  Imam,  the  Mosque,  Woking,  Surrey. 
Editor  of  Islamic  Review,  Woking. 

A.Mu.  Dance  (in  part) 

ARTHUR  MURRAY.  President,  National  Institute  of  Social 
Dancing,  U.S.A.  Author  of  How  to  Become  a  Good  Dancer',  Modern 
Dancing ;  etc. 

An.  Child  Welfare  (in  part) 

LADY  ALLEN  OF  HURTWpOD,  F.I.L.A.  President,  Nursery 
School  Association  of  Great  Britain;  President,  World  Organization 
for  Early  Childhood  Education;  Member  of  Advisory  Council  on 
Child  Care  (Home  Office,  London).  Author  of  Whose  Children? 

A.N.O.  International  Monetary  Fund 

ANDREW  N.  OVERBY.  Deputy  Managing  Director,  International 
Monetary  Fund. 

A.R.K.  Chambers  of  Commerce  (in  part) 

ARTHUR  RICHARD  KNOWLES,  C.B.E.,  F.C.l.S.  Secretary- 
General,  The  Association  of  British  Chambers  of  Commerce, 
London. 

A.R.M.  Fisheries 

ARTHUR  RICHARD  MARGETTS,  M.A.  Scientific  Officer, 
Ministry  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries,  Fisheries  Laboratory,  Lowes- 
toft,  Suffolk. 

A.R.MacK.  Immigration  and  Emigration  (in  part} ;  Aliens  (in  part) 
ARGYLE  R,  MacKEY.  Acting  Commissioner,  Immigration  and 
Naturalization  Service,  U.S.  Department  of  Justice,  Washington. 

A.S.A.  Telegraphy  (in  part) 

SIR  ARTHUR  STANLEY  ANGWIN,  K.B.E.,  D.S.O.,  M.C.,  f  .D., 
M.I.C.E.,  M.I.E.E.,  B.Sc.(Eng-).  Chairman,  Cable  and  Wireless,  Ltd., 
London,  1947-51. 

A.Stn.  Exchange  Control  and  Exchange  Rates  (in  part) 

ALEXANDER  STEVENSON.  Senior  Economist,  International 
Bank  for  Reconstruction  and  Development. 

A.T.CI.  New  Zealand 

ARTHUR  TREVOR  CAMPBELL,  M.A.  Public  Relations  Officer, 
New  Zealand  Government,  London. 

A.T.Me.  Historical  Research 

ALEXANDER  TAYLOR  MILNE,  M.A.,  F.R.Hist.S.  Secretary 
and  Librarian,  Institute  of  Historical  Research,  University  of 
London.  Compiler  of  Writings  on  British  History  (in  progress). 

A.Var.  Helsinki 

ANTERO  VARTIA.  Press  Attache*,  Finnish  Legation,  London. 

A.W.E.  Botany 

ARTHUR  WALLIS  EXELL,  M.A.,  F.L.S.  Deputy  Keeper,  Botany 
Department,  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  London. 

A.  Ws.  Fashion  and  Dress  (in  part) 

AUDREY  WITHERS,  B.A.  Editor,  Vogue,  London. 


VII 1 


CONTRIBUTORS 


B.A.S.  Wine* 

BAS1LE  A.  SAMARAKIS.    Director,  1'Office  International  du  Vin, 

Paris. 
B.C.Pt.  Theology 

BERNARD  CLIFFORD  PLOWR1GHT,  B.A.,  B.D.     Secretary, 

Life  and  Work  Department,  Congregational  Union  of  England  and 

Wales,  London.     Author  of  Humanism — Pagan  or  Christian',  Our 

Gospel— or  His;  Rebel  Religion. 
B.Dr.  Art  Sales 

BERNARD  DENVIR,  B.A.    Art  Critic,  Tribune  and  Daily  Herald, 

London;  Joint  Editor,  Art  News  and  Review,  London.    Author  of 

Drawings  of  William  Hogarth;  etc. 
B.Fy.  Machinery  and  Machine  Tools  (in  part} 

BURNHAM  FINNEY.    Editor,  American  Machinist,  New  York. 

B.J.W.  Dentistry 

BRYAN  JARDINE  WOOD,  F.D.S.R.C.S.     Editor,  British  Dental 

Journal,  London. 
B.L.  Timber  (in  part) 

BRYAN  LATHAM.  Past  President,  Timber  Trade  Federation  of  the 

United  Kingdom;  Member  of  Timber  Advisory  Committee  to  the 

Board  of  Trade,  London. 
B.L.B.  Immigration  and  Emigration  (in  part} 

BERTHA    LILIAN    BRACEY,    O.B.E.,    B.A.       Women's    Affairs 

Ofliccr  for  Schlcswig-Holstcin,  Control  Commission  for  Germany 

(British  Element). 
B.Nc.  Cinema  (in  part) 

BOYCE  NEMEC.    Executive  Secretary,  Society  of  Motion  Picture 

and  Television  Engineers,  New  York. 
B.PI.  Girl  Guides  (in  part) 

OLAVE  ST.  CI  AIR,  LADY  BADEN  POWELL,  G.B.E.     World 

Chief  Guide.    Author  of  Opening  Doorways. 
B.R.P.  Burma;  Thailand 

BERTIE    REGINALD    PEARN,    M.A.,    F.R.Hist.S.       Formerly 

Professor  of  History,  University  of  Rangoon.     Author  of  History 

of  Rangoon. 
Br.S.  Crime  (in  part);  Police  (in  part) 

BRUCE  SMITH.     Secretary,  Institute  of  Public  Administration, 

New  York.     Author  of  Police  Systems  in  the  U.S.;  Rural  Crim 

Control;  etc. 
B.Sk.  Gliding  (in  part) 

BEN  SHUPACK,  B.S.,  M.A.   Director,  Soaring  Society  of  America. 
B.W.C.  Swimming  (in  part) 

BERTRAM  WILLIAM  CUMMINS.    Hon.  Publicity  Secretary  and 

Past   President,   Amateur   Swimming   Association.      Founder   and 

Hon.  Editor,  Swimming  Times,  Croydon,  Surrey. 

C.A.Br.  Australian  Literature 

CLIFFORD  AMANDUS  BURMESTER,  B.A.  Chief  Reference 
Officer,  Commonwealth  National  Library,  Canberra,  Australia; 
former  Librarian,  Office  of  the  High  Commissioner  of  Australia  in 
London  and  Liaison  Officer  of  the  Commonwealth  National  Library. 

C. A.Hh.  Hotels,  Restaurants  and  Inns  (in  part) 

CHARLES  A.  HORRWORTH.  Executive  Vice-President,  American 
Hotel  Association,  New  York. 

C.A.,1.  French  Union;  Indo-China;  etc. 

CHARLES-ANDR£  JULIEN.  Professor  of  the  History  of  Coloni- 
zation at  the  Sorbonne,  Paris.  Author  of  Histoire  de  VAfrique  du 
Nord;  Histoire  de  V expansion  et  de  la  colonization  francair>es  (vol.  I, 
1948). 

C.A.Mo.  Meat  (in  part) 

CECIL  ALFRED  MORRISON.  Advertising  Manager  and  Assistant 
Editor  Meat  Trades*  Journal,  London.  f 

C.A.Sd.  Leather;  Shoe  Industry 

CALVIN  ADAMS  SHEPARD.  Editor,  Shoe  and  Leather  News, 
London. 

C.A.T.  Spices 

CHARLES  A.  THAYER.  Former  President  and  Former  Director, 
American  Spice  Trade  Association. 

C.Bd.  Rubber  (in  part) 

COLIN  BRISLAND.  Press  Officer,  British  Rubber  Development 
Board,  London. 

C.B.E.  Archery 

CHARLES  BERTRAM  EDWARDS.  Secretary,  Grand  National 
Archery  Society  and  Royal  Toxophilite  Society,  London. 

C.Bt.  Golf  (in  part) 

CHARLES  BARTLETT.  Golf  Editor,  Chicago  Tribune;  Secretary, 
Golf  Writers'  Association  of  America. 

C.Bu.  Sculpture  (in  part) 

CARLYLE  BURROWS,  B.A.  Art  Editor,  New  York  Herald  Tribune. 

C.C.C.  Police  (in  part) 

CHARLES  CRAIK  CUNNINGHAM,  C.B.,  C.V.O.,  M.A.,  B.Litt. 
Secretary,  Scottish  Homes  Department,  Edinburgh. 

C.C.N.V.  Physiology 

CHARLES  CYRIL  NORROY  VASS,  M.Sc.,  Ph.D.,  M.B.,  Ch.B. 
Reader  in  Physiology  in  the  University  of  London.  Part  author  of 
Synopsis  of  Physiology  (4th  ed.). 

C.C.Ws.  Consumer  Credit  (in  part) 

CHARLES  COWLEY  WORTERS,  F.I.C.M.  Secretary,  the  Hire 
Purchase  Trade  Association  and  the  International  Association  for 
Promotion  and  Protection  of  Trade,  Ltd.,  London;  Member  of 
Council  of  the  Institute  of  Credit  Management,  London. 

C.Cy.  Canadian  Literature;  etc. 

CHARLES  CLAY.  Director,  Canadian  Research  and  Editorial 
Institute,  Ottawa,  Ontario.  Author  of  Young  yoyageur;  Muskrat 
Man;  etc. 


C.D.H.  Mexico 

C.  DAVID  HELLYER.  Assistant  Director,  Institute  of  Inter- 
American  Affairs,  University  of  Florida,  Gainesville,  Florida. 

C.D.M.  Book  Collecting  and  Book  Sales 

CHARLES  DUDLEY  MASSEY.  Managing  Director  of  Pickering 
and  Chatto,  Booksellers,  London. 

C.E.L.-Q.  Lutherans 

CARL  E.  LUND-QUIST,  B.D.  Assistant  Executive  Director,  U.S.A. 
National  Committee  for  Lutheran  World  Federation;  Executive 
Secretary,  Division  of  Public  Relations,  National  Lutheran  Council. 

C.E.R.  Forestry  (in  part) 

CHARLES  EDGAR  RANDALL,  A.B.,  M.A.  Information 
Specialist,  Division  of  Information  and  Education,  Forest  Service, 
U.S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  Washington.  Author  of  Our  Forests; 
etc. 

C.E.R.S.  Railways  (in  part) 

CHARLES  ELY  ROSE  SHERRINGTON,  O.B.E.,  M.C.,  M.A. 
Secretary,  Railway  Research  Service,  London.  Author  of  Economics 
of  Rail  Transport  in  Great  Britain;  100  Years  of  Inland  Transport. 

C.F.As.  Airports  (in  part) 

CHARLES  FERDINAND  ANDREWS,  A.R.Ae.S.,  A.I.B.  Assistant 
Editor,  Air  Travel  and  Editor,  Airports  and  Air  Transportation, 
London;  former  member  of  the  technical  stalT  of  the  Aeroplane. 

C.F.Ke.  Motor  Industry  (in  part) 

CHARLES  F.  KETTERING.  Director  and  former  Vice  President, 
General  Motors  Corporation. 

C.F.Mt.  Wool 

CECIL  FINER  MALLETF,  M.B.E.  Joint  Editor,  Weekly  Wool 
Chart.  Statistics  Adviser,  United  Kingdom  Wool  Industry  Bureau 
of  Statistics. 

C.G.C.  Jet  Propulsion  and  Gas  Turbines  (in  part) 

CYRIL  GORDON  CONWAY,  B.Sc.  Consulting  Engineer,  Power 
Jets  (Research  and  Development)  Ltd.,  London. 

C.G.Fe.  Chambers  of  Commerce  (in  part) 

CECIL  GEORGE  FREKE,  C.I.E.,  M.A.,  B.Sc.  Director,  British 
National  Committee,  International  Chamber  of  Commerce. 

C.G.My.  Poultry 

CLARENCE  GEORGE  MAY.  Editor,  Poultry  World,  London. 
Author  of  Natural  Hatching  and  Rearing;  Bantams  for  Eggs. 

C.H.Bd.  leprosy 

C.  H.  BINFORD,  M.D.  Medical  Director,  U.S.  Public  Health 
Service;  Pathologist,  U.S.  Marine  Hospital,  Baltimore,  Maryland. 

C.H.Bu.  Machinery  and  Machine  Tools  (in  part) 

CHARLES  HENRY  BURDER,  M.B.E.,  B.A.    Director  and  Acting 

Editor.  Machinery,  London. 
Ch.F.  Cambridge  University 

CHARLES   FOX,   M.A.     Sometime   Director  of  Training  in  the 

University  of  Cambridge.     Author  of  Educational  Psychology  (4th 

ed.);  etc. 
Ch.Fl.  Motor  Racing 

CHARLES    FOTHERGILL.         Motoring    Correspondent,    News 

Chronicle,  London.  Author  of  The  Story  of  Grand  Prix  Motor  Racing. 
C.H.G.T.  Banking  (in  part);  Bank  of  England;  etc. 

C.  GORDON  TETHER.    Money  Market  Editor,  Financial  Times, 

London. 
C.L.B.  Psychology  (in  part) 

SIR     CYRIL     LODOWIC     BURT,     M.A.,     D.Sc.,     Hon.Ll.D.. 

Hon.D.Litt.     Fellow  of  the  British  Academy.     Hon.  Fellow,  Jesus 

College,  Oxford.     Professor  of  Psychology,  University  of  London. 

Author  of  Mental  and  Scholastic  Tests;  The  Subnormal  Mind;  The 

Young  Delinquent',  etc. 

C.L.Be.  Wild  Life  Conservation  (in  part) 

CHARLES  LEOFRIC  BOYLE.  Secretary,  The  Fauna  Preservation 
Society,  London. 

C.L.D.  Motor  Transport  (in  part) 

CHARLES  L.  DEARING.  Senior  Staff  Member  of  The  Brookings 
Instil ution,  Washington.  Author  of  American  Highway  Policy  and 
National  Transportation  Policy  (with  Wild  red  Owen). 

C.L.  de  B.  Fencing 

CHARLES-LOUIS  de  BEAUMONT,  M.A.  Membre  d'Honneur 
de  la  Federation  Internationale  d'Escrime;  President,  British  Empire 
Fencing  Federation;  Hon.  Secretary,  Amateur  Fencing  Association, 
London.  Author  of  Modern  British  Fencing. 

C.McG.  Cuba;  Netherlands  Overseas  Territories  (in  part);  etc. 

CONSTANTINE  EDWARD  McGUIRE.  Economic  Adviser 
(U.S.A.).  Author  of  Italy's  International  Economic  Position;  etc. 

C.Mn.  Shipbuilding  (///  part);  Shipping,  Merchant  Marine  (in  part) 
CUTHBERT  MAUGHAN.  Shipping  Correspondent,  The  Times, 
London.  Author  of  Commodity  Market  Terms;  Our  Mercantile 
Marine;  etc. 

C.M.Pn.  Industrial  Health  (in  part) 

CARL  M.  PETERSON,  M.D.  Secretary,  Council  on  Industrial 
Health,  American  Medical  Association. 

C.M.R.  Girl  Guides  (in  part) 

CONSTANCE  M.  RITTENHOUSE  (Mrs.  Paul  Rittenhouse). 
National  Executive  Director,  Girl  Scouts  of  the  United  States  of 
America. 

C.M.Wi.  Bolivia;  Ecuador;  Liberia 

CHARLES  MORROW  WILSON.  Economist,  Caribbean  and  West 
African  Affairs.  Director,  American  Foundation  for  Tropical 
Medicine.  Author  of  Tropics;  World  of  Tomorrow;  Ambassadors 
in  White;  One  Half  the  People;  Liberia;  etc. 


CONTRIBUTORS 


IX 


^.r».  Missions,  Foreign  Religious 

CECIL  NORTHCOTT,  M.A.  General  Secretary,  United  Council 
for  Missionary  Education,  London.  Author  of  Religious  Liberty. 

C.Q.  Motor  Cycling 

CYRIL  QUANTRILL.  Sports  Editor,  Motor  Cycling,  London. 

C.R.A,  Marriage  and  Divorce 

CLIFFORD  R.  ADAMS,  M.A.,  Ph.D.  Professor  of  Psychology 
in  Charge  of  Marriage  Counselling  for  the  School  of  Education, 
The  Pennsylvania  State  College.  Regional  Consultant,  American 
Institute  of  Family  Relations.  Author  of  Looking  Ahead  to  Marriage. 

C.V.C.  '  Korean  War  (in  part) 

CHESTER  V.  CLIFTON,  Jr.,  Lt.  Col.,  U.S.  Army.  Assistant  to 
the  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff,  Washington. 

D.A.C.  Women's  Activities 

DOROTHY  A.  CANNELL.  Writer  and  Editor,  London. 

D.A.G.R.  Building  and  Construction  Industry  (in  part) 

DONALD  A.  G.  REID,  B.Sc.(Eng.),  A.M.I.C.E.,  A.M.l.Struct.E. 
Principal,  London  County  Council  Brixton  School  of  Building. 

D.A.Sn.  Malaya,  Federation  of;  Singapore 

DERRICK  ADOLPHUS  SINGTON,  B.A.  Correspondent  in  the 
Far  East,  contributing  to  Glasgow  Herald;  Manchester  Guardian; 
New  Statesman;  etc. 

D.B.S.  Bridges  (in  part) 

DAVID  BARNARD  STEINMAN,  A.M.,  C.E.,  Sc.D.,  Ph.D., 
F.R.S.A.  U.S.  Authority  on  the  Design  and  Construction  of  Long- 
Span  Bridges. 

D.C.B.  Words  and  Meanings,  New  (in  part) 

DAVID  CLAYTON  BROWNING,  M.A.,  B.A.,  B.Litt.  Journalist 
and  author.  Author  of  Everyman's  English  Dictionary;  Everyman's 
Dictionary  of  Quotations  and  Proverbs. 

D.Cr.  Aircraft  Manufacture;  Royal  Air  Force 

DOUGLAS  COLYER,  C.B.,  D.F.C.,  M.A.  British  Civil  Air  Attache 
at  Paris,  Brussels,  The  Hague,  Rome,  Madrid  and  Berne. 

D.D.C.  Children's  Books  (In  part} 

DORIS  DAV1ES  CHILCOT,  F.L.A.  Principal  Assistant  in  Charge 
of  Work  with  Young  People,  Islington  Public  Libraries,  London. 

D.Dz.  Atomic  Energy  (in  part) 

DAVID  DIETZ.  Science  Editor,  Scripps- Howard  Newspapers. 
Lecturer  in  General  Science,  Western  Reserve  University,  Cleveland, 
Ohio.  Author  of  Atomic  Energy  in  the  Coming  Era;  etc. 

D.F.K.  Israel;  etc. 

DAVID  FRANCIS  KESSLER,  B.A.  Managing  Director,  The 
Jewish  Chronicle,  London. 

D.F.Ky.  Angling 

DONOVAN  FRANK  KELLEY.  Writer  on  Angling,  Plymouth. 

D.G.B.  Sugar  (in  part) 

DAVID  GRAHAM  BURNS,  B.A.  Member  of  the  staff,  Common- 
wealth Economic  Committee,  London. 

D.G.Wo.  Textile  Industry  (in  part) 

DOUGLAS  G.  WOOLF.  Former  Editor  in  Chief,  Textile  World, 
New  York.  Textile  Consultant  and  Publisher,  East  Pasadena  Herald, 
Pasadena,  California. 

D.Hn.  Newspapers  and  Magazines  (///  part) 

DEREK  HUDSON,  M.A.  Literary  Editor,  Spectator,  London. 
Author  of  Thomas  Barnes  of  tl  The  Times'";  British  Journalists  and 
Newspapers;  etc. 

D.Hs.  Nairobi 

DAVID  HUGHES,  M.A.  British  Council,  Nairobi,  Kenya. 

D.I.  Ireland,  Republic  of 

DENIS  LIDDELL  IRELAND.  Senator,  Republic  of  Ireland. 
Author  of  Eamon  de  Valera  Doesn't  See  It  Through;  Six  Counties 
in  Search  of  a  Nation. 

D.I.C.  Spirits  (in  part) 

DENYS  IRVINE  COOMBER,  B.Sc.,  A,R.1.C,  Ph.D.  Senior 
Scientific  Officer,  Government  Chemist's  Department,  London. 

D.J.H.  Wages  and  Hours  (in  part) 

DONALD  J.  HART,  M.A.  Dean,  School  of  Business  Administra- 
tion, University  of  Idaho,  Moscow,  Idaho. 

D.Me.  Scotland 

SIR  DAVID  MILNE,  K.C.B.,  M.A.  Permanent  Under  Secretary 
of  State  for  Scotland. 

D.M.T.  Vegetable  Oils  and  Animal  Fats  (in  part) 

DONALD  MARK  TAILBY,  B.A.  Economic  Assistant,  Common- 
wealth Economic  Committee,  London. 

D.N.L.  Societies,  Learned  and  Professional 

DAVID  NICOLL  LOWE,  O.B.E.,  M.A.,  B.Sc.  Secretary,  British 
Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science. 

D.Nn.  London 

LADY  DOROTHY  NICHOLSON,  M.A.,  M.B.fc.  Author  of 
Private  Letters,  Pagan  and  Christian;  Pilgrims  were  They  All;  The 
Londoner;  etc. 

D.R.Gi.  France;  Saar 

DARSIE  RUTHERFORD  GILLIE.  Legion  of  Honour.  Paris 
Correspondent,  Manchester  Guardian. 

D.St.  Advertising  (in  part) 

DANIEL  STARCH.  Consultant  in  Business  Research.  Former 
Lecturer  and  Professor  at  Harvard  University  and  the  University  of 
Wisconsin.  Author  of  Principles  of  Advertising;  etc. 

D.V.  Oxford  University 

DOUGLAS  VEALE,  C.B.E.,  M.A.  Registrar  of  Oxford  University 
and  Fellow  of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford. 


D.W.  Botanical  Gardens  (in  part) 

DONALD  WYMAN.  Horticulturist,  Arnold  Arboretum,  Harvard 
University,  Jamaica  Plain,  Massachusetts. 

D.W.H.  Socialist  Movement 

DENIS  WINSTON  HEALEY,  M.B.E.,  M.A.  Secretary,  Inter- 
national  Department  of  the  British  Labour  Party. 

D.W.K.-J.  Bread  and  Bakery  Products 

DOUGLAS  WILLIAM  KENT-JONES,  Ph.D.,  B.Sc.,  F.R.I.C. 
Analytical  and  Consulting  Chemist,  London.  Author  of  Modern 
Cereal  Chemistry ;  The  Practice  and  Science  of  Bread-making. 

E.A.P.  Spanish  Literature 

EDGAR  ALLISON  PEERS,  M.A.,  Hon.LL.D.  Professor  of 
Spanish,  University  of  Liverpool.  Author  of  Studies  of  the  Spanish 
Mystics;  A  History  of  the  Romantic  Movement  in  Spain;  etc. 

E.Ba.  Freemasonry 

ERNEST  BEHA.  Editor  of  The  Freemason,  London.  Author  of 
Lodges  with  a  Difference. 

E.B.K.  New  Delhi 

Mrs.  E.  B.  BRIDGWATER-KITCAT,  M.B.E.  Office  of  the  Adviser 
in  India  to  the  Central  Commercial  Committee,  New  Delhi. 

E.B.Mc.  Korea  (in  part) 

EVELYN  BECKER  McCUNE  (Mrs.  George  McCune).  Lecturer, 
University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California. 

E.C.-Js.  Infantile  Paralysis;  Tuberculosis 

EDWARD  CLAYTON-JONES,  M.D.  Assistant  Editor,  The 
Lancet,  London. 

E.C.Sd.  Aviation,  Civil  (in  part);  Gliding  (in  part) 

EDWIN  COLSTON  SHEPHERD,  B.A.,  B.Litt.  Air  Correspondent, 
Sunday  Times.  Formerly  Aeronautical  Correspondent,  The  Times, 
and  Editor,  Aeroplane.  Author  of  The  R.A.F.  To-day;  Great  Flights. 

Ed.D.  Cinema  (in  part) 

EDGAR  DALE.  Professor  of  Education,  Bureau  of  Educational 
Research,  The  Ohio  State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio.  Author  of 
Audio- Visual  Methods  in  Teaching;  How  to  Read  a  Newspaper;  etc. 

Ed.R.P.  Architecture  (in  part) 

EDMUND  R.  PURVES.  Executive  Director,  American  Institute 
of  Architects. 

E.E.Bs.  Civil  Service 

SIR  EDWARD  ETTINGDENE  BRIDGES,  G.C.B.,  G.C.V.O., 
M.C,  M.A.,  Hon.LL.D.,  Hon.D.Litt.,  Hon.D.C.L.  Permanent 
Secretary  to  the  Treasury,  London. 

E.E.R.  United  States  of  America 

EDGAR  EUGENE  ROBINSON,  A.M.,  LL.D.  Byrne  Professor  of 
American  History  and  Director  of  the  Institute  of  American  History, 
Stanford  University,  Stanford,  California. 

E.F.Hk.  Yachting 

EDWARD  FOWLES  HAYLOCK.  Editor,  Yachting  World,  London. 

E.G.  Children's  Books  (in  part) 

ELIZABETH  A.  GROVES,  B.A.  Assistant  Professor,  School  of 
Librarianship,  University  of  Washington,  Seattle,  Washington. 

E.G.Cs.  Ice  Skating  (in  part) 

ERIC  GEORGE  COGGINS.  Secretary,  National  Skating  Associa- 
tion of  Great  Britain. 

E.Hd.  ,  Afghanistan;  Ceylon;  Tibet;  etc. 

EDWIN  HAWARD.  Secretary,  India,  Pakistan  and  Burma  Associa- 
tion.  Author  of  A  Picture  of  India;  Manchurian  Medley;  The  Last 
Rebellion;  etc.  • 

E.Hin.  '  Zoological  Gardens  (in  part) ;  Zoology 

EDWARD  HINDLE,  M.A.,  Sc.D.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S.  Scientific  Director, 
Zoological  Society  of  London.  Author  of  Flies  and  Disease- Biting 
Flies;  A  Laboratory  Notebook  of  Zoology. 

E.H.Kg.  National  Trust 

EDWARD  HERBERT  KEELING,  M.C,  M.A.  Member  of 
Parliament;  Chairman,  Publicity  Committee,  National  Trust. 

E.H.Kr.  Mineralogy 

EDWARD  HENRY  KRAUS.  Dean  Emeritus  of  the  College  of 
Literature,  Science  and  the  Arts,  and  Professor  Emeritus  of  Crystal- 
lography and  Mineralogy,  University  of  Michigan,  Ann  Arbor, 
Michigan. 

E.H.S.  Isle  of  Man 

ERNEST  HENRY  STENNING,  M.A.  Vice-Principal,  Chaplain 
and  Senior  Science  Master  of  King  William's  College,  Isle  of  Man. 
Canon  of  St.  Columba.  Chairman  of  the  Ancient  Monuments 
Committee.  Author  of  The  Isle  of  Man. 

E.l.F.  Horticulture  (in  part) 

E.  I.  FARR1NGTON.  Former  Secretary,  Massachusetts  Horti- 
cultural Society  and  Editor  of  Horticulture.  Author  of  The  Gardener's 
Almanac;  etc. 

E.I.P.  Salvation  Army  (in  part) 

ERNEST  1.  PUGMIRE.  National  Commander  of  the  Salvation 
Army  in  the  United  States. 

E.I.U.  Vital  Statistics 

ECONOMIST  INTELLIGENCE  UNIT,  Economist  Newspaper 
Ltd.,  London. 

E.  J.C.  Canning  Industry  (in  part) 

EDWIN  J.  CAMERON.  Director,  Research  Laboratories,  National 
Canners'  Association,  U.S.A. 

E.J.L.  "  Sweden 

ETHEL  JOHN  LINDGREN,  M.A.,  Ph.D.  Lecturer,  Department 
of  Anthropology,  University  of  Cambridge.  Edi|or  of  The  Study  of 
Society;  Methods  and  Problems. 


CONTRIBUTORS 


E.L.Co.  Shipping.  Merchant  Marine  (in  part) 

E.  L.  COCHRANE.  Vice  Admiral,  U.S.  Navy  (Retired).  Chairman, 
Federal  Maritime  Board,  and  Administrator,  Maritime  Adminis- 
tration, U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Washington. 

E.L.S.  Armies  of  the  World 

EDWIN  L.  SIBERT.  Brigadier  General,  U.S.  Array.  Director  of 
Staff,  Inter-American  Defence  Board,  Washington.  ' 

E.M.C.  Fertilizers 

EDWARD  MORTIMER  CROWTHER,  D.Sc..  F.R.I.C.  Head  of 
the  Chemistry  Department  and  Deputy  Director,  Rothamsted 
Experimental  Station,  Harpenden,  Hertfordshire. 

E.M.E.  Airports  (in  part) 

EMERY  M.  ELLINGSON.  Manager,  Air  Transport  Association 
of  America,  Los  Angeles,  California. 

E.Mgh.  Glass  (in  part) 

EDWARD  MEIGH,  M.B.E.,  M.Sc.,  F.I.I. A.,  F.S.G.T.  Director, 
Glass  Technical  Services,  Ltd.,  London. 

E.N.T.  Paints  and  Varnishes 

ERIC  NESHAN  TIRATSOO,  Ph.D.,  D.I.C.,  B.Sc.,  A.R.S.M.. 
F.G.S.,  F.R.G.S.,  M.Inst.Pct.  Editor,  Paint  Manufacture',  Petroleum; 
Atomics;  Chemical  Industries^  London.  Author  of  Petroleum  Geology. 

E.O.G.  Cocoa;  Coffee 

EDGAR  OTTO  GOTHSCH,  B.Sc.(Econ.).  Member  of  the  staff, 
Commonwealth  Economic  Committee,  London. 

E.P.J.  Diabetes 

E.  P.  JOSLIN,  M.D.,  Sc.D.  Professor  Emeritus  of  Clinical  Medicine, 
Harvard  University  Medical  School;  Medical  Director,  George  F. 
Baker  Clinic,  New  England  Deaconess  Hospital,  Boston,  Massa- 
chusetts. 

E.R.Bk.  International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and  Development 

EUGENE  R.  BLACK.  President,  International  Bank  for  Recon- 
struction and  Development,  Washington. 

E.S.Br.  Lawn  Tennis  (in  part) 

EDWIN  S.  BAKER,  A.B.  Executive  Secretary,  United  States  Lawn 
Tennis  Association. 

E.Se.  Book  Publishing  (in  part) ;  Literary  Prizes  (in  part) 

EDMOND  S.  SHGRAVE.  Editor,  Bookseller,  London. 

E.S.J.  Youth  Employment  (in  part) 

ELIZABETH  S.  JOHNSON.  Chief.  Division  of  Child  Labour  and 
Youth  Employment,  Bureau  of  Labour  Standards,  U.S.  Department 
of  Labour,  Washington. 

E.T/B.  Mathematics 

ERIC  TEMPLE  BELL.  Professor  of  Mathematics,  California 
Institute  of  Technology,  Pasadena.  Author  of  The  Magic  of  Numbers; 
The  Search  for  Truth ;  etc. 

E.V.Lh.  Brewing  and  Beer  (in  part) 

E.  V.  LAHEY.     Chairman  and  President,   United  States  Brewers 
Foundation,  Incorporated. 

E.W.G.  Electrical  Industries  (in  part) ;  etc. 

EDWARD  WILLIAM  GOLDING,  M.Sc.  .Tech.,  M.I.E.E., 
M.A.I.E.E.  Head  of  Rural  Electrification  and  Wind-power  Depart- 
ment, Electrical  Research  Association,  London.  Author  of  Electrical 
Measurement  and  Measuring  Instruments;  etc. 

E.Wi.  Italy;  Switzerland;  etc. 

ELIZABETH  WISKEMANN,  M.A.,  M.Litt.  Writer  on  Foreign 
Affairs.  Author  of  Czechs  and  Germans;  Undeclared  \yar;  Italy; 
The  Rome-Berlin  Axis. 

E.W.We.  Tourist  Industry 

ERNEST  WALTER  WIMBLE,  C.B.F,  Member  of  the  British 
Tourist  and  Holidays  Board;  Member  of  the  Motels  Executive 
(British  Transport  Commission). 

F.A.Sw.  Art  Exhibitions  (in  part);  Museums  (in  part) 

FREDERICK  A.  SWEET.  Associate  Curator  of  Painting  and 
Sculpture,  The  Art  Institute  of  Chicago. 

F.C.H.  Rotary  International 

FREDERICK  C.  HICKSON,  F.C.I.S.    General  Secretary,  Rotary 

International  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 
F.C.W.  Cancer 

FRANCIS  CARTER  WOOD,   M.D.     Emeritus  Director,  Cancer 

Research,   Columbia   University,   and   Consulting   Pathologist,  St. 

Luke's  Hospital,  New  York.    Author  of  Clinical  Diagnosis;  etc. 
F.E.Lk.  Gems 

FRANCIS   ERNEST  LEAK,    F.G.A.      Manager,   John   Bennett, 

Jeweller;  Senior  Partner  of  West  of  England  Gemmological  Labora- 
tory, Bristol. 
F.E.S.  Eritrea;  Libya;  etc. 

FRANK    EDMUND    STAFFORD,    C.B.E.,    F.R.A.S.,    F.R.G.S. 

Adviser  on  former  Italian  colonies,  African  Department,  Foreign 

Office,  London  (attached  from  Colonial  Service). 
F.Ge.  Exploration  and  Discovery:  Geography 

FRANK  GEORGE,  M.A.     Assistant  Editor,  Royal  Geographical 

Society,  London. 
F.H.Aw.  Netherlands 

FRANCIS  HARRY  ANDREW.  Writer  on  Foreign  Affairs,  London. 
F.J.K.  Electrical  Industries  (in  part) 

FRANCIS   J.    KOVALCIK.      Assistant   Editor,   Electrical   World, 

New  York. 

F.J.Os.  Town  and  Country  Planning  (in  part) 

F.  J.  OSBORN.  Chairman  of  Executive,  Town  and  Country  Planning 
Association,  London.     Author  of  Green-Belt  Cities;  etc. 

F.J.S.  Food  Research  (in  part) 

FREDERICK  J.  STARE,  M.D.  Professor  of  Nutrition,  Schools  of 
Medicine  and  Pflblic  Health,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 


F.L.C.  Salvation  Army  (in  part) 

FREDERICK  L.  COUTTS.  Assistant  Literary  Secretary,  Salvation 
Army  International  Headquarters,  London.  Author  of  The  Timeless 
Prophets;  etc. 

F.L.D.  New  York  City;  Police  (in  part) 

FRANK  LEE  DONOGHUE.  Director  of  Commerce  for  the  City 
of  New  York.  Author  of  Guardians  of  the  Mine  Country;  Spotted 
Horse  Patrol. 

F.L.K.  Libraries  (in  part) 

FRANCIS  LAWRENCE  KENT,  M.A.  Librarian,  United  Nations 
Scientific,  Educational  and  Cultural  Organization,  Paris;  formerly 
Librarian  of  Bristol  University.  Co-editor  of  the  World  List  of 
Scientific  Periodicals. 

F.M.I.  Karachi 

FERGUS  MUNRO  INNES,  C.I.E.  Adviser  in  Pakistan  to  the 
Central  Commercial  Committee.  Accredited  correspondent  to 
Economist,  Round  Table  and  Capital,  London;  Contributor  to  the 
Annual  Register,  1949  and  1950. 

F.Neu.  Seismology 

FRANK  NEUMANN.  Chief,  Seismology  Branch,  Coast  and 
Geodetic  Survey,  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Washington. 

F.N.H.  Nuts 

FRANK  NORMAN  HOWES,  D.Sc.  Principal  Scientific  Officer, 
Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew.  Author  of  Nuts,  their  Production  and 
Everyday  Uses;  etc. 

F.P.L.L.  Pneumonia 

FRANK  PATRICK  LEE  LANDER,  O.B.E.,  M.D.,  F.R.C.P. 
Consultant  Physician,  Putney  Hospital,  London;  Assistant  Physician, 
Brompton  Hospital  and  Royal  Free  Hospital,  London. 

F.S.B.  Literary  Research 

FREDERICK  SAMUEL  BOAS,  M.A.,  Hon.LL.D.,  Hon.D.Litt., 
F.R.S.L.  A  Vice  President,  Royal  Society  of  Literature  and  English 
Association;  President,  Elizabethan  Literary  Society.  Author  of 
Shakespeare  and  his  Predecessors;  Christohper  Marlowe:  A  Study, 
University  Drama  in  the  Tudor  Age;  etc. 

F.Sn.  Great  Britain  and  Northern  Ireland,  United  Kingdom  of 

FRANK  SINGLETON,  M.A.  Editor,  Tillotson's  Newspapers  Ltd., 
Bolton,  Lancashire.  Author  of  Independent  Means;  Lancashire  and 
the  Pen  nines. 

F.S.R.  Marine  Biology 

FREDERICK  STRAITEN  RUSSELL,  F.R.S.  Director  of  the 
Plymouth  Laboratory  of  the  Marine  Biological  Association  of  the 
United  Kingdom.  Author  of  The  Seas  (with  C.  M.  Yongc). 

F.V.W.  Soap,  Perfumery  and  Cosmetics 

FREDERICK    VICTOR    WELLS,    F.C.S.,    F.R.H.S.       Editor   of 

Soap,   Perfumery  and  Cosmetics,    London;   Chairman,   Society   of 

Cosmetic  Chemists  of  Great  Britain. 
F.W.Ta.  Cotton  (in  part) 

FREDERICK     WILLIAM     TATTERSALL,     F.R.S.S.,     F.R.E.S. 

Cotton  Trade  Expert  and  Statistician,  Manchester. 
F.W.W.-S.  Interior  Decoration 

FRANCIS       WILLIAM       WENTWORTH-SHEILDS,       N.R.D. 

Designer;  Visiting  Instructor  at  the  Twickenham  School  of  Art, 

Middlesex. 
G.A.Ro.  Iron  and  Steel  (in  part);  Metallurgy;  etc. 

GAR  A.  ROUSH.     Former  Editor,  Mineral  Industry,  New  York. 

Author  of  Strategic  Mineral  Supplies. 
G.A.Si.  United  Church  of  Canada 

GORDON  A.  SISCO,  D.D.     Secretary,  The  United  Church  of 

Canada. 
G.B:En.  Alimentary  System 

GEORGE  B.  EUSTERMAN,  M.D.  Professor  Emeritus  of  Medicine, 

Mayo  Foundation  for  Medical  Education  and  Research,  Graduate 

School,  University  of  Minnesota;  Head  of  a  Section  in  Medicine 

(Emeritus),  Mayo  Clinic,  Rochester,  Minnesota.     Co-author  (with 

D.  C.  Balfour)  of  The  Stomach  and  Duodenum. 

G.D.H.C.  Employment  (in  part);  Trade  Unions  (in  part);  etc. 

GEORGE  DOUGLAS  HOWARD  COLE,  M.A.  Chichele  Professor 
of  Social  and  Political  Theory,  Oxford  University.  Author  of  The 
British  People  (with  R.  W.  Postgate) ;  World  in  Transition. 

G.D.H.L.  Air  Races  and  Records 

GEORGE  DAVID  HOUGH  LINTON.  Former  Press  Officer, 
Ministry  of  Civil  Aviation,  London  Airport. 

Ge.Bu.  Hospitals  (in  part) 

GEORGE  BUGBEE.  Executive  Director,  American  Hospital 
Association,  Chicago. 

Ge.C.  Christian  Science 

GEORGE  CHANNING.  Manager,  Christian  Science  Committees 
on  Publication,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 

G.E.L.  Ear,  Nose  and  Throat,  Diseases  of  (in  part) 

GEORGE  E.  LIEBERMAN,  M.D.  Associate,  in  Otolaryngology, 
University  of  Pennsylvania  Graduate  School  of  Medicine,  Phila- 
delphia. 

G.E.R.D.  Oceanography 

GEORGE  EDWARD  RAVEN  DEACON,  D.Sc.,  F.R.S.  Deputy 
Chief  Scientific  Officer,  Royal  Naval  Scientific  Service,  Great  Britain. 

G.Hb.  Floods  and  Flood  Control  (in  part) 

GENE  HOLCOMB.  Deputy  Chief,  Technical  Information  Division, 
Office  of  the  Chief  of  Engineers,  Department  of  the  Army, 
Washington. 

G.H.Ba.  Lacrosse 

GEORGE  HENRY  BARK.  Hon.  Secretary,  English  Lacrosse 
Union. 


CONTRIBUTORS 


XI 


G.H.Be.  Genetics 

GEOFFREY  HERBERT  BEALE,  M.B.E.,  Ph.D.  Lecturer  in 
Genetics,  University  of  Edinburgh. 

G.H.B1.  Local  Government  (in  part) 

GEORGE  HAROLD  BANWELL.  Secretary,  Association  of 
Municipal  Corporations,  London. 

G.H.H.  International  Court  of  Justice 

GREEN  H.  HACKWORTH,  B.A.,  LL.B.,  Hon.LL.D.  Judge, 
International  Court  of  Justice,  The  Hague.  Author  of  Digest  of 
International  Law. 

G.H.M.F.  Canning  Industry  (in  part) 

GEORGE  HENRY  MORRIS  FARLEY,  B.Sc.  Editor,  The  Canning 
Industry  and  Tin-Printer  and  Box  Maker,  London. 

G.Hs.  Hemp;  Jute 

GORDON  HUGHES.  Managing  Director,  British-Continental 
Trade  Press,  Ltd.;  Editor,  Jute  and  Canvas  Review,  London.  Author 
of  Jute  Markets  and  Prices;  etc. 

GJ.Wk.  Speedway  Racing 

GEOFFREY  JOHNSON  WOODCOCK.  Secretary,  Speedway 
Riders'  Association,  Great  Britain. 

G.L.B.S.  Television  (in  part) 

GEORGE  LISLE  BEERS,  Sc.D.  Assistant  Director  of  Engineering, 
RCA  Victor  Division,  Radio  Corporation  of  America,  Camden, 
New  Jersey. 

G.L.W.  Refugees 

GEORGE  L.  WARREN,  A.B.  Adviser  on  Refugees  and  Displaced 
Persons,  U.S.  Department  of  State,  Washington. 

G.M.C.  Ear,  Nose  and  Throat,  Diseases  of  (in  part) 

GEORGE  MORRISON  COATES,  M.D.  Emeritus  Professor  of 
Otolaryngology,  Medical  School  and  Graduate  School  of  Medicine, 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia. 

G.McA.  Housing  (in  part) 

GILBERT  MCALLISTER,  M.A.  Member  of  Parliament.  Author 
of  Town  and  Country  Planning  (with  Elizabeth  Glen  McAllister); 
Homes,  Towns  and  Countryside. 

G.M.Hy.  Newspapers  and  Magazines  (in  part) 

GRANT  M.  HYDE,  A.M.  Professor  of  Journalism,  School  of 
Journalism,  University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wisconsin. 

G.P.  Argentina;  Brazil;  etc. 

GEORGE  PENDLE,  M.A.  Writer  and  Broadcaster  on  Latin 
American  alTairs.  Author  of  Much  Sky;  Impressions  of  South 
America. 

G.P.O.  Post  Office  (in  part) ;  Telephone  (in  part) 

Articles  compiled  through  the  courtesy  of  the  Postmaster  General, 
London. 

G.R.Mn.  Northern  Rhodesia;  Southern  Rhodesia;  etc. 

GEORGE  ROY  NEVILL  MORRISON.  Journalist.  Author  of 
Farming  in  East  Africa ;  Kenya  Carols. 

G.R.Rr.  Fives  (in  part) 

GEOFFREY  ROLAND  RI.MMER.  Chairman,  Executive  Com- 
mittee of  the  Rugby  Fives  Association. 

G.S.B.  Korean  War  (in  part) 

GEORGE  S.  BLANCHARD.  Captain,  U.S.  Army.  Assistant  to 
the  Chairman  of  the  Joint  Chiefs  of  Staff,  Washington. 

G.S.K.  Presbyterian  Church 

GUY  SOULLIARD  KLETT.  Research  Historian,  Department  of 
History,  The  Presbyterian  Church  in  the  United  States  of  America. 

G.St.  Russian  Literature 

GLEB  PETROVICH  STRUVE,  B.A.  Professor  of  Russian,  Univer- 
sity of  California,  Berkeley,  California.  Author  of  25  Years  of  Soviet 
Russian  Literature. 

G,Wt.  Tobacco 

GORDON  WEST.  Editor  of  Tobacco,  London. 

H.A.E.S.  Badminton 

HERBERT  A.  E.  SCHEELE.  Hon.  Secretary,  International  Bad- 
minton Federation;  Secretary,  Badminton  Association  of  England. 

Editor  of  the  Badminton  Gazette,  1946-51. 
H.A.Rn.  Cold,  Common 

HOBART  A.  REIMANN,  M.D.    Professor  of  Medicine,  Jefferson 

Medical  College,  Philadelphia. 
H.B.  Motor  Cycle  and  Cycle  Industry 

HAROLD  BRIERCLIFFE.      Assistant  Editor,  Motor  Cycle  and 

Cycle  Trader ,  London. 
H.B.Cs.  Anthropology  (in  part) 

HENRY  B.  COLLINS,  Jr.   Senior  Ethnologist,  Bureau  of  American 

Ethnology,  Smithsonian  Institution,  Washington. 
H.B.S.  Heart  Diseases 

HOWARD  BURNHAM  SPRAGUE,  M.D.    Associate  Physician, 

Massachusetts  General  Hospital,  Boston. 
H.Btr.  Council  of  Europe 

SIR    HAROLD     BERESFORD     BUTLER,     M.A.,     Hon.LL.D. 

Director   of  the   International   Labour   Office,   Geneva,    1932-38; 

Warden  of  Nuffield  College,  Oxford,  1939-43.    Author  of  The  Lost 

Peace;  Peace  or  Power. 
H.B.Wy.  Judiciary,  U.S. 

HAROLD  B.  WILLEY.     Deputy  Clerk,  United  States  Supremo 

Court,  Washington. 
H.C.Ce,  Hotels,  Restaurants  and  Inns  (in  part) 

HENRY  CHARLES  CLARKE.    Formerly  Secretary  of  the  Hotels 

and  Restaurants  Association  of  Great  Britain.     Author  of  Hotels 

and  Restaurants  as  a  Career. 
H.C.D.  Education  (in  part);  Unifcrsities  and  Colleges;  etc. 

HAROLD  COLLETT  DENT,  Hon.F.E.I.S.,  B.A.  Editor,  The  Times 

Educational  Supplement ,  London.  Author  of  A  New  Order  in  English 

Education;  Education  in  Transition;  Secondary  Education  for  All; 

Part-time  Education  in  Great  Britain. 


H.C.Ln.  Betting  and  Gambling  (in  part) 

HERBERT  CARL  LAWTON,  B.Sc.,  Ph.D.  Private  Consultant. 
Chairman,  Education  and  Action  for  Leisure,  London.  Author  of 
Everyman's  Leisure. 

H.D.Z.  Belgian  Colonial  Empire;  Belgium;  etc. 

HERBERT  DAVID  ZIMAN,  M.A.  Leader-writer  and  special 
correspondent  of  the  Daily  Telegraph,  London. 

He.Br.  Banking  (in  part) 

HENRY  BRUfcRE.  Chairman  of  the  Board,  The  Bowery  Savings 
Bank,  New  York. 

H.E.Hn.  Squash  Rackets 

HENRY  ERIC  HAYMAN.  Secretary,  Squash  Rackets  Association, 
London. 

H.G.N.  Congress,  U.S. 

•HERBERT  GEORGE  NICHOLAS,  M.A.  Fellow,  Librarian, 
Tutor  and  Lecturer  in  Politics  and  Modern  History,  Exeter  College, 
Oxford;  Faculty  Fellow,  Nuffield  College,  Oxford;  Lecturer  in 
Politics,  Oxford  University. 

H.G.Rn.  India;  Kashmir;  Pakistan 

HUGH  GEORGE  RAWLINSON,  M.A.,  F.R.A.S.  Indian  Educa- 
tional Service  (retired).  Author  of  India,  a  short  Cultural  History; 
British  Beginnings  in  Western  India;  The  British  Achievement  in 
India. 

H.G.S.  Shipbuilding  (in  part) 

H.  GERRISH  SMITH.  Chairman  of  the  Board,  Shipbuilders 
Council  of  America. 

H.H.Ik.  Soil  Conservation  (in  part) 

'HUGH  H.  BENNETT.  Chief,  Soil  Conservation  Service,  U.S. 
Department  of  Agriculture,  Washington. 

H.ls.  Hong  Kong 

WILLIAM  HAROLD  ING  RAMS,  C.M.G.,  O.B.E.  Colonial 
Office,  London.  Author  of  Arabia  and  the  Isles;  Seven  across  the 
Sahara. 

H.J.A.  Narcotics 

H.  J.  ANSLINGER.  Commissioner  of  Narcotics,  Treasury  Depart- 
ment, Washington.  U.S.  Representative  on  the  United  Nations 
Commission  on  Narcotic  Drugs.  Member,  Committee  on  Narcotic 
Drugs  and  Drug  Addiction,  National  Research  Council.  Author  of 
The  Physician  and  the  Federal  Narcotic  Law;  etc. 

H.Jn.  Iceland 

HALLD6R  J6NASSON.  Department  of  Statistics,  Government 
of  Iceland,  Reykjavik. 

H.Js.  Town  and  Country  Planning  (in  part) 

HARLEAN  JAMES,  A.B.  Executive  Secretary,  American  Planning 
and  Civic  Association  and  National  Conference  on  State  Parks; 
Secretary-Treasurer,  Joint  Committee  on  the  National  Capitol. 
Author  of  Land  Planning  for  the  City,  State  and  Nation;  Romance 
of  the  National  Parks. 

H.J.S.  Suez  Canal 

HUGH  JOSEPH  SCHONF1ELD.  Author  of  The  Suez  Canal;  etc. 

H.L.  Golf  (in  part) 

HENRY  CARPENTER  LONGHURST,  B.A.  Author  of  Golf;  etc. 

H.L.B.  Fives  (in  part) 

HEDLEY  LE  BAS,  B.A.  Hon.  Secretary,  Eton  Fives  Association. 

H.Ln.  Denmark;  Greenland;  etc. 

HELCJE  LARSEN,  M.A.  Teacher  at  Nyk0bing  Katedralskole, 
Denmark.  Author  of  Politiske  Crundtauker  (Political  Ideas);  Contri- 
butor to  Defem  lauge  ar  (The  five  long  years). 

H.L.T.  Rubber  (in  part) 

HARLXN  L.  TRUMBULL.  Vice  President  in  charge  of  research, 
The  B.F.  Goodrich  Company,  Brecksville,  Ohio. 

H.M.H.  .  American  Literature 

HARRISON.M.  HAYFORD,  Ph.D.  Assistant  Professor  of  English, 
Northwestern  University,  Evanstown,  Illinois.. 

H.Mnt.  Crime  (in  part) 

HERMANN  MANNHEIM,  Dr.  jur.  Reader  in  Criminology  in 
the  University  of  London.  Author  of  Social  Aspects  of  Crime  in 
England  between  the  Wars;  Criminal  Justice  and  Social  Recon- 
struction; etc. 

H.M.P.  Housing  (in  part);  etc. 

HENRY  M.  PROPPER.  Housing  Consultant;  Lecturer,  Division 
of  Graduate  Studies,  Brooklyn  College,  Brooklyn,  New  York. 
Former  Executive  Vice  President,  National  Committee  on  Housing. 

H.M.W.  Psychology 

HELEN  M.  WOLFLE.  Managing  Editor,  American  Psychologist. 

H.Ra.  Dermatology 

HERBERT  RATTNER,  M.D.  Professor  of  Dermatology,  North- 
western University,  Evanstown,  Illinois. 

H.R.MI.  Luxembourg 

H.  R.  MADOL.  Commissioner  of  Information,  Legation  of  the 
Grand  Duchy  of  Luxembourg,  London. 

H.R.V.  Psychiatry 

HENRY  R.  VIETS,  M.D.  Lecturer  on  Neurology,  Harvard  Medical 
School;  Neurologist,  Massachusetts  General  Hospital,  Boston. 
Librarian,  Boston  Medical  Library. 

H.S.A.  Cricket 

HARRY  SURTEES  ALTHAM,  D.S.O.,  M.C.,  M.A.  Master  at 
Winchester  College,  Hampshire.  Treasurer  of  the  M.C.C.,  London. 
Chairman  of  the  M.C.C.  Enquiry  Committee.  Author  of  A  History 
of  Cricket. 

H.S.D.  Egypt;  etc. 

HERBERT  STANLEY  DEIGHTON,  M.A.,  B.Litt.  Fellow,  Dean, 
Chaplain  and  Lecturer  in  Classics  and  Modern  History,  Pembroke 
College,  Oxford;  Former  Visiting  Professor,  Fuad  I  University, 
Cairo. 

H.Su.  Accidents  (in  part) 

HELEN  ISABEL  SUTHERLAND,  M.Inst.T.A.,  F.C.T.S., 
F.  Comm.  A.  Secretary,  The  Royal  Society  for,  the  Prevention  of 
Accidents,  London. 


Xtl 


CONTRIBUTORS 


H.S.Vg.  Air  Forces  of  the  World  (in  part) 

HOY  T  S.  VANDENBERG.  Chief  of  Staff,  United  States  Air  Forces, 
Washington. 

H.S.-W.  Czechoslovakia;  Hungary;  Yugoslavia;  etc. 

GEORGE  HUGH  NICHOLAS  SETON-WATSON,  M.A.  Fellow 
and  Praelector  in  Politics,  University  College,  Oxford;  Lecturer  in 
Politics,  Oxford  University.  Author  of  Pastern  Europe  Between  the 
Wars,  19 18-4 I;  The  East  European  Revolution',  etc. 

H.W.Dg.  Prisoners  of  War;  Red  Cross 

HENRY  W.  DUNNING.  Executive  Secretary,  League  of  Red 
Cross  Societies,  Geneva,  Switzerland. 

H.W.Iflk.  Child  Welfare  (in  part) 

HOWARD  W.  HOPKIRK,  A.B.  Senior  Consultant,  Child  Welfare 
League  of  America,  Inc. 

H.W.Le  P.  British  Anrty 

H.  VV.  Le  PREVOST.  Major,  British  Army.  Information  Division, 
Ministry  of  Supply,  London;  formerly  of  Directorate  of  Public 
Relations,  War  Omce,  London. 

H.W.Pe.  Friends,  the  Religious  Society  of 

HUBERT  WILLIAM  PEET.  Formerly  Editor,  The  Friend,  London. 

H./.  Wild  Life  Conservation  (In  part) 

HOWARD  7AHNISER.  Executive  Secretary,  The  Wilderness 
Society  (U.S.A.).  Editor,  The  Living  Wilderness,  Book  editor, 
Nature  Magazine, 

I.Cg.  Post  Office  (in  part) 

ISAAC  GREGG.  Former  Director  of  Press  Relations,  Office  of  the 
Postmaster,  Washington. 

l.L.BI.  Linen  and  Flax;  etc. 

IRENE  BLUNT.  Secretary,  The  National  Federation  of  Textiles, 
Inc.,  New  York. 

I. M.S.  Hawaii 

INGRAM  M.  STAINBACK.  Governor  of  Hawaii. 

I. Mu.  Table  Tennis 

HON.  IVOR  MONTAGU,  M.A.  Chairman,  English  Table  Tennis 
Association;  President,  International  Table  Tennis  Federation. 
Author  of  Table  Tennis  Today ;  Table  Tennis. 

l.R.M.M.  Architecture  (in  part) 

IAN  ROBERT  MORE  McCALLUM,  A.R.I.B.A.,  A.A.dipt. 
Editor,  The  Architectural  Review.  Editor  of  Physical  Planning'. 
The  Groundwork  of  a  New  Technique. 

l.W.R.  Words  and  Meanings,  New  (in  part) 

I.  WILLIS  RUSSELL.  Chairman  of  the  Research  Committee  on 
New  Words  of  the  American  Dialect  Society  which  prepared  the 
American  contributions  to  the  article.  The  Committee  consisted 
(1950)  of  Henry  Alexander,  O.  B.  Emerson,  Atcheson  L.  Hench, 
Albert  H.  Marckwardt,  Mamie  J.  Meredith  and  Peter  Tamony. 

J.A.F.  Archaeology  (in  part) 

JAMES  A.  FORD.  Assistant  Curator  of  North  American  Arch- 
aeology, American  Museum  of  Natural  History,  New  York. 

J.A.G.  Furniture  Industry  (in  part) 

JEROME  ARTHUR  GARY.  Editor,  Furniture  Age,  Chicago. 
Author  of  The  Romance  of  Period  Furniture',  etc. 

J.A.Hu.  Conlirtonwealth  of  Nations  (in  part);  etc. 

JOHN  ANTHONY  HUTTON,  B.A.  Formerly  research  assistant, 
Institute  of  Colonial  Studies,  Oxford.  » 

J.A.MK  Electric  Transport  (in  part) 

JOHN  ANDERSON  MILLER,  Ph.B.  GeneraJ  Electric  Company, 
Schenectady,  New  York.  Author  of  Fares  Please ;  Me n  and  Volts 
at  War;  etc. 

J.A.Rs.  Greyhound  Racing 

JOSEPH  ALEXANDER  RICHARDS.  Managing  Editor,  Grey- 
hound  Owner  and  Breeder ;  London. 

J.A.S.R.  Coal 

JOHN  ANTHONY  SYDNEY  R1TSON,  D.S.O.,  O.B.E.,  M.C., 
T.D.,  B.Sc.,  M.I.M.E.  Professor  of  Mining  in  the  University  of 
London  at  the  Royal  School  of  Mines,  Imperial  College,  London. 

J.Bs.  Gynaecology  and  Obstetrics 

JOSEPHINE  BARNES,  M.A.,  D.M.,  M.R.C.P.,  F.R.C.S., 
M.R.C.O.G.  Assistant,  Obstetric  Unit,  University  College  Hospital, 
London.  Assistant  Obstetrician  and  gynaecologist,  Elizabeth 
Garrett  Anderson  Hospital,  London,  etc.  Author  of  Gynaecological 
Histology. 

J.Bx.  Shops  and  Department  Stores 

JOHN  BAXTER,  B.Com.,  Ph.D.(Econ).  Head  of  Research  Depart- 
ment, Marks  and  Spencer,  Ltd.,  London. 

J.C.G.  Polo 

JACK  ROSE  COMPTON  GANNON,  C.B.E.,  M.V.O.,  Writer  on 
polo;  formerly  Manager  and  Secretary,  the  Hurlingham  Club. 

J.C.G.J.  Wales 

J.  C.  GRIFFITH  JONES.  Journalist  and  Broadcaster;  Welsh 
Correspondent,  Observer,  London. 

J.Chn.  Archaeology  (in  part) 

JOHN  CHARLTON,  M.A.,  F.S.A.  Inspectorate  of  Ancient  Monu- 
ments, England;  Excavator  of  Roman  and  Mediaeval  sites. 

.I.C.P.P.  Osteopathy 

JOCELYN  CAMPBELL  PATRICK  PROBY,  M.A.,  B.Litt.,  D.O. 
Member,  General  Council  and  Register  of  Osteopaths,  Ltd.,  London. 
Author  of  Essay  on  Osteopathy;  The  Relation  of  Micro-Organisms 
to  Disease;  etc. 

J.Cw.  Music  (In  part) 

JOHN  CULSHAW.  Author,  lecturer  and  broadcaster  on  music. 
Author  of  Sergei  Rachmaninov;  The  Concerto. 


J.C.Wn.  Tunnels 

JOHN  CROSSLEY  WADDINGTON,  M.Inst.C.E.,  M.A.S.C.E. 
Chief  Engineer,  A.  Waddington  and  Son,  Ltd.,  London. 

J.De.  Taxation  (in  part) 

JOHN  DANE,  Jr.,  Partner,  Choate,  Hall  and  Stewart,  Boston, 
Massachusetts. 

J.E.Ce.  Tea 

JOYCE  EVELYN  CUTMORE.  Economic  Assistant,  Common- 
wealth Economic  Committee,  London. 

J.K.N.  Livestock  (in  part) 

JAMES  EDWARD  NICHOLS,  M.Sc.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S.Ed.  Professor 
of  Agriculture  (Animal  Husbandry)  in  the  University  of  Wales  at 
the  University  College  of  Wales,  Aberystwyth.  Author  of  Livestock 
improvement. 

J.E.Sp.  Philippines 

JOSEPH  E.  SPENCER.  Associate  Professor  of  Geography,  Univer- 
sity of  California,  Los  Angeles. 

J.E.Ss.  Northern  Ireland 

JOHN  EDWARD  SAYERS.  Political  Correspondent,  Belfast 
Telegraph. 

J.E.Wi.  Germany;  Berlin 

JOHN  EMLYN  WILLIAMS,  M.A.,  Ph.D.  Central  European 
Correspondent,  the  Christian  Science  Monitor,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 


Ice  Hockey  (in  part) 
Secretary  to  the  British 

Mental  Diseases 

i.S.,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P., 
Royal  Hospital  and  the 

Finland 

Staff  Tutor,  Cambridge 
Author  of  Finland;  The 


J.F.A. 

JOHN   FRANCIS  AHEARNE,  F.C.I.S. 
Ice  Hockey  Association. 

J.G.H. 

JOHN  GERARD  HAMILTON,  M.D.,  B 
D.P.M.    Consultant  Psychiatrist,  Bethlem 
Maudsley  Hospital,  London. 
J.H.Jn. 

JOHN    HAMPDEN   JACKSON,    M.A. 
University  Board  of  Extra  Mural  Studies. 
Between-War  World;  etc. 

J.HI.  Civil  Defence 

SIR  JOHN  HODSOLL,  Wing  Commander,  Royal  Air  Force. 
Director  General,  Civil  Defence  Training,  Home  Office,  London. 

J.H.L.  Unitarian  Church  (in  part) 

JOHN  HOWLAND  LATHROP,  D.D.  Minister,  the  First  Unitarian 
Congregational  Society  in  Brooklyn,  New  York;  Member,  Board  of 
Directors,  American  Unitarian  Association. 

J.H.Ps.  London  University 

J.  HOOD  PHILLIPS,  M.A.  Secretary  to  the  Senate,  University  of 
London. 

J.Kd.  Water  Supply  (in  part);  etc. 

JULIUS  KENNARD,  B.Sc.(Eng.),  M.I.C.E.,  M.I.W.E.,  M.  Cons.E. 
Chartered  civil  engineer;  Partner  of  Edward  Sandeman,  Kcnnard 
and  Partners,  Westminster,  London. 

J.K.L.  Banking  (in  part);  Federal  Reserve  System 

JOHN  K.  LANGUM.  Vicc-President,  Federal  Reserve  Bank  of 
Chicago. 

J.K.R.  Agriculture  (in  part);  Meat  (in  part);  etc. 

JOHN  KERR  ROSE,  A.M.,  Ph.D.,  J.D.  Geographer,  Legislative 
Reference  Service,  Library  of  Congress,  Washington. 

J.Ky.  Unitarian  Church  (in  part) 

JOHN  KIELTY.  Secretary,  General  Assembly,  Unitarian  and  Free 
Christian  Churches,  London. 

J.LaF.  Pius  XII;  Roman  Catholic  Church  (in  part) 

JOHN  LaFARGE,  S.  J.  Associate  Editor,  America,  National 
Catholic  Weekly,  New  York. 

J.L.Be.  Patents 

JOHN  LUCIAN  BLAKE,  M.Sc.  Barrister-at-Law.  Comptroller 
General,  Patent  Office,  London. 

J.L.-Ee.  Puerto  Rico 

JUAN  LABADIE-EURITE,  M.S.(Agric.).  Chief,  Division  of 
Statistics,  Bureau  of  the  Budget,  San  Juan,  Puerto  Rico. 

J.L.Ms.  Atomic  Energy  (in  part) 

JOHN  LOUIS  MICHIELS,  Ph.D.,  A.R.C.S.  Lecturer  in  Physics, 
Imperial  College,  London. 

J.Ln.  South  Africa,  Union  of;  etc. 

JULIUS  LEWIN,  B.A.,  LL.B.    Barrister-at-Law.   Advocate  of  the 

Supreme  Court  qf  South  Africa.  Senior  Lecturer  in  Native  Law  and 

Administration,    University   of  the   Witwatersrand,   Johannesburg. 

Joint  Editor,  African  Studies;  Author  of  Studies  in  African  Native 

Law;  etc. 
J.Lwh.  Jewry,  World 

JOSEPH  LEFTWICH.     Author  of  Yisroel;   What  Will  Happen  to 

the  Jews;  The  Tragedy  of  Anti-Semitism;  etc. 

J.M.Br.  Juvenile  Delinquency 

JOSEPHINE  MACALISTER  BREW,  M.A.,  LL.D.  Education 
Adviser,  National  Association  of  Girls'  Clubs  and  Mixed  Clubs. 
Author  of  Informal  Education;  In  the  Service  of  Youth;  etc. 

J.McA.  Chile;  Uruguay 

JOHN  McADAMS.  Former  Instructor  of  Latin  American  History 
and  Government,  University  of  Puerto  Rico,  Rio  Piedras,  Puerto 
Rico. 

J.Of.  Lawn  Tennis  (in  part) 

JOHN  SHELDON  OLLIFF.  Lawn  Tennis  Correspondent,  Daily 
Telegraph,  London.  Author  of  OUiff  on  Tennis;  Lawn  Tennis;  The 
Romance  of  Wimbledon. 


CONTRIBUTORS 


xni 


Jo.Ms.  National  Health  Service;  National  Insurance 

JOHN  MOSS,  C.B.E.  Barrister-at-Law.  Author  of  Health  and 
Welfare  Services  Handbook;  Editor  of  Local  Government  Law  and 
Legislation. 

J.P.D.  Boxing  (in  part) 

JAMES  P.  DAWSON,  Writer  on  Baseball  and  Boxing,  The  New 
York  Times. 

J.P.V.Z.  Aviation,  Civil  (in  part) 

J.  PACKER  VAN  ZANDT,  B.S.,  Ph.D.  Deputy  Assistant  Secretary 
of  the  U.S.  Air  Force,  Washington.  Author  of  Civil  Aviation  and 
Peace;  etc. 

J.R.Ay.  Nationalization 

JOHN  RAYNER  APPLEBEY,  M.A.  Leader  Writer,  Financial 
Times,  London. 

J.R.Ra.  Agriculture 

JOHN  ROSS  RAEBURN,  B.Sc.(Agric.),  M.S.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.  Reader 
in  Agricultural  Economics,  University  of  London. 

J.S.L.  Anaesthesiology 

JOHN  S.  LUNDY,  M.D.  Professor  of  Anaesthesiology,  University 
of  Minnesota  Graduate  School,  Minneapolis.  Head,  Section  on 
Anaesthesiology,  Mayo  Clinic,  Rochester,  Minnesota. 

J.Sto.  Electronics  (in  part) 

JAMES  STOKLEY,  B.S.(Ed.),  M.S.  Publicity  Representative, 
General  Electric  Research  Laboratory,  Schenectady,  New  York. 
Author  of  Science  Xemakes  Our  World;  Electrons  in  Action;  Editor 
of  Science  Marches  On. 

J.W.D.  Canoeing 

JOHN  WEBSTER  DUDDERIDGE,  B.Sc.  Hon.  Secretary,  the 
British  Canoe  Union.  Master  in  Charge  of  Physical  Education  at  the 
Haberdashers'  Aske's  School,  Hampstead. 

J.W.Fr.  Bowls 

JOHN  WILLIAM  FISHER,  M.R.C.S.,  D.P.H.,  D.P.M.  Bowls 
correspondent,  Western  Morning  News,  Express  and  Echo,  etc. 
Author  of  A  New  Way  to  Better  Bowls;  Bowls;  etc. 

J.W.Ce.  Electric  Transport  (in  part) 

JOHN  WATK1N  GRIEVE,  B.Sc.,  A.M.I.E.E.  Assistant  (Schemes 
and  Calculations),  Electrical  Engineering  New  Works  and  Develop- 
ment Section,  The  Railway  Executive,  London. 

J.W.J.  Electric  Power  (in  part) 

JOHN  W.  JENKINS.  Publications  Division,  Federal  Power  Com- 
mission, Washington. 

J.W.Mw.  Reparations;  etc. 

JOSEPH  W.  MARLOW,  A.B.,  LL.B.  Lawyer.  Former  Editor  and 
Research  Analyst,  Military  Intelligence  Service,  U.S.  War  Depart- 
ment. 

K.Bn.  Libraries  (in  part) 

KARL  BROWN,  A.B.,  LL.B.  Associate  Bibliographer  and  Editor 
of  Publications,  New  York  Public  Library.  Editor,  Library  Journal, 
New  York. 

K.E.H.  Dairy  Farming  (in  part);  etc. 

KENNETH  EDWARD  HUNT,  M.A.,  Dipl.Agric.  Demonstrator  in 
Agricultural  Economics,  Oxford  University. 

K.E.R.  Gold  Coast ;  Nigeria ;  etc. 

KENNETH  ERNEST  ROBINSON,  M.A.  Official  Fellow  of 
Nuffield  College,  Oxford;  Reader  in  Colonial  Administration, 
Oxford  University. 

K.G.B.  British  Borneo;  Kenya;  etc. 

KENNETH  GRANVILLE  BRADLEY,  B.A.,  C.M.G.  Editor  of 
Corona.  Author  of  Diary  of  a  District  Officer;  The  Colonial  Service 
as  a  Career. 

K.Sm.  Eastern  European  Economic  Planning;  Poland; etc. 

KAZIMIERZ  MAC1EJ  SMOGORZEWSKI.  Foreign  Correspon- 
dent; Founder  and  Editor,  Free  Europe,  London.  Author  of  The 
United  States  and  Great  Britain;  Poland1  s  Access  to  the  Sea;  etc. 

K.W.  Petroleum 

KENNETH  WILLIAMS,  B.A.  London  Correspondent,  Al  Ahram. 
Author  of  Britain  and  the  Mediterranean;  Ibn  Sa'ud. 

L.A.L.  Insurance  (in  part) 

LEROY  A.  LINCOLN.  Chairman  of  the  Board,  Metropolitan 
Life  Insurance  Company,  New  York. 

L.A.WI.  Telephone  (in  part) 

LEROY  A.  WILSON.  President,  American  Telephone  and  Telegraph 
Company,  New  York. 

L.B.E.  Sewerage 

LEONARD  BUSHBY  ESCRITT,  A.M.I.C.E.,  F.I.San.E., 
M.R.San. I.,  Hon.M.inst.S.P.,  F.G.S.  Senior  Engineer,  G.  B.  Ker- 
shaw  and  Kaufman,  consulting  engineers,  London. 

L.Bp.  Canada 

LESLIE  BISHOP,  M.A.  Author  and  Lecturer;  former  London 
correspondent  of  the  Winnipeg  Free  Press,  Winnipeg,  Canada. 

L.de  B.H.  Swimming  (in  part) 

LOUIS  de  BREDA  HANDLEY.  Honorary  Coach,  Women's 
Swimming  Association  of  New  York.  Author  of  Swimming  for 
Women;  etc. 

L.D.L.  Painting  (in  part) 

LESTER  D.  LONGMAN.  Head  of  Art  Department,  University  of 
Iowa.  Author  of  History  and  Appreciation  of  Art;  Outline  of  Art 
History. 

L.E.F.  Insurance  (in  part) 

LAURENCE  E.  FALLS.  Secretary-Treasurer,  Insurance  Institute 
of  America,  Inc.,  New  York. 

L.E.Ms.  Dyestuffs  (in  pan) ;  etc. 

LAURENCE  EDMUND  MORRIS.  Editor,  Dyer,  London. 


L.F.C.  Methodist  Church  (in  part) 

LESLIE  FREDERIC  CHURCH,  B.A.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.Hist.S.  Editor- 
in-Chief  to  the  Methodist  Church  in  Great  Britain  and  Ireland. 
Author  of  The  Early  Methodist  People;  The  Knight  of  the  Burning 
heart;  A  Life  of  John  Wesley;  etc. 

L.Fi.  Rome 

LIANA  FERRI.   Journalist  and  film  script  writer,  Rome. 

L.Gu.  Local  Government  (in  part) 

LUTHER  GULICK,  A.M.,  Ph.D.,  Litt.D.  President,  Institute  of 
Public  Administration,  New  York.  Author  of  Administrative 
Reflections  from  World  War  II;  etc. 

L.Hdn.  Gas 

LESLIE  HARRY  HARDERN,  B.A.  Public  Relations  Officer, 
North  Thames  Gas  Board,  London.  Joint  author  of  Physical  Planning. 

L.Hmn.  South  African  Literature  (in  pan) 

LOUIS  HERRMAN,  M.A.,  Ph.D.  Examiner  in  English  for  the 
Joint  Matriculation  Board  of  South  Africa.  Author  of  In  the  Sealed 
Cave:  A  Scientific  Fantasy. 

L.J.D.R.  Classical  Studies 

LEOPOLD  JOHN  DIXON  RICHARDSON,  M.A.  Professor  of 
Greek,  University  College,  Cardiff;  Hon.  Secretary,  Classical 
Association. 

L.K.M.  International  Trade 

LORING  K.  MACY.  Deputy  Director,  Office  of  International 
Trade,  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Washington. 

L.L.  Furniture  Industry  (in  pan} 

LESLIE  LEWIS.  Editor,  Furnishing  World  and  British  Furnishing. 
Author  of  Furniture  Facts. 

L.M.  Football  (in  pan} 

LAURENCE  MONTAGUE,  B.A.  Sports  Editor  of  the  Manchester 
Guardian. 

L.M.GH.  United  Nations 

LELAND  M.  GOODRICH.  Professor  of  International  Organization 
and  Administration,  Columbia  University,  New  York.  Co-author  of 
Charter  of  the  United  Nations:  Commentary  and  Documents. 

L.M.K.  Biochemistry 

LLOYD  M.  KO/LOFF.  Research  associate.  Department  of  Bio- 
chemistry, University  of  Chicago. 

L.M.W.  Alaska 

LEW  M.  WILLIAMS.  Secretary  of  Alaska,  United  States  Depart- 
ment of  the  Interior,  Juneau,  Alaska. 

L.N.  Gymnastics 

LEONORRISS,  Dipl.Phys.Ed.  Schoolmaster,  Hertfordshire  County 
Council. 

Ln.M.  Dance  (In  part) 

LILLIAN  MOORE.  Concert  Dancer.  Choreographer  for  NCB 
Opera  Television  Series.  American  Correspondent,  Dancing  Times, 
London.  Former  Soloist,  Metropolitan  Opera  Ballet,  New  York. 

L.O.P.  Cinema  (in  part) 

LOUELLA  O.  PARSONS.  Editor,  Motion  Picture  Department, 
International  News  Service.  Author  of  The  Cay  Illiterate;  How  To 
Write  in  the  Movies. 

L.Pa.  English  Literature  (in  part) 

LUKE  THORNBROUGH  PARSONS.  Contributor  to  The  Fort- 
nightly, 'Scots  Review,  Today  and  Tomorrow,  etc.  Author  of  Clough 
Plays  Murder. 

L.Rb.  t  Baseball 

LOWELL  RglDfeNBAUGH.  Member  of  the  staff,  The  Sporting 
News,  St.  Louis,  Missouri. 

L.Rs.  Balance  of  Payments 

LASZLO  ROSTAS,  Ll.D.,  Dr.rer.pol.  Research  Statistician, 
Board  of  Trade,  London.  Author  of  Comparative  Productivity  in 
British  and  American  Industry;  part-author  of  Taxation  of  War 
Wealth. 

L.V.D.  Field  Sports 

LEONARD  VINCENT  DODDS.  Editor,  The  Field,  London. 

L.W.B.  Boy  Scouts  (in  part) 

LORNE  W.  BARCLAY.  National  Director  of  Publications,  Boy 
Scouts  of  America. 

L.Wd.  Boxing  (in  part) 

LAINSON  WOOD.  Boxing  Correspondent  and  Assistant  Sports 
Editor,  Daily  Telegraph,  London. 

L.W.F.  Prisons  (in  part) 

LIONEL  WRAY  FOX,  C.B.,  M.C.  Chairman,  Prison  Commission 
for  England  and  Wales.  Author  of  The  Modern  English  Prison. 

L.Wo.  Trade  Unions  (in  part) 

LEO  WOLMAN,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.  Professor  of  Economics,  Columbia 
University,  New  York.  Author  of  Ebb  and  Flow  in  Trade  Unionism; 
etc. 

L.W.R.  Friends,  Religious  Society  of  (in  part) 

LYMAN  W.  RILEY.  Assistant  Librarian,  Friends  Historical 
Library  of  Swarthroore  College,  Swarthmore,  Pennsylvania. 

M.Ab.  Investments  Abroad  (in  pan) 

MILTON  ABELSON.  Economic  Analyst,  Washington. 

Ma.Br.  Turkey;  etc. 

MALCOLM  BURR,  D.Sc.,  A.R.S.M.,  F.R.Ent.Soc.  Author  of 
In  Bolshevik  Siberia;  Slouch  Hat;  The  Insect  Legion;  etc. 

M.A.Me.  Horse  Racing  (in  part) 

MICHAEL  AUSTIN  MELFORD,  B.A.  Sporting  Correspondent, 
Daily  Telegraph,  London.  , 


XIV 


CONTRIBUTORS 


M.Blf.  Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics  (in  part)',  etc. 

MAX  BELOFF,  B.Litt.,  M.A.  Faculty  Fellow,  Nuffield  College, 
Oxford;  Reader  in  the  Comparative  Study  of  Institutions,  Oxford 
University.  Author  of  The  foreign  Policy  of  Soviet  Russia,  1929-1941. 

M.C.G.  Arts  Council  of  Great  Britain 

MARY  CECILIA  GLASGOW,  C.B.E.,  B.A.     Secretary  General, 

Arts  Council  of  Great  Britain. 
IVI.D.Cn.  Plastics  Industry 

MAURICE    DELOISNE    CUR  WEN,    B.Sc.,    A.R.l.C.       Editor, 

Plastics*  London.    Author  of  Plastics  in  Industry;  etc. 
M.Dk.  Holy  Year;  Roman  Catholic  Church;  etc. 

JOHN  MICHAEL  DERRICK.     Assistant  Editor,  Tablet,  London; 

Editor,    Catholic   Almanac.      Author   of  Eastern    Catholics   under 

Soviet  Rule;  etc. 
M.Ds.  Iron  and  Steel  (in  part) 

MAX  EMIL  DAVIES,  B.A.   Public  Relations  Officer,  British  Iron 

and  Steel  Research  Association.    Joint  Editor  of  the  Handbook  of 

Steel  and  Steel  Products',  Author  of  The  Story  of  Steel. 
M.Dw.  Law  and  Legislation  (in  part) 

MITCHELL  DAWSON,  Ph.B.,  J.D.  -Lawyer  and  Writer.    Former 

Editor.  Chicago  Bar  Record. 
M.F.de  C.  Virgin  Islands 

MORRIS  F.  DE  CASTRO.    Governor  of  the  U.S.  Virgin  Islands. 
M.Fe.  Trust  Territories 

MAURICE  FANSHAWE,  B.A.     Author  of  Permanent  Court  of 

International  Justice',  Armaments',  The  Covenant  Explained;  etc. 
M.Fi.  Medicine  (in  part);  etc. 

MORRIS  FISHBEIN,  M.D.  Editor,  Excetpia  Medico',  Contributing 

Editor,  Postgraduate  Medicine  (U.S.A.). 
M.F.T.  Food  Research  (in  part) 

MARTHA  F.  TRULSON.   Research  Associate  in  Nutrition,  School 

of  Public  Health,  Harvard  University,  Boston,  Massachusetts. 

M.G.C.  Water  Supply  (in  part) 

MARTIN  G.  GLAESER.  Professor  of  Economics,  University  of 
Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wisconsin. 

M.Gt.  Budget,  National  (in  part);  National  Income  (in  part);  efr , 

MILTON  GILBERT.  Chief.  National  Income  Division,  U.S. 
Department  of  Commerce.  Author  of  Currency  Depreciation  and 
Monetary  Policy;  National  Income  and  Product  Static f!cs  of  the  U.S. 

M.H.Sm.  Air  Forces  of  the  World  (in  part) 

MAURICE  H.  SMITH.  Librarian,  Institute  of  the  Aeronautical 
Sciences,  New  York. 

M.Jol.  French  Literature;  Paris;  etc. 

MARIA  JOLAS  (Mrs.  Eugene  Jolas).  Writer  and  Critic,  Paris. 

M.L.M.  Colombia;  Costa  Rica;  etc. 

MAX  L.  MOORHEAD.  Assistant  Professor  of  History,  University 
of  Oklahoma,  Norman,  Oklahoma. 

M .Ml.  Betting  and  Gambling  (in  part) 

S.  MICHAEL  MacDOUGALL.  Author  of  Gamblers  Don't  Gamble; 
Card  Mastery;  MacDougall  on  Dice  and  Cards;  MacDougall  on 
Pinochle;  etc. 

M.N.  Bacteriology 

MILAN  VACLAV  NOVAK.  Professor  and  Head  of  Department  of 
Bacteriology,  Univ.  of  Illinois  College  of  Medicine,  Chicago; 
Bacteriologist  in  Chief,  Research  and  Educational  Hospital  Con- 
sultant on  Bacteriology,  Veterans  Administration,  Hines  Hospital; 
Associate  Dean  of  the  Graduate  College,  University  of  Illinois, 
Chicago.  * 

M.S.F.  '  Japan 

MIRIAM  S.  FARLEY.  Editor,  Far  Eastern  Survey,  American 
Institute  of  Pacific  Relations.  Author  of  The  Problem  of  Japanese 
Trade  Expansion;  Aspects  of  Japan's  Labor  Problems. 

M.Si.  Printing  (in  part) 

MacD.  SINCLAIR.   Editor,  Printing  Equipment  Engineer,  Cleveland, 

Ohio. 
N.A.D.W.  Art  Exhibitions  (in  part);  Painting  (in  part);  etc. 

NEVILE  ARTHUR  DOUGLAS  WALLIS,  F.R.S.A.     Art  Critic 

of  the  Observer,  London.    Author  of  Fin  de  Siccle. 
N.B.D.  National  Parks  (in  part) 

NEWTON  B.  DRURY,  B.L.,  LL.B.  Director,  National  Park  Service, 

U.S.  Department  of  the  Interior,  Washington. 
N.Bh.  Jerusalem 

NORMAN   BENTWICH,   Hon.   LL.D.,   M.A.      Professor  at  the 

Hebrew  University  of  Jerusalem.    Author  of  Palestine;  Judea  Lives 

Again;  etc. 

N.C.B.  Timber  (in  part) 

NELSON  C.  BROWN,  A.B.,  M.F.  Professor  in  Charge  of  Forest 
Utili/ation,  New  York  State  College  of  Forestry,  Syracuse  University, 
New  York. 

N.E.W.  Plague 

NEWTON  E.  WAYSON,  A.B.,  M.D.  Former  Medical  Officer  in 
Charge,  Plague  Investigations,  U.S.  Public  Health  Service,  San 
Francisco. 

N.F.S.  Munitions  of  War  (in  part) 

NATHANIEL  F.  SILSBEE.  Colonel,  United  States  Air  Force 
Reserve.  Contributing  Editor,  Aviation  Age,  Skyways.  Co-author  of 
Jet  Propulsion  Progress. 

N.McW.  Athletics  (In  part);  Empire  Games 

NORRIS  DEWAR  McWHIRTER,  M.A.  Contributor  Track  and 
Field  News  (U.S.A.),  the  Athlete  (London);  etc,  Author  of  Get  to 
Your  Marks. 


N.Mgh.  Commonwealth  of  Nations  (In  part) 

NICHOLAS  SETON  MANSERGH,  O.B.E.,  B.Litt,  M.A.,  D.Phil. 
Abe  Bailey  Research  Professor  of  British  Commonwealth  Relations, 
Royal  Institute  of  International  Affairs,  London.  Author  of  The 
Commonwealth  and  the  Nations;  Britain  and  Ireland. 

N.N.  Country  Life 

NORMAN  NICHOLSON.  Poet  and  critic,  Millom,  Cumberland. 
Authot  of  Cumberland  and  Westmorland;  Five  Rivers;  The  Old 
Man  of  the  Mountains. 

O.F.K.  Norway;  Oslo 

OLE  FERDINAND  KNUDSEN,  M.Sc.(Econ.).  Assistant  Press 
Attach^  to  the  Royal  Norwegian  Embassy,  London. 

O.M.G.  China;  Peking 

OWEN  MORTIMER  GREEN,  B.A.  Far  Eastern  Specialist,  the 
Observer,  London.  Author  of  The  Foreigner  in  Chine;  Story  of  the 
Chinese  Revolution;  etc. 

O.R.F.  Physics 

OTTO  ROBERT  FRISCH,  D.Phil.,  F.R.S.,  O.B.E.  Fellow  of 
Trinity  College,  Cambridge;  Jacksonian  Professor  of  Natural 
Philosophy,  Cambridge  University.  Author  of  Meet  the  Atoms; 
editor  of  Progress  in  Nuclear  Physics. 

O.S.T.  World  Council  of  Churches 

OLIVER  STRATFORD  TOMKINS,  M.A.  Associate  General 
Secretary,  World  Council  of  Churches.  'Author  of  The  Wholeness 
of  the  Church. 

O.Tw.  Arabia;  Arab  League;  etc. 

OWEN  MEREDITH  TWEEDY,  B.A.  Retired  Government  Officer. 
Author  of  By  Way  of  the  Sahara;  Russia  at  Random;  Cairo  to  Persia 
and  Back. 

P.A.Sd.  Meteorology 

PERCIVAL  ALBERT  SHEPPARD,  B.Sc.,  F.Inst.P.  Assistant 
Professor  of  Meteorology,  Imperial  College,  London;  Reader  in 
Meteorology,  London  University.  Author  of  "  The  Earth's  Atmos- 
phere "  in  A  Century  of  Science. 

P.Br.  Billiards  and  Snooker  (in  part) 

PETER  BRANDWEIN.  Sports  Writer,  The  New  York  Times; 
Editor,  sports  section,  Information  Please  Almanac. 

P.Dn.  English  Literature  (in  part) 

PATRIC  DICKINSON,  B.A.  Author  of  Theseus  and  the  Minotaur; 
Stone  in  the  Midst  and  Poems. 

P.Eg.  Budget,  National  (in  part);  Taxation  (in  part);  etc. 

PAUL  EINZIG,  D.Sc.(Pol.  and  Econ.).  Political  Correspondent, 
Financial  Times,  London.  Author  of  Primitive  Money;  The  Theory 
of  Forward  Exchange;  etc. 

P.H.-M.  British  West  Indies;  Caribbean  Commission;  etc. 

PHILIP  HEWITT-MYR1NG.  Public  Relations  Adviser.  Articles 
written  on  behalf  of  the  Development  and  Welfare  Organization 
in  the  West  Indies. 

P.H.M.-B.  Tropical  Diseases 

SIR  PHILIP  HENRY  MANSON-BAHR,  C.M.G.,  D.S.O.,  M.A., 
M.D.,  F.R.C.P.,  M.R.C.S.,  D.T.M.  and  H.,  F.2.S.  Consulting 
Physician,  Hospital  for  Tropical  Diseases,  London.  Author  of 
Life  and  Work  of  Sir  Patrick  Manson;  Dysenteric  Disorders;  editor 
01  Manson's  Tropical  Diseases.  7th-13th  ed.;  etc. 

P.H.P.  Chemistry 

PETER  HARIOLF  PLESCH,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  A.R.l.C.  Lecturer  in 
Physical  Chemistry,  University  College  of  North  Staffordshire, 
Stoke-on-Trent. 

P.J.A.C.  Liberal  Movement 

PETER  J.  A.  CALVOCORESSL  Survey  Department,  Royal 
Institute  of  International  Affairs,  London.  Author  of  Nuremberg. 

P.M.S.  Botanical  Gardens  (in  part);  Horticulture 

PATRICK  MILLINGTON  SYNGE,  M.A.,  F.L.S.,  F.R.G.S. 
Editor  to  the  Royal  Horticultural  Society.  Author  of  Mountains 
of  the  Moon ;  Plants  with  Personality ;  etc. 

P.O'S.  Johnstone,  William  Raphael 

PETER  JOHN  O'SULLEVAN.  Racing  Correspondent,  Daily 
Express,  London;  radio  commentator,  etc. 

P.Ss.  •  Insurance  (in  part) 

PERCY  STEBBINGS.  Insurance  Editor;  Correspondent  to  Financial 
Times;  Bankers'  Magazine;  Investors  Chronicle,  London;  etc, 

P.Ta.  Employment  (in  part);  Strikes  and  Lockouts  (in  part) 

PHILIP  TAFT,  B.A.,  Ph.D.  Professor  of  Economics,  Brown 
University.  Providence,  Rhode  Island.  Author  of  Economics  and 
Problems  of  Labor;  etc. 

P.W.H.  Photography  (in  part) 

PERCY  WOOTTON  HARRIS,  Hon.F.R.P.S.,  M.R.I.  Former 
President,  Royal  Photographic  Society,  London.  Editor  of  Miniature 
Camera  Magazine,  London. 

Q.W.  International  Law 

QUINCY  WRIGHT,  A.M.,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.  Professor  of  International 
Law,  University  of  Chicago.  Author  of  A  Study  of  War;  etc. 

R.A.Bn.  Advertising  (in  part) 

ROGER  A.  BARTON.  Editor,  Advertising  Agency  Magazine  and 
Advertising  Handbook,  New  York.  Lecturer  in  Advertising,  Columbia 
University,  New  York. 

Ra.L.  Endocrinology  (in  part) 

RACHMIEL  LEVINE,  M.D.  Director  of  Metabolic  and  Endocrine 
Research,  Michael  Reese  Hospital;  Professorial  Lecturer,  Depart- 
ment of  Physiology,  University  of  Chicago.  Co-author  of  Carbo- 
hydrate Metabolism. 


CONTRIBUTORS 


xv 


R.Ba.  Consumer  Credit  (in  part) 

ROBERT  BARTELS.  Associate  Professor  of  Marketing,  Ohio 
State  University,  Columbus,  Ohio.  Co-author  of  Credits  and 
Collections  in  Theory  and  Practice. 

R.C.-W.  Philosophy 

RUPERT  CRAWSHAY-WILLIAMS.  B.A.  Writer  on  Philosophy 
and  the  Psychology  of  Language  and  Reasoning.  Author  of  The 
Comforts  of  Unreason;  A  Study  of  the  Motives  behind  Irrational 
Thought. 

R.D.B.  Rowing 

RICHARD  DESBOROUGH  BURNELL,  B.A.  Rowing  Corres- 
pondent, The  Times,  London.  Editor,  British  Rowing  Almanack. 

R.E.Bs.  Literary  Prizes  (in  part) 

RUTH  ELLEN  BAINS,  B.A.  Assistant  Book  Editor,  R.  R.  Bowker 
Company,  New  York. 

R.E.E.H.  Baptist  Church 

REUBEN  E.  E.  HARKNESS,  M.A.,  B.D.,  Ph.D.  President,  The 
American  Baptist  Historical  Society.  Professor  of  Christianity, 
Crozer  Seminary,  Chester,  Pennsylvania. 

R.F.Am.  British  Council 

GENERAL  SIR  RONALD  FORBES  ADAM,  Bt.,  G.C.B.,  D.S.O., 
O.B.E.  Chairman  and  Director-General  of  the  British  Council. 

R.F.G.C.  Congregational  Churches 

RALPH  FORMAN  GODLEY  CALDER,  M.A.,  B.D.  Secretary, 
Colonial  Missionary  Society;  Secretary,  Congregational  Fund  Board. 
Former  Editor,  Scottish  Congregationalist;  Editor,  British  Missionary, 

R.G.D.A.  Prices  (In  part) 

ROY  GEORGE  DOUGLAS  ALLEN,  O.B.E.,  M.A.,  D.Sc.(Econ.). 
Professor  of  Statistics,  University  of  London.  Author  of  Mathe- 
matical Analysis  for  Economists;  Statistics  for  Economists;  etc. 

R.G.L.  Inventors,  Awards  to 

RHYS  GERRAN  LLOYD,  M.A.,  B.Sc.  Barrister-at-Law.  Secretary 
of  the  Royal  Commission  on  Awards  to  Inventors.  Editor  of  Kerly 
on  Trade  Marks  (7th  edition). 

R.H.B.  Epidemics 

R.  H.  BARRETT,  M.R.C.S.,  L.R.C.P.  Medical  Officer,  Ministry 
of  Health,  London. 

R.H.Frg.  Arthritis 

RICHARD  HAROLD  FREYBERG,  M.D.  Associate  Professor  of 
Clinical  Medicine,  Cornell  University  Medical  College;  Director, 
Department  of  Internal  Medicine  and  Director  of  Arthritis  Clinic, 
Hospital  for  Special  Surgery;  Assistant  Attending  Physician  and 
Director  of  Arthritis  Clinic,  New  York  Hospital,  New  York. 

R.H.Ls.  Museums  (in  part) 

RALPH  H.  LEWIS.  Assistant  Chief,  Museum  Branch,  National 
Park  Service,  U.S.  Department  of  the  Interior,  Washington. 

R.Ho.  Billiards  and  Snooker  (in  part) 

RICHARD  HOLT.  Editor,  Billiard  Player,  London. 

R.H.Ri.  Grain  Crops;  Wheat 

RICHARD  HOOK  RICHENS,  M.A.  Assistant  Director  of  the 
Commonwealth  Bureau  of  Plant  Breeding  and  Genetics,  Cambridge. 
Author  of  The  New  Genetics  in  the  Soviet  Union  (with  P.  S.  Hudson). 

R.I!. SI.  Jet  Propulsion  and  Gas  Turbines  (in  part) 

REGINALD  HERBERT  SCHLOTEL,  F.R.Ae.S.  Deputy  Director 
of  Engine  Research  and  Development,  Ministry  of  Supply,  London. 

Ri.A.B.  Ex-Servicemen's  Organizations  (in  part) 

RICHARD  A.  BROWN.  Executive  Secretary,  Veterans'  Organiza- 
tions Information  Service,  New  York. 

R.Is.  Anaemia 

RAPHAEL  ISAACS,  M.A.,  M.D.  Attending  Physician  in  Hacma- 
tology,  Michael  Reese  Hospital,  Chicago.  Co-author  of  Diseases  of 
the  Blood. 

R.J.My.  Clothing  Industry  (in  part);  Fashion  and  Dress  (in  part) 

RONALD  JOSEPH  MURRAY.  Features  Editor,  Men's  Wear, 
London. 

R.Js.  Moscow  (in  part) 

RICHARD  JONES.  Former  Editor  of  British  Ally  (Britansky 
Soyuznik),  Moscow.  Former  Assistant  News  Editor,  Daily  Telegraph 
and  Night  News  Editor,  Daily  Mail,  London. 

R.L»Fo.  Accidents  (in  part) 

R.  L.  FORNEY.  General  Secretary,  National  Safety  Council, 
Chicago. 

R.L.Hs.  Hockey 

RICHARD  LYNTON  HOLLANDS.  Hockey  Correspondent, 
Sunday  Times  and  Evening  Standard,  London. 

Rln.  Boy  Scouts  (in  part) 

LORD  ROWALLAN,  M.C.,  T.D.,  LL.D.  Chief  Scout  of  the 
British  Commonwealth  arid  Empire. 

R.L.S.-R.  Radio,  Scientific  Developments  in;  etc. 

REGINALD  LESLIE  SMITH-ROSE,  D.Sc.,  Ph.D.,  D.I.C.,  A.R.C.S. 
Director  of  Radio  Research,  Department  of  Scientific  and  Industrial 
Research,  Slough,  Buckinghamshire. 

R.Man.  Cinerta  (in  part) 

ROGER  MANVELL,  B.A.,  Ph.D.  Director  of  the  British  Film 
Academy,  London.  Editor  of  The  Cinema  1950;  Author  of  Film; 
Author  (with  Rachel  Low)  of  History  of  the  British  Film ;  etc. 

R.M.Ge.  Soil  Conservation  (in  part) 

ROBERT  MACLAGAN  GORRIE,  D.Sc.,  F.R.S.E.  Soil  Conserva- 
tion Officer,  Ceylon.  Author  of  Use  and  Misuse  of  Land;  Soil  and 
Water  Conservation  in  the  Punjab;  etc. 

R.N.Ba.  Royal  Navy 

ROBERT  NESHAM  BAX.  Admiral,  Royal  Navy  (retired). 


Ro.B.  Zoological  Gardens  (in  part) 

ROBERT  BEAN.  Director  of  the  Chicago  Zoological  Park, 
Brookfield,  Illinois. 

R.R.W.F.  Fruit;  Market  Gardening;  etc. 

ROGER  ROLAND  WESTWELL  FOLLEY,  B.Sc.,  B.Com.  Depart- 
mental Demonstrator,  Institute  for  Research  in  Agricultural 
Economics,  University  of  Oxford. 

R.S.T.  Munitions  of  War  (in  part) 

ROBERT    S.    THOMAS,    A.M.      Military    Historian,    Historical 

Division,  Special  Staff,  War  Department,  Washington.    Author  of 

The  Story  of  the  30th  Division,  A.E.F. 
R.Sy.  Methodist  Church  (in  part) 

RALPH  STOODY.   Executive  Director,  The  Commission  on  Public 

Information  of  The  Methodist  Church,  U.S.A. 
R. Tu.  Political  Parties,  U.S. 

RAY  TUCKER,  B.A.  Writer  of  Syndicated  Column,  "  The  National 

Whirligig  ".    Author  of  The  Mirrors  of  J932;  etc. 
R.U.C.  Skiing 

MISS  R.  U.  CROXTON.   Secretary,  Ski  Club  of  Great  Britain. 

R.V.B.B.  Navies  of  the  World 

RAYMOND  VICTOR  BERNARD  BLACKMAN,  A.M.I.N.A., 
A.l.Mar.E.  Editor,  Janes  Fighting  Ships;  Author  of  Modern  World 
Book  of  Ships. 

R.W.B.  New  Zealand  Literature 

ROBERT  WILLIAM  BURCHFIELD,  M.A.  Rhodes  Scholar  at 
Magdalen  College,  Oxford. 

R.W.Cr.  Broadcasting  (in  part) 

RUFUS  WILLIAM  CRATER.  Associate  Editor,  Broadcasting- 
Telecasting  Magazine,  Washington. 

R.W.J.K.  Young  Men's  Christian  Association  (in  part) 

REGINALD  WILLIAM  JAMES  KEEBLE,  B.A.  Headquarters 
StafY,  Young  Men's  Christian  Association,  London. 

R.Wr.  Young  Women's  Christian  Association  (in  part) 

RUTH  CHRISTABEL  WALDER.  National  General  Secretary, 
Young  Women's  Christian  Association  of  Great  Britain. 


Prisons  (in  part) 
Former    President,    American  Prison 


S.A.L. 

SAM    A.    LEWISOHN. 
Association. 

S.D.L.R.  Peru 

SIDNEY  DE  LA  RUE.  Financial  Consultant  to  the  Peruvian  and 
Liberian  Embassies  in  Washington. 

S.E.Ws.  Albania 

SEWARD  ELIOT  WATROUS.  Programme  Organizer,  British 
Broadcasting  Corporation,  London. 

S.F.M.  Museums  (in  part) 

SYDNEY  FRANK  MARKHAM,  M.A.,  B.Litt.  Former  President, 
Museums  Association,  London.  Hon.  Associate  Director,  Inter- 
national Council  of  Museums.  Author  of  Museums  of  the  British 
Empire;  etc. 

S.F.Sn.  Anthropology  (in  part) 

SOPHIA  FELICIA  STALLMAN,  M.A.  Assistant  Secretary,  Royal 
Anthropological  Institute,  London;  Assistant  Secretary,  Folk-Lore 
Society,  London. 

S.Hr.  European  Recovery  Programme;  etc. 

SEBASTIAN  HAFFNER,  Dr.jur.  Diplomatic  Correspondent, 
Observer,  London. 

S.J.Bkr.  Police  (in  part) 

STANISLAUS  JOSEPH  BAKER,  C.B.,  B.Sc.  Assistant  Under- 
secretary of  .State,  Home  Office,  London. 

S.L.L.  Furs  (in  part) 

SAMUEL  LEWIS  LAZARUS.    Editor,  Far  Weekly  News,  London. 

S.L.S.  Clothing  Industry  (in  part) 

STANLEY  L.  SIMONS,  Ph.B.,  LL.D.  Editor,  The  Clothing  Trade 
Journal,  Director,  Garment  Technical  Institute,  U.S.A. 

S.McC.L.  International  Labour  Organization 

SAMUEL  McCUNE  LINDSAY.  Professor  Emeritus  of  Social 
Legislation,  Columbia  University,  New  York.  Author  of  Railway 
Labor  in  the  U.S.;  Emergency  Housing  Legislation;  etc. 

S.Nr.  Formosa;  Pacific  Islands,  U.S.;  etc. 

STANLEY  NEHMER.  Office  of  International  Trade  Policy,  Depart- 
ment of  State,  Washington.  Lecturer  in  Economics,  American 
University,  Washington. 

S.P.J.  Air  Forces  of  the  World  (in  part);  etc. 

S.  PAUL  JOHNSTON.  Director,  Institute  of  the  Aeronautical 
Sciences,  New  York. 

S.Ps.  Philately 

STANLEY  PHILLIPS.  Managing  Director  and  Editor  in  Chief, 
Stanley  Gibbons  Ltd.,  London;  Vice  President,  British  Philatelic 
Association.  Author  of  Stamp  Collecting;  Stamps  of  Great  Britain, 
1911-21;  etc. 

S.R.S.  Glass  (in  part) 

SAMUEL  RAY  SCHOLES.  Head  of  Department  of  Glass  Tech- 
nology, New  York  State  College  of  Ceramics,  Alfred,  New  York. 

S.Sd.  Export-Import  Bank  of  Washington 

SIDNEY  SHERWOOD,  A.B.  Secretary,  Export-Import  Bank  of 
Washington. 

S.S.H.  »  Stocks  and  Shares  (in  part) 

SOLOMON  S.  HUEBNER,  Sc.D.,  Ph.D.  President,  American 
College  of  Life  Underwriters.  Professor  of  Insurance  and  Com- 
merce. Wharton  School  of  Finance  and  Commerce,  University  of 
Pennsylvania,  Philadelphia.  •> 


XVI 


CONTRIBUTORS 


S.So.  Endocrinology  (in  part) 

SAMUEL  SOSK1N,  M.D..  Ph.D.  Director,  Medical  Research 
Institute.  Michael  Reese  Hospital,  and  Dean,  Michael  Reese  Hospital 
Postgraduate  School;  Professorial  Lecturer,  Department  of  Physiol- 
ogy, The  University  of  Chicago.  Co-author  of  Carbohydrate  Meta- 
bolism', Editor  of  Progress  in  Clinical  Endocrinology. 

S.Sp.  Music  (in  part) 

SIGMUND  SPAETH,  A.M.,  Ph.D.  Lecturer  and  Broadcaster. 
Author  of  The  Art  of  Enjoying  Music',  A  History  of  Popular  Music  in 
America;  etc. 

S.I  f.  Broadcasting  (in  part) 

SOL  TAISHOFF.  President,  Editor  and  Publisher  of  Broadcasting- 
Telecasting  Magazine,  Washington. 

I. Bar.  Wealth  and  Income,  Distribution  of  (in  part) 

TIBOR  BARNA,  B.Sc.(Econ.),  Ph.D.  Chief  of  Economics  Section, 
Research  Division,  Economic  Commission  for  Europe;  formerly 
Official  Fellow  of  Nuffield  College,  Oxford.  Author  of  Redistribution 
of  Income  through  Public  Finance. 

T.C.  Church  of  Scotland 

THOMAS  CALDWELL,  M.A.,  B.D.,  Ph.D.,  D.D.  Principal  Clerk 
of  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Church  of  Scotland. 

T.E.U.  Political  Parties,  British 

T.  E.  UTLEY,  M.A.   Editorial  Staff,  The  Times,  London. 

T.G.W.  Aliens  (in  part) 

TERENCE  GERARD  WEILER,  B.A.  Principal,  Aliens  Depart- 
ment, Home  Office,  London. 

T.H.MacD.  Roads  (in  part) 

THOMAS  H.  MacDONALD.  Commissioner,  Bureau  of  Public 
Roads,  U.S.  Department  of  Commerce,  Washington. 

T.J.B.  Venereal  Diseases  (in  part) 

THEODORE  J.  BAUER,  M.D.  Chief,  Division  of  Venereal  Disease, 
U.S.  Public  Health  Service,  Washington. 

T.Q.C.  Theatre  (in  part) 

THOMAS  QUINN  CURT1SS.  Dramatic  Critic.  Editor  Common 
Sense,  Decision.  Former  Drama  Critic  and  Drama  Editor,  Junior 
Bazaar  (Harper's);  Contributing  book-reviewer  to  Herald-Tribune, 
New  York,  and  The  New  York  Times  Book  Review. 

T.Rsc.  Canasta ;  Contract  Bridge  (in  par  / 

JOHN  TERENCE  REESE.  Bridge  correspondent,  Observer  and 
Evening  News,  London.  Author  of  Reese  on  Play;  The  Elements  of 
Contract  (with  Hubert  Phillips). 

T.T.S.  Nervous  System 

THEODORE  THADDEUS  STONE,  M.D.,  M.S.,  Ph.D.,  F.A.C.P. 
Professor  in  Nervous  and  Mental  Diseases,  Northwestern  University 
Medical  School,  Chicago;  Chief  and  Attending  Ncuro-Psychiatrist, 
Wesley  Memorial  Hospital,  Chicago. 

T.V.H.  Athletics  (in  part) 

THOMAS  V.  HANEY.    Member  of  the  Staff,  The  New  York  Times. 

V.E.F.  Antarctica 

VIVIAN  ERNEST  FUCHS,  M.A.,  Ph.D.  Head  of  the  Falklands 
Islands  Dependencies  Scientific  Bureau. 

V.S.S.  Paper  and  Pulp  Industry 

VINCENT  STANLEY  SMITH.  Advertising  Consultant  to  Paper 
Manufacturers. 

W.A.D.  Theatre  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  AUBREY  DARLINGTON,  M.A.  Dramatic  Critic, 
the  Daily  Telegraph,  London,  and  London  Drama  Correspondent, 
The  New  York  Times.  Author  of  The  Actor  and  His  Audience;  etc. 

W.A.Ft.  Bridges  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  ALBERT  FAIRHURST,  M.l.Struct.E.  Senior  Partner, 
F.  A.  Macdonald  and  Partner,  Consulting  Stru9turul  and  Civil 
F'ngineers,  Glasgow.  Author  of  Arch  Design  Simplified;  Reinforced 
Concrete  Bridge  Design  (with  A.  W.  Legal  and  George  Dunn). 

W.As.  Heavy  Engineering;  Light  Engineering 

WILLIAM  ANDREWS,  B.Met.,  F.l.M.  Technical  Editor,  The 
Times  Review  of  Industry. 

W.B.Hd.  Geology 

WALTER  BRIAN  HARLAND,  M.A.  Fellow  of  Gonvillc  and 
Caius  College,  Cambridge;  Lecturer  in  Geology,  Cambridge  Uni- 
versity. 

W.B.Mi.  Immigration  and  Emigration  (in  part) 

WATSON  B.  MILLER.  Commissioner,  Immigration  and  Natural- 
ization Service,  U.S.  Department  of  Justice,  Washington. 

W.C.An.  Portugal;  Spain;  etc. 

WILLIAM  CHRISTOPHER  ATKINSON,  M.A.  Stevenson 
Professor  of  Spanish,  University  of  Glasgow.  Author  of  Spain,  a 
Brief  History;  etc. 

W.E.S.  Palaeontology 

WILLIAM  ELGIN  SWINTON,  Ph.D.,  F.R.S.E.  Principal  Scientific 
Officer,  British  Museum  (Natural  History),  London.  Author  of 
The  Dinosaurs;  The  Corridor  oj  Life;  Geology  and  the  Museum. 

W.F.Br.  Urology 

WILLIAM  F.  BRAASCH,  B.S.,  M.D.  Professor  Emeritus  of 
Urology,  University  of  Minnestoa  Graduate  School,  Mayo  Founda- 
tion, Rochester,  Minnesota.  Editorial  Committee,  Quarterly  Review 
of  Urology  and  Minnesota  Medicine. 

W.Fr.  Australia.  Commonwealth  of;  etc. 

WOLFGANG  FRIEDMANN,  LL.D.  Professor  of  Public  Law  at 
the  University  of  Melbourne,  Australia.  Author  of  The  Allied 
Military  Government  of  Germany;  Legal  Theory;  Crisis  of  the  National 
State;  Introduction  to  World  Politics. 

W.Ft.  Paraguay 

WESLEY  FROST,  A.M.,  LL.D.  Professor  of  International 
Relations,  The  American  Institute  for  Foreign  Trade,  Phoenix, 
Arizona.  Former  U.S.  Ambassador  to  Paraguay. 


W.G.P.  Indonesia;  Netherlands  Overseas  Territories;  etc. 

WIBO   GODFR1ED   PEEKJEMA,    D.L.      Legal   Adviser   to   the 

Standard- Vacuum  Oil  Company,  The  Hague. 
W.H.Ctr.  Austria 

WILLIAM  HORSFALL  CARTER,  M.A.  Head  of  Western 
European  Section,  Research  Department,  Foreign  Office,  London. 

W.H.G.  Roads  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  HENRY  GLANVILLE,  C.B.E.,  D.Sc.,  Ph.D.,  M.I.C.E. 
Director  of  Road  Research,  Department  of  Scientific  and  Industrial 
Research,  Road  Research  Laboratory,  Harmondsworth,  Middlesex. 

W.H.Jn.  Business  Review;  Gold  (in  part) 

WALTER  HENRY  JOHNSTON.  B.A.  Assistant  Editor,  Yorkshire 
Post.  Translator  of  Hegel's  Science  of  Logic. 

W.H.McC.  Astronomy 

WILLIAM  HUNTER  McCREA,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  B.Sc.,  F.R.S.E. 
Professor  of  Mathematics,  University  of  London.  Author  of 
Relativity  Physics;  Physics  of  the  Sun  and  Stars;  etc. 

W.H.Oe.  Surgery 

/SIR  WILLIAM  HENEAGE  OGILVIE,  K.B.E.,  M.A.,  M.D., 
Hon.LL.D.,  Hon.F.A.C.S.,  Hon.F.R.C.S.C,  Hon.F.R.A.C.S., 
Hon. M.S.  Surgeon  to  Guy's  Hospital  and  the  Royal  Masonic 
Hospital,  London;  late  Vice-President,  Royal  College  of  Surgeons, 
London;  Editor,  Practitioner.  Author  of  Recent  Advances  in  Surgery; 
Forward  Surgery  in  Modern  War;  Surgery  Orthodox  and  Heterodox; 
etc. 

W.H.R.  Beekeeping 

WILLIAM  HENRY  RICHARDSON.  Fellow  of  the  Royal  Entomo- 
logical Association;  former  Chairman,  British  Beekeepers' 
Association. 

W.H.Tr.  Motor-Boat  Racing 

WILLIAM  H.  TAYLOR.  Associate  Editor,  Yachting,  New  York. 
Co-author  of  Yachting  in  North  America. 

W.J.Bp.  Alder,  Kurt;  Diels,  Otto;  etc. 

WILLIAM  JOHN  BISHOP,  F.L.A.  Librarian,  Wellcome  Historical 
Medical  Library,  London.  Author  of  Notable  Names  in  Medicine 
and  Surgery  (with  H.  Bailey);  etc. 

WJ.Bt.  Furs  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  J.  BRETT,  B.S.   President,  the  Fur  Reporter,  New  York. 

W.J.C.  Railways  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  J.  CUNNINGHAM.  James  J.  Hill  Professor  of  Trans- 
portation, Graduate  School  of  Business  Administration,  Harvard 
University. 

VV.J.C1.  Co-operative  Movement  (in  part) 

WALLACE  JUSTIN  CAMPBELL.  Director,  Washington  Office, 
Co-operative  League  of  the  U.S.A. 

W.K.F.  Pharmacy 

WILLIAM  KENNETH  FITCH,  M.P.S.  Editor,  Pharmaceutical 
Journal;  Publications  Manager  of  the  Pharmaceutical  Society  of 
Great  Britain.  Author  of  Gas  Warfare. 

W.L.Be.  Eye,  Diseases  of 

WILLIAM  L.  BENEDICT,  M.D.  The  Mayo  Clinic,  Rochester, 
Minnesota.  Professor  of  Ophthalmology,  University  of  Minnesota 
Graduate  School,  Mayo  Foundation,  Rochester,  Minnesota. 

W.Mr.  Organi/ation  of  American  States 

WILLIAM  MANGER,  Ph.D.  Assistant  Secretary-General 
Organization  of  American  States. 

W.O.L.S.  Youth  Employment  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  OWEN  LESTER  SMITH,  LL.D.  Professor  of  the 
Sociology  of  Education,  University  of  London.  Author  of  Education 
in  Great  Britain;  etc. 

W.P.K.  Medicine 

WALTER  PHILLIP  KENNEDY,  B.Sc.,  Ph.D.,  F.R.F.P.S.(G)., 
L.R.C.P.E.,  L.R.C.S.E.,  F.R.I.C.,  F.R.S.E.  Senior  Medical  Officer 
Pharmacologist,  Ministry  of  Health,  London. 

W.P.Ma.  Telegraphy  (in  part) 

WALTER  P.  MARSHALL.  President,  The  Western  Union  Tele- 
graph Company,  New  York. 

W.R.W.  Veterinary  Medicine 

WALTER  REGINALD  WOOLDRIDGE,  M.Sc.,  Ph.D., 
M.R.C.V.S.,  F.R.I.C.  Scientific  Director  and  Chairman  of  Council 
of  Animal  Health  Trust,  London.  Author  of  War  Gases  and  Food- 
stuffs. 

W.Sm.  Korea  (in  part) 

WARREN  SMITH.    University  of  California,  Berkeley,  California. 

W.T.Ws.  Judiciary,  British;  Law  and  Legislation  (In  part);  etc. 

WILLIAM  THOMAS  WELLS,  B.A.  Barrister-at-Law;  Member  of 
Parliament.  Member  of  the  Lord  Chancellor's  Committee  on  the 
Practice  and  Procedure  of  the  Supreme  Court.  Author  of  How 
English  Law  Works. 

W.V.M.  Hutchins,  Robert  Maynard 

WILLIAM  V.  MORGENSTERN.  Director  of  Public  Relations, 
The  University  of  Chicago. 

W.V.Wt.  Prices  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  V.  WILMOT,  Jr.  Instructor,  Department  of  Economics, 
University  of  Wisconsin,  Madison,  Wisconsin. 

W.W.Bn.  Education  (in  part) 

WILLIAM  W.  BRICKMAN.  Department  of  History  and  Philosophy 
of  Education,  New  York  University;  President's  Research  Fellow, 
Brown  University,  Providence,  Rhode  Island  (1950-51).  Former 
Editor,  Education  Abstracts;  author  of  Guide  to  Research  in  Educa- 
tional History. 

X. 

ANONYMOUS. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,    1950 


JANUARY 

1 :  Great  Britain.  Six  peers  were  created 
in  the  New  Year  Honours. 

Austria.  Major  General  T.  J.  W. 
Winterton  succeeded  Lieut.  General  Sir 
Alexander  Galloway  as  British  high 
commissioner. 

India.  Cooch  Behar  state  was  merged 
with  West  Bengal. 

2:  Persia.  The  shah  returned  from  his 
visit  to  the  United  States. 

3:  Egypt.  General  elections  were  held. 
The  final  results  gave  the  Wafd  (nation- 
alist party)  225  seats. 

4:  Great  Britain.  The  chancellor  of  the 
exchequer,  Sir  Stafford  Cripps,  stated 
that  in  the  fourth  quarter  of  1949  the 
gold  and  dollar  deficit  had  fallen  to 
$31  million. 

China.  The  Communist  government 
was  recognized  by  Pakistan. 

India-Afghanistan.  A  five-year  treaty 
of  peace  and  friendship  was  signed  in 
New  Delhi. 

5 :  Greece.  The  government  led  by  A.  Dio- 
midis  resigned.  Field  Marshal  A.  Papagos 
resigned  as  commander  in  chief. 

Indo-China.  Bao  Dai  dissolved  the 
Vietnam  government  and  requested 
Nguyen  Phan  Long  to  form  a  new  one. 

6:  Great  Britain.  Notes  were  sent  to  the 
governments  of  Bulgaria,  Hungary  and 
Rumania  concerning  the  alleged  violation 
of  human  rights.  Similar  notes  were  sent 
by  Canada  and  the  U.S. 

China.  The  Communist  government 
was  recognized  by  Great  Britain,  Ceylon 
and  Norway. 

Greece.  John  Theotokis  formed  a 
caretaker  government.  Field  Marshal 
Papagos  withdrew  his  resignation. 

India-Pakistan.  Jawaharlal  Nehru 
stated  it  had  been  proposed  that  the  two 
governments  should  sign  a  declaration 
renouncing  war  as  a  means  of  settling 
their  disputes. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  North 
Atlantic  council  met  in  Washington. 

United  States.  In  his  annual  economic 
report  to  congress,  President  Truman 
stated  that  the  renewed  confidence  in  the 
U.S.  economy  was  "justified  by  the 
facts." 

9:  Commonwealth.  A  conference  of  the 
foreign  ministers  of  the  Commonwealth 
countries  opened  in  Colombo. 

China.  The  Communist  government 
was  recognized  by  Denmark  and  Israel. 

Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The 
deputies  of  the  foreign  ministers  resumed 
meetings  in  London  on  the  Austrian 
peace  treaty. 

United  States.  In  his  budget  message, 
President  Truman  estimated  expenditure 
at  $42,400  million. 

0:  Great  Britain.  It  was  announced  that 
parliament  would  be  dissolved  and  that 
a  general  election  would  be  held  on 
Feb.  23. 

Canada.  A  three-day  conference  of 
federal  and  provincial  prime  ministers 
to  discuss  a  method  of  making  amend- 
ments 19  the  British  North  America  act 
opened  in  Ottawa. 

E.B.Y.— 2 


Indonesia.  It  was  learned  that  a  revolt 
was  taking  place  in  west  Java  under 
Captain  "  Turco  "  Westerling,  a  former 
Dutch  officer. 

United  Nations.  The  Soviet  delegate, 
Y.  Malik,  proposed  that  the  Chinese 
Nationalists  should  be  expelled  from  the 
Security  council.  After  it  was  decided  to 
defer  consideration,  Malik  walked  out  of 
the  council. 

11:  Italy.  The  government  resigned  to 
enable  the  Saragat  Socialists  to  enter  a 
reconstructed  government. 

Persia.  The  government  resigned. 
Mohammed  Saed,  the  outgoing  prime 
minister  was  asked  to  form  a  goverment. 

12:  Egypt.  An  all- Wafd  government  was 
formed  with  Nahas  Pasha  as  prime 
minister. 

Gold  Coast.  A  state  of  emergency  was 
proclaimed  following  the  opening  of  a 
civil  disobedience  campaign. 

Soviet  Union.  A  decree  was  issued 
restoring  capital  punishment  for  offences 
of  treason,  espionage  and  sabotage. 

13:  China.  The  Communist  government 
was  recognized  by  Finland. 

Poland.  It  was  announced  that  the 
French  Institute  in  Warsaw  had  been 
closed. 

United  Nations.  By  6  votes  to  3  in  the 
Security  council,  the  Soviet  motion  to 
expel  the  Chinese  Nationalists  was 
defeated.  Y.  Malik  again  left  the  council. 

14:  Commonwealth.  The  Colombo  confer- 
ence ended.  Among  the  subjects  dis- 
cussed were  the  world  situation,  China, 
Japanese  peace  treaty,  southeast  Asia 
and  Europe.  Recommendations  for 
economic  development  (the  **  Spender 
plan  ")  in  southeast  Asia  were  submitted 
to  the  Commonwealth  governments. 

Bolivia.  The  government  declared  a 
state  of  siege  following  the  discovery  of 
"  subversive  activities." 

China.  The  Communist  government 
was  recognized  by  Sweden. 

Italy.  Alcide  De  Gasperi  was  asked  to 
form  a  new  government. 

Persia.  Mohammed  Saed  formed  a 
new  government. 

15:  Cyprus.  An  unofficial  plebiscite  on 
union  with  Greece  resulted  in  a  96%  vote 
in  favour. 

16:  Finland.  Presidential  elections  were 
held.  The  final  results  showed  the  Social 
Democrats  and  Agrarians  as  the  largest 
parties. 

International  Labour  Organization.  A 
regional  conference  opened  in  Ceylon. 

17:  Pakistan.  Liaquat  Ali  Khan  agreed  to 
the  Indian  proposal  for  a  **  no- war  " 
declaration  only  after  the  settlement  of 
certain  outstanding  differences. 

United  Nations.  The  interim  committee 
("  little  assembly  ")  met  for  the  first  time 
in  1950  and  elected  Joao  Carlos  Muniz 
of  Brazil  as  president. 

18:  Scandinavia.  A  joint  committee  on  a 
customs  union  between  Denmark,  Ice- 
land, Norway  and  Sweden  issued  a  report, 
recommending  a  transition  period  of  10 
years. 

19:  Bulgaria.  The  government  requested 
the  immediate  recall  of  D.  R.  Heath, 
the  U.S.  minister  in  Sofia. 

I 


Israel.  De  jure  recognition  was  granted 
by  Italy. 

United  Nations.  Soviet  delegates  with- 
drew from  the  Atomic  Energy  com- 
mission as  a  protest  at  the  presence  of  a 
Chinese  Nationalist  delegate. 

United  States.  By  193  votes  to  191  the 
House  of  Representatives  defeated  a  bill 
for  continued  U.S.  aid  to  Korea. 

20:  Bolivia.   The  government  resigned. 

China.  Chpu  En-lai,  prime  minister 
and  foreign  minister,  arrived  in  Moscow. 

United  States.  In  its  reply  to  the 
Bulgarian  note,  the  United  States  govern- 
ment refuted  the  allegations  against 
D.  R.  Heath  and  threatened  to  break 
diplomatic  relations. 

21:  Ireland-United  States.  A  treaty  of 
friendship,  commerce  and  navigation  was 
signed  in  Dublin. 

22:  United  States.  Alger  Hiss,  a  former 
State  Department  official,  was  found 
guilty  of  perjury  for  denying  under  oath 
that  12  years  before  he  had  handed 
government  documents  to  a  Soviet  spy. 

23:  Bulgaria.  V.  Kolarov,  prime  minister, 
died. 

Israel.  The  Knesset  adopted  a  resolu- 
tion proclaiming  Jerusalem  as  the  capital 
of  Israel. 

24:  India.  The  Constituent  Assembly 
unanimously  elected  Rajendra  Prasad 
as  the  first  president  of  India. 

Indonesia.  The  prime  minister  of 
West  Java,  Anwar  Tjokroaminoto,  was 
arrested.  The  federal  government  was 
recognized  by  the  U.S.S.R. 

25:  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The  four 
deputies  received  Karl  Gruber,  Austrian 
foreign  minister. 

Western  Union.  The  finance  ministers 
of  the  five  countries  met  in  Paris. 

26:  France.  By  540  votes  to  2  the  National 
Assembly  renewed  the  3,000-franc  cost- 
of-living  bonus. 

India.  The  republic  of  India  was 
formally  proclaimed.  The  last  governor 
general,  Chakravarti  Rajagopalachari, 
handed  over  to  the  first  president, 
Rajendra  Prasad. 

O.E.E.C.  The  consultative  group 
began  a  two-day  meeting  in  Paris. 

27:  Burma.  The  prime  minister,  Thakin 
Nu,  arrived  in  Colombo. 

Indonesia.  The  West  Java  government 
resigned. 

Italy.  A  new  cabinet  was  formed 
consisting  of  11  Christian  Democrats, 
3  Social  Democrats  and  2  Republicans. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  Eight  signatory 
nations  of  the  treaty — Great  Britain, 
Belgium,  Denmark,  France,  Italy,  Luxem- 
bourg, the  Netherlands  and  Norway — 
signed  bilateral  arms  aid  agreements 
with  the  United  States. 

United  Nations.  The  Trusteeship 
council  voted  in  favour  of  an  Italian 
trusteeship  agreement  for  Somaliland. 

28:  Bolivia.  A  new  government  was 
formed.  All  but  one  of  the  ministers  were 
members  of  the  Republican  Socialist 
Union  party. 

Egypt.  King  Farouk  received  Ernest 
Bevin  who  had  arrived  in  Cairo  on  hi* 
return  from  the  Colombo  conference. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


France.  By  396  votes  to  193  the 
National  Assembly  ratified  the  treaties 
with  Cambodia,  Laos  and  Vietnam. 
30:  Indonesia.  The  head  of  the  state  of 
West  Java,  Wiranata  Kusumah,  laid 
down  his  mandate.  The  parliament 
handed  over  all  powers  to  the  federal 
government. 

O.E.E.C.  An  agreement  was  signed 
between  representatives  of  Great  Britain, 
Denmark,  Norway  and  Sweden  accepting 
recommendations  for  closer  economic 
co-operation. 

South  Africa.  A  motion  of  no-confi- 
dence in  Dr.  Malan's  government  was 
defeated  by  78  votes  to  71. 
3 1 :  Australia.  P.  C.  Spender,  minister  for 
external  affairs,  said  any  attempt  by 
Indonesia  to  establish  control  over 
Australian  New  Guinea  would  be  treated 
as  an  act  of  hostility. 

Indo-China.  The  U.S.S.R.  recognized 
the  administration  of  Ho  Chi  Minh. 
The  French  government  protested  that 
this  step  violated  international  law. 

O.E.E.C.  The  council  appointed 
D.  U.  Stikker,  Netherlands  foreign  minis- 
ter, to  the  new  post  of  political  conciliator. 
The  two  vice  presidents,  Karl  Gruber, 
Austria,  and  Sean  MacBride,  Ireland, 
were  invited  to  join  the  consultative 
group. 

United  States.  President  Truman 
announced  that  he  had  directed  the 
Atomic  Energy  commission  to  continue 
work  on  all  forms  of  atomic  weapons, 
including  the  hydrogen  bomb. 


FEBRUARY 

1 :  Bulgaria.  The  National  Assembly 
elected  Vlko  Chervenkov  as  prime  minis- 
ter. 

Indo-China.  The  Soviet  ambassador 
returned  the  French  note  to  the  French 
foreign  office. 

Iraq.  The  prime  minister,  Ali  Jawdat 
al  Ayyubi,  resigned. 

Soviet  Union.  The  government  sent 
notes  to  the  governments  of  Great 
Britain,  Communist  China  and  the  United 
States  proposing  the  trial  of  Emperor 
Hirohito  as  a  war  criminal. 
2:  France.  The  Council  of  the  Republic 
ratified  the  treaties  with  Cambodia, 
Laos  and  Vietnam  by  294  votes  to  20. 

Indo-China.  The  Vietminh  govern- 
ment was  recognized  by  Czechoslovakia. 

Indonesia.  Ahmed  Sukarno  returned  to 
Jakarta  after  visiting  India,  Pakistan  and 
Burma. 

Pakistan.  The  government  withdrew 
its  trade  ban  with  South  Africa. 

3:  Great  Britain.  The  38th  parliament  of 
the  United  Kingdom  was  dissolved. 

Ernest  Bevin  returned  to  London 
from  Colombo. 

Chile.  Following  a  wave  of  strikes  the 
government  resigned. 

Indo-China.  The  Vietminh  republic 
was  recognized  by  Hungary,  Poland  and 
Rumania. 

Indonesia.  The  government  was  recog- 
nized by  Poland. 

Tanganyika.  Rioting  broke  out  in  the 
native  quarter  of  Dar-es-Salaam. 

United  States.  The  government  rejected 
the  Soviet  note  proposing  the  trial  of 
Hirohito. 

4:  Chile.  President  G.  Gonzalez  Videla 
appointed  an  all-party  cabinet. 

France.  Th£  Socialist  members  of  the 
Cabinet  resigned. 


Italy.  The  Chamber  of  Deputies 
passed  the  Somaliland  bill  by  287  votes 
to  153.  The  bill  provided  for  preliminary 
expenditure  in  Somaliland  for  trusteeship 
purposes. 

Empire  Games.  The  fourth  Empire 
Games  were  opened  in  Eden  Park, 
Auckland,  by  Sir  Bernard  Freyberg, 
governor  general  of  New  Zealand. 
5:  Egypt.  The  government  decided  to  end 
martial  law. 

Greece.  The  last  British  troops  left 
Greece. 

Iraq.     Tawfiq  as  Suwaidi  formed  a 
coalition  government. 
6:  South  Africa.    Preliminary  discussions 
began  in  Capetown  between  representa- 
tives of  India,  Pakistan  and  South  Africa. 

7:  France.  Non-Socialists  were  appointed 
to  fill  the  vacancies  in  the  government. 
By  225  votes  to  185  (with  200  abstentions) 
the  National  Assembly  supported  the 
Bidault  government. 

Indo-China.  The  British  and  United 
States  governments  granted  recognition 
to  the  governments  of  Vietnam,  Cam- 
bodia and  Laos. 

United  Nations.  The  Soviet,  Czecho- 
slovak and  Polish  delegates  walked  out 
of  the  Economic  and  Social  council  after 
failing  to  unseat  the  Chinese  Nationalist 
delegation. 

8:  Australia.  P.  G.  Menzics,  prime 
minister,  announced  the  ending  of  petrol 
rationing. 

Bvlgium.  The  House  of  Representatives 
voted  by  117  votes  to  92  in  favour  of  a 
referendum  on  the  return  of  King  Leo- 
pold. 

Indo-China.  The  governments  of  Aus- 
tralia and  Belgium  granted  recognition 
to  Cambodia,  Laos  and  Vietnam.  The 
Vietminh  government  was  recognized 
by  Bulgaria. 

9:  India.  Troops  were  called  out  in 
Calcutta  during  an  outbreak  of  com- 
munal rioting. 

United  States.  The  House  of  Represen- 
tatives passed  by  240  votes  to  134,  a  bill 
authorizing  economic  aid  to  Korea  and 
to  Fortnosa. 

10:  Great  Britain-Israel.  A  financial  agree- 
•    mcnt  was  concluded  in  London. 

•United  States.  The  Export-Import  bank 
announced  a  loan  of  $100  million  to 
Indonesia. 

1 1 :  India.  Twenty  people  were  killed  and 
100  injured  when  police  opened  fire  to 
quell  a  riot  in  Salem  prison,  Madras. 

13:  Great  Britain.  Nominations  ended  for 
the  general  election.  1,868  candidates 
had  been  nominated  for  625  seats, 
including  two  unopposed  returns. 

Scandinavia.  A  conference  was  held  at 
Halmsted,  Sweden,  between  the  prime 
ministers  of  Denmark,  Norway  and 
Sweden. 

South  Africa.  Rioting  broke  out  in 
Newclare,  near  Johannesburg. 

United  States.  A  conference  of  the 
heads  of  U.S.  diplomatic  missions  in  14 
Asian  countries  was  held  in  Bangkok. 

14:  Great  Britain.  In  an  election  speech  at 
Edinburgh,  Winston  Churchill  suggested 
direct  talks  with  the  Soviet  Union  on  the 
control  of  atomic  energy. 

Italy.  The  Chamber  of  Deputies 
passed  a  motion  of  confidence  in  the  new 
De  Gasperi  government.  Fighting  took 
place  in  the  chamber  during  the  prime 
minister's  speech. 

Liberia.  A  state  of  emergency  was 
proclaimed  following  a  riot  by  rubber 
workers  on  strike. 


Soviet  Union-China.  A  30-yr.  treaty 
of  friendship,  alliance  and  mutual  assist- 
ance was  signed  in  Moscow  by  A;  Vyshin- 
sky  and  Chou  En-lai.  Agreements  were 
also  signed  dealing  with  the  Manchurian 
railway,  Port  Arthur  and  Dairen,  and 
with  the  establishing  of  long-term  credits 
by  the  U.S.S.R.  to  China. 

United  States-Yemen.  The  State 
Department  announced  the  restoration 
of  full  diplomatic  relations  which  had 
been  broken  off  in  1948. 

15:  Finland.  Juho  Paasikivi  was  re- 
elected  president. 

Indonesia.  The  first  session  of  the  Indo- 
nesian parliament  opened  in  Jakarta. 

16:  Burma.  The  parliament  unanimously 
decided  to  postpone  the  general  election 
for  a  further  12  months. 

Indonesia.  The  government  was  recog- 
nized by  Rumania. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  Hearings 
began  on  the  question  whether  the  general 
assembly  could  over-rule  the  Security 
council  on  the  admission  of  new  members. 

West  Indies.  Princess  Alice  was  installed 
as    first    chancellor    of   the    University 
College  of  the  West  Indies,  in  Jamaica. 
17:  China.  Mao  Tse-tung  and  Chou  En-lai 
left  Moscow  for  Peking. 

Nepal.     Maharaja  Mohan  Shumshere 

Jung    Bahadur    Rana,    prime    minister, 

arrived  in  New  Delhi  on  an  eight-day 

good  will  visit  to  India. 

18:  Belgium.      The   cabinet   endbrsed   a 

10-yr.  plan  for  the  Belgian  Congo. 
20:  Somaliland.     The  first  Italian  troops 

disembarked  at  Mogadishu. 
21:  Eritrea.      22   people   were   killed   in 
rioting  between  Copts  and  Moslems. 

Hungary.  At  a  trial  in  Budapest,  Edgar 
Sanders  (Great  Britain)  and  Robert 
Voegler  (U.S.)  were  found  guilty  of 
espionage  and  sentenced  to  long  terms  of 
imprisonment. 

Indo-China.  The  Yugoslav  government 
recognized  the  Ho  Chi  Minh  adminis- 
tration. 

World  Health  Organization.  Rumania 
withdrew  from  the  W.H.O. 
22:  Hungary.  The  British  and  U.S.  govern- 
ments were  requested  to  reduce  the  size 
of  their  legations  in  Budapest. 

United  States.  The  government  sus- 
pended diplomatic  relations  with  Bulgaria 
(later  Poland  agreed  to  represent  Bul- 
garian interests  in  the  U.S.,  and  Switzer- 
land, U.S.  interests  in  Bulgaria). 

23:  Great  Britain.  A  general  election  was 
held.  The  Labour  party  was  returned  to 
office  with  a  majority  over  all  other 
parties  of  6.  Over  84%  of  the  electorate 
voted. 

China.  Communist  troops  landed  on 
Namoa  island. 

Eritrea.  A  total  curfew  was  imposed  in 
Asmara  following  continued  clashes. 

Italy.  The  trial  of  Marshal  Rudolfo 
Graziani  on  charges  of  war  crimes  opened 
before  a  military  court  in  Rome. 

24:  Western  Germany.  It  was  announced 
that  Field  Marshal  Manstein's  sentence 
had  been  reduced  from  18  to  12  years. 

25:  Indonesia.  The  leader  of  the  West  Java 
revolt,  Captain  Westerling,  was  arrested  in 
Singapore  on  charges  of  entering  the 
colony  illegally. 

Soviet  Union.  A  Ministry  of  the  Navy 
of  the  U.S.S.R.  was  created.  Admiral 
I.  S.  Yumashev  was  appointed  minister. 

27:  United  States-Canada.  A  treaty  on  the 
preservation  and  usage  of  the  Niagara 
falls  was  signed  in  Washington. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


28:  Great  Britain.  The  Labour  government 
was  reformed.  Emanuel  Shin  well 
returned  to  the  cabinet  as  minister  of 
defence,  and  Hugh  Qaitskell  was  appoin- 
ted minister  of  state  for  economic  affairs. 

Chile.  The  government  was  defeated 
in  the  congress. 

Indo-China.  The  governments  of 
Cambodia,  Laos  and  Vietnam  were 
recognized  by  Thailand. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  Hearings 
began  in  the  case  concerning  the  inter- 
pretations of  the  peace  treaties  with 
Bulgaria,  Hungary  and  Rumania. 

MARCH 

1:  Great  Britain.  The  new  House  of 
Commons  met  for  the  first  time  and  re- 
elected  Colonel  Douglas  Clifton  Brown 
as  speaker. 

Dr.  K.  E.  J.  Fuchs,  a  naturalized 
British  subject  working  on  atomic  re- 
search, was  sentenced  to  14  yr.  imprison- 
ment for  giving  information  on  atomic 
energy  to  the  U.S.S.R. 

Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The 
deputies  met  to  discuss  the  Austrian 
treaty. 

Iceland.  The  government  led  by  Olafur 
Thors  resigned. 

Persia.  The  shah  of  Persia  arrived  in 
Karachi  on  a  state  visit  to  Pakistan. 

Soviet  Union.  The  rouble  was  revalued 
on  a  gold  basis.  New  price  reductions  in 
many  goods  came  into  effect. 

United  States.  The  U.S.  Export-Import 
bank  authorized  an  additional  $20  million 
loan  to  Yugoslavia. 

2:  Western  Germany.  The  high  com- 
mission signed  a  law  prohibiting  German 
activity  in  the  field  of  atomic  energy. 
3:  France-Saar.  A  series  of  agreements 
was  signed  in  Paris  by  R.  Schuman, 
French  foreign  minister,  and  Johannes 
Hoffmann,  prime  minister  of  the  Saar. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  The 
court  ruled  that  the  general  assembly  was 
not  competent  to  override  the  Security 
council  on  the  question  of  the  admission 
of  new  members. 

Rumania.  The  British  Information 
office  in  Bucharest  was  closed  at  the 
request  of  the  Rumanian  government. 

Spain.  The  government  granted  recog- 
nition to  Vietnam,  Cambodia  and  Laos. 

United  States.  The  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives passed  a  bill  by  186  votes  to 
146  granting  statehood  to  Alaska;  the 
bill  was  then  passed  to  the  Senate  for 
approval. 

4:  Elections  were  held  in  South  Australia. 
The  Liberal-Country  league  government 
was  returned  to  office. 

China.  Mao  Tse-tung  and  Chou  En-lai 
returned  from  Moscow. 

United  States.  The  government  rejected 
a  Hungarian  request  to  reduce  the  size 
of  its  legation  in  Budapest  as  "  improper 
and  irrelevant." 

Western  Germany.  Konrad  Adenauer, 
federal  chancellor,  strongly  criticized  the 
Saar  agreements. 

5:  Greece.  A  general  election  was  held. 
The  Populist  party  emerged  as  the 
largest  with  62  seats  in  a  chamber  of  250. 
6:  Great  Britain.  The  King  opened 
parliament.  His  speech  announced  a 
limited  programme  of  legislation. 

India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  arrived  in 
Calcutta  to  study  the  communal  situation. 

United  Nations.  The  Economic  and 
Social  council  granted  "  category  A " 
consultative  status  to  the  International 
Confederation  of  Free  Trade  Unions. 


World  Health  Organization,  Albania 
withdrew  from  the  W.H.O. 

7:  Great  Britain-France.  President  Vin- 
cent Auriol  and  Mme.  Auriol  of  France 
arrived  in  Britain  on  a  state  visit. 

Burma.  A  joint  note  from  Great 
Britain,  Australia,  Ceylon,  India  and 
Pakistan  announced  that  the  Common- 
wealth would  make  a  loan  to  Burma  of 
£6  million. 

France-Italy.  Agreements  were  signed 
to  further  a  customs  union. 

Germany.  Sir  Brian  Robertson,  British 
high  commissioner,  re-affirmed  the  British 
intention  of  remaining  in  Berlin. 

United  States.  The  House  of  Represen- 
tatives passed  a  bill  granting  statehood 
to  Hawaii;  the  bill  was  subsequently 
passed  to  the  Senate  for  approval. 

8:  Great  Britain.  The  secretary  of  state 
for  commonwealth  relations,  P.  Gordon- 
Walker,  announced  that  the  government 
had  decided  to  withhold  recognition  of 
Seretse  Khama  as  chief  of  the  Bamang- 
wato  tribe  in  Bechuanaland  for  at  least 
five  years. 

China.  General  Chen  Cheng  was 
elected  Nationalist  prime  minister  in 
succession  to  Marshal  Yen  Hsi-shan. 

Nigeria.  The  secretary  of  the  Zikist 
movement,  Mokwugwo  Okoye,  was 
sentenced  to  33  month's  imprisonment  on 
charges  of  possessing  seditious  publica- 
tions. 

Singapore.  Captain  Westcrling  pleaded 
guilty  to  entering  the  colony  illegally  and 
was  sentenced  to  one  month's  imprison- 
ment. 

9:  Great  Britain.  A  division  in  the  new 
House  of  Commons  on  steel  nationaliza- 
tion gave  the  government  a  majority  of 
14  (310  votes  to  296). 

Conservatives  retained  the  Moss  Side 
seat  of  Manchester.  Polling  had  been 
delayed  because  of  the  death  of  a 
candidate. 

Indonesia.  Central  Java,  East  Java,  the 
town  of  Padang  in  Sumatra,  and  the 
islands  of  Madura  and  Sebang  were 
merged  with  the  republic. 

10:  Scandinavia.  A  two-day  conference  of 
the  foreign  ministers  of  Sweden,  Den- 
mark and  Norway  opened  in  Stockholm. 
A  representative  of  Iceland  was  present. 

1 1 :  Belgium.  A  referendum  was  held  on 
the  question  of  King  Leopold's  return, 
57-68%  of  the  votes  being  cast  in  favour. 

12:  Indo-China.  The  Holy  See  granted 
recognition  to  Vietnam,  Laos  and  Cam- 
bodia. 

Indonesia.  West  Java  was  merged  with 
the  republic. 

Soviet  Union.  Elections  were  held  for 
the  Soviet  of  the  Union  and  the  Soviet  of 
Nationalities.  99-98%  of  the  electorate 
voted;  the  Communist  and  non-party 
lists  received  for  the  Soviet  of  the  Union 
99-73%  and  for  the  Soviet  of  National- 
ities 99-78%  of  the  respective  votes. 

13:  Great  Britain.  A  debate  on  housing 
in  the  House  of  Commons  resulted  in  a 
government  majority  of  25. 

Belgium.  The  prime  minister,  G.  Eys- 
kens, left  Brussels  for  discussions  with 
King  Leopold. 

International  Monetary  Fund  and  Bank. 
Poland  withdrew  from  membership. 

Syria-Lebanon.  The  Syrian  government 
announced  the  rupture  of  the  customs 
union  between  the  two  countries. 

14:  Czechoslovakia.  Vladimir  dementis 
was  replaced  as  foreign  minister  by 
Vilem  Siroky. 


Iceland.  A  coalition  government  was 
formed  by  Steingrimur  Steinthdrsson. 

India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  made  a 
second  visit  to  Calcutta  to  study  the 
communal  situation. 

1 5 :  Persia-India.  A  treaty  of  friendship  was 
signed  in  Tehran. 

16:  Great  Britain.  The  appointments  were 
announced  of  General  Sir  Brian  Robert- 
son as  commander  in  chief  Middle  East 
Forces,  and  Sir  Ivonc  Kirkpatrick  as 
high  commissioner  in  Germany. 

The  government  requested  the  Rum- 
anian government  to  close  its  information 
office  in  London. 

Belgium.  King  Leopold  declared  he 
would  accept  the  decision  of  parliament 
and  would  abdicate  if  parliament  con- 
sidered he  should  not  resume  his  duties. 

17:  Finland.  The  president  of  the  parlia- 
ment, Urho  Kekkonen,  formed  a  govern- 
ment. 

Persia.    The  shah  left  Karachi  at  the 
end  of  his  good-will  visit  to  Pakistan. 
18:  Belgium.       The   government    led    by 
G.  Eyskcns  resigned. 

Iceland.  The  Kr6na  was  devalued  to 
16-29  to  the  U.S.  dollar,  and  its  value 
increased  in  relation  to  the  pound  sterling 
from  26-22  to  45 -60. 

19:  Belgium.  G.  Eyskens  was  asked  to 
form  a  new  government. 

Burma.  Government  forces  recaptured 
Toungoo,  180  mi.  north  of  Rangoon. 

Persia.  The  government  led  by 
Mohammed  Saed  resigned. 
21:  Great  Britain.  The  appointment  was 
announced  of  Sir  Gladwyn  Jebb  as 
permanent  representative  at  the  United 
Nations  in  succession  to  Sir  Alexander 
Cadogan. 

Malaya.     General  Sir  Harold  Briggs 
was  appointed  director  of  operations. 
22:  Belgium.    G.  Eyskens  failed  to  form  a 
government  and  Count  Henri  Carton  de 
Wiart  was  asked  to  try. 

Persia.  Ali  Mansur  was  asked  to  form 
a  government. 

United  States.  President  Truman 
nominated  Thomas  E.  Murray  to  succeed 
David  E.  Lilienthal  on  the  Atomic 
Energy  commission. 

23:  Belgium.  The  ministers  of  state,  last 
convened  in  1914,  met  to  discuss  the 
political  situation. 

Greece.  A  new  cabinet  under  Sophocles 
Venizelos  was  sworn  in. 

World  Meteorological  Organization. 
The  organization  formally  came  into 
effect. 

24:  Belgium.  Count  Carton  de  Wiart  gave 
up  his  attempt  to  form  a  government. 

Italy-Turkey.  A  treaty  of  friendship 
was  signed  in  Rome. 

25:  Australia.  A  general  election  was  held 
in  Western  Australia.  The  Liberal- 
Country  coalition  government  was  re- 
turned to  office. 

Belgium.  Albert  Deveze  agreed  to  try 
to  form  a  government. 

Indo-China.  Three  members  of  Bao 
Dai's  cabinet  resigned. 

Netherlands-Indonesia.  The  first  union 
conference  opened  in  Jakarta  under  the 
chairmanship  of  Dr.  Hatta. 

Afghanistan.  The  king  arrived  in  Teh- 
ran on  a  state  visit  to  Persia. 

Yugoslavia.      General   elections   were 
held.     93%  of  the  votes  cast  were  in 
favour  of  the  official  People's  Front. 
27:  Arab  League.  The  council  of  the  league 
met  in  Cairo. 

China.  The  Communist  government 
was  recognized  by  the  Netherlands 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


India.  Howrah  was  placed  under 
martial  law  following  communal  dis- 
turbances. 

29:  Horse  Racing.  Mrs.  L.  Brotherton's 
Freebooter,  ridden  by  J.  Power,  won  the 
Grand  National  by  15  lengths. 
29:  Great  Britain.  The  government  was 
defeated  in  the  House  of  Commons  by 
283  votes  to  257  after  a  debate  on  fuel 
and  petrol  policy. 

Arab  League.  A  Jordan  representative 
and  representatives  from  the  Gaza 
government  attended  the  council  meeting. 

China-Soviet  Union.  An  agreement 
was  signed  giving  the  U.S.S.R.  half  of 
Sinkiang  oil  and  non-ferrous  metal  output 
for  30  years. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  North 
Atlantic  Defence,  Financial  and  Econo- 
mic committee  met  in  London. 

United  States.  The  House  of  Represen- 
tatives voted,  by  99  votes  to  66,  to  with- 
hold E.C.A.  funds  to  Great  Britain  until 
the  British  policy  on  Ireland  was  changed. 

30:  Great  Britain.  Clement  Attlee 
announced  that  the  government's  defeat 
would  not  be  regarded  as  a  vote  of  no 
confidence  and  that  the  government 
would  not  resign. 

Great  Britain-Israel.  A  financial  agree- 
ment was  signed  in  London. 

France.  Leon  Blum,  three  times  prime 
minister  of  France,  died. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  By  1 1 
votes  to  3  the  court  decided  that  disputes 
existed  under  the  peace  treaties  with 
Bulgaria,  Hungary  and  Rumania. 

Kenya.  The  town  of  Nairobi  was  raised 
to  the  status  of  a  city.  The  King  was 
represented  by  the  Duke  of  Gloucester. 
31:  Great  Britain.  The  financial  year 
ended  with  a  budget  surplus  of  £549 
million. 

Council  of  Europe.  The  council  of 
ministers  approved  the  text  of  invitations 
to  Western  Germany  and  the  Saar  and 
allocated  18  seats  in  the  assembly  to 
Germany  and  three  to  the  Saar. 

India.  Total  prohibition  was  intro- 
duced in  Bombay. 

Kenya.  The  Duke  of  Gloucester  was 
made  the  first  freeman  of  Nairobi. 

United  States.  The  Foreign  Aid  bill 
was  passed  by  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives by  287  votes  to  86,  after  the  decision 
concerning  the  partition  of  Ireland 
(March  29)  had  been  rescinded. 


APRIL 

I :  Arab  League.  The  council  agreed  to 
expel  any  member  concluding  a  separate 
peace  with  Israel. 

India.  The  central  government  took 
over  control  of  the  armed  forces,  posts 
and  telegraphs,  customs  and  income  tax 
from  the  states. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  defence 
ministers  of  the  12  treaty  powers  met  at 
The  Hague. 

Somaliland.  The  administration  of  the 
former  Italian  colony  was  transferred 
from  the  British  to  the  Italian  authorities 
as  trustees. 

Rowing.  Cambridge  won  the  university 
boat  race  by  3}  lengths  in  20  min.  1 5  sec. 

2:  Burma.  On  the  advice  of  the  official 
astrologers  the  government  resigned  at 
9.15  a.m.  and  resumed  office  again  five 
minutes  later. 

Greece.  P.  Kanellopoulos  resigned 
from  the  govf rnment  to  allow  it  to  be 
broadened. 


India-Pakistan.  Liaquat  Ali  Khan, 
prime  minister  of  Pakistan,  arrived  in 
New  Delhi  for  talks  with  Jawaharlal 
Nehru. 

Norway.  The  prime  minister  announced 
increases  in  the  prices  of  many  foodstuffs 
and  other  commodities. 

3:  Belgium.  Albert  Deveze,  the  Liberal 
leader  who  was  trying  to  form  a  govern- 
ment, saw  King  Leopold  at  Pregny. 

E.R.P.  The  half-way  mark  of  the 
European  Recovery  programme  was 
celebrated.  Since  April  1948,  the  total 
U.S.  aid  to  Europe  under  the  programme 
was  $8,686  million. 

Norway.  The  rationing  of  margarine, 
butter  and  cooking  fats  ended. 

Persia.  A  new  cabinet  was  appointed 
with  Ali  Mansur  as  prime  minister. 

Trinidad.  A  new  constitution  for  the 
colony  was  published. 

United  Nations.  The  Soviet  delegate 
left  the  Economic  and  Social  commission 
in  protest  at  the  presence  of  a  Chinese 
Nationalist  delegate. 

4:  Great  Britain.  Sir  Stafford  Cripps 
said  that  in  the  first  quarter  of  1950  the 
gold  and  dollar  reserves  had  risen  by 
$296  million. 

Afghanistan-India.  A  treaty  of  trade 
and  commerce  was  signed  at  Kabul. 

Belgium.  Albert  Deveze  gave  up  his 
attempt  to  form  ^  government. 

O.E.E.C.  D.  U.  Stikker  (Netherlands) 
was  elected  chairman  of  the  council.  The 
consultative  group  was  abolished.  Sir 
Edmund  Hall-Patch  (Great  Britain) 
remained  chairman  of  the  executive 
committee. 

Saar.  The  parliament  ratified  the  five 
agreements  with  France  by  47  votes  to  1 . 

United  Nations.  The  Trusteeship 
council  adopted  a  statute  for  Jerusalem 
by  nine  votes  to  none. 

5 :  Great  Britain.  Maurice  Webb,  minister 
of  food,  announced  increases  in  price  of 
butter  and  bacon. 

Sir  Frank  Soskice,  solicitor  general, 
was  elected  in  the  first  by-election  of  the 
new  parliament  in  the  Neepsend  division 
of  Sheffield. 

Belgium.  Paul  van  Zeeland  agreed  to 
try  to  form  a  government. 

.Pakistan.  Sir  Frederick  Bourne,  gover- 
nor of  East  Bengal,  retired  and  was 
succeeded  by  Malik  Firoz  Khan  Noon. 

Soviet  Union.  A  Ministry  of  Cotton 
Growing  of  the  U.S.S.R.  was  created. 

6:  India.  President  Prasad  inaugurated 
the  programme  of  total  prohibition  in 
Bombay  state. 

Indonesia.  The  federal  government 
arrested  Sultan  Hamid  II  of  West  Borneo. 
United  States.  President  Truman 
announced  the  appointment  of  John 
Foster  Dulles,  Republican,  as  consultant 
to  the  secretary  of  state. 

7 :  New  Zealand.  F.  W.  Doidge,  minister 
for  external  affairs,  announced  that  the 
New  Zealand  legation  in  Moscow  would 
be  closed. 

8:  American  States.  The  council  of  the 
Organization  of  American  States  voted 
unanimously  to  warn  Cuba,  Guatemala 
and  the  Dominican  Republic  that  sanc- 
tions would  be  applied  if  there  was  further 
unrest  in  the  Caribbean  area. 

India-Pakistan.  The  two  prime  mini- 
sters reached  agreement  on  minority 
rights,  with  special  reference  to  East 
Bengal,  West  Bengal  and  Assam. 

9 :  Arab  League.  The  political  committee 
unanimously  approved  a  collective  secur- 
ity pact. 


Bolivia.  The  government  devalued  the 
peso  by  43%. 

10:  Iraq.  The  High  Court  sentenced  Ali 
Khalid,  former  chief  of  police,  to  life 
imprisonment  for  trying  to  overthrow 
the  government  by  force. 

11:  China.  The  Sino-Soviet  treaty  of 
friendship,  alliance  and  mutual  assistance 
was  ratified  by  the  Chinese  People's 
government. 

Soviet  Union.  The  government,  in  a 
note  to  the  U.S.  government,  alleged  that 
U.S.  aircraft  flew  over  Latvia  and  opened 
fire  on  Soviet  fighters  on  April  8. 

12:  Chile.  President  Gabriel  Gonzalez 
Videla  arrived  in  Washington  on  a  state 
visit. 

Jordan.  The  prime  minister,  Tawfik 
Pasha  Abulhuda,  resigned. 

Soviet  Union.  The  government  pro- 
tested to  Italy  over  the  failure  to  deliver 
reparations. 

Soviet  Union-Eastern  Germany.  A 
trade  and  payments  agreement  was 
signed  in  Moscow. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
appointed  Sir  Owen  Dixon,  Australian 
high  court  judge,  mediator  in  the  Kashmir 
dispute. 

13:  Arab  League.  The  council  of  the 
league  adjourned  after  all  member  states 
had  signed  an  agreement  for  collective 
defence  and  economic  co-operation. 

Jordan.  A  new  cabinet  was  formed  by 
Said  Pasha  el  Mufti. 

South  Africa.  In  a  speech  to  the  Union 
House  of  Assembly  Dr.  Malan  proposed 
that  the  negotiations  started  with  Great 
Britain  over  the  three  protectorates  and 
interrupted  by  World  War  II  should  be 
resumed. 

14:  Greece.  S.  Venizelos,  the  prime 
minister,  resigned.  General  N.  Plastiras 
was  asked  to  form  a  new  government. 
Poland.  The  government  decided  to 
recognize  the  Mongolian  People's  repub- 
lic. 

15:  Belgium.  In  a  broadcast  King  Leopold 
announced  that  after  being  recalled  by 
parliament  he  might  delegate  his  powers 
temporarily  to  the  crown  prince. 

Greece.  A  coalition  government  led  by 
General  Plastiras  was  sworn  in. 

16:  Great  Britain.  It  was  announced  that 
Stanley  Evans,  parliamentary  secretary  to 
the  ministry  of  food,  had  resigned. 

Trieste.  Elections  were  held  in  the 
Yugoslav  zone.  86  •  77  %  of  the  electorate 
voted,  of  whom  88-36%  voted  for  the 
People's  front. 

Western  Union.  The  eighth  session  of 
the  consultative  council  was  held  in 
Brussels. 

17:  Bechuanaland.  Seretse  Khama  returned 
to  Serowe  where  he  was  greeted  by 
tribesmen. 

18:  Great  Britain.  Sir  Stafford  Cripps 
presented  his  third  budget  to  the  House 
of  Commons.  The  lower  rates  of  income 
tax  were  reduced  and  the  price  of  petrol 
increased.  Total  revenue  for  1950-51  was 
estimated  at  £3,898  million  and  expendi- 
ture at  £3,455  million. 

International  Bank.  An  agreement  for  a 
loan  of  $18-5  million  to  India  was  signed 
in  Washington. 

Shipping.  The  Seafarers'  section  of  the 
International  Transport  Workers'  federa- 
tion meeting  at  Amsterdam  decided  to 
boycott  all  ships  sailing  under  the  flag  of 
Panama. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


United  States.  The  text  of  the  U.S. 
reply  to  the  Soviet  note  of  April  1 1  was 
published.  It  accused  the  Soviet  govern- 
ment of  shooting  down  an  unarmed  plane 
over  the  Baltic. 

19:  India.  The  president  accepted  the 
resignations  of  the  minister  for  industry 
and  supply,  S.  P.  Mookerjee,  and  the 
minister  for  commerce,  K.  C.  Neogy. 

Pakistan-India.  Trade  negotiations 
were  resumed  in  Karachi. 

Soviet  Union-China.  A  trade  agreement 
and  an  agreement  on  an  exchange  of 
goods  were  signed  in  Moscow. 

United  Nations.  The  Soviet  Union 
withdrew  its  support  for  an  international 
regime  for  Jerusalem. 

20:  Great  Britain.  The  minister  of  labour, 
George  Isaacs,  denounced  a  strike  at  the 
London  docks  as  Communist  inspired. 
6,737  men  were  on  strike. 

Australia.  A  motion  of  censure  on  the 
speaker,  A.  G.  Cameron,  was  defeated 
in  the  House  of  Representatives  by  67 
votes  to  38. 

21 :  Soviet  Union.  The  government  rejected 
the  U.S.  note  of  April  18  concerning  a 
missing  U.S.  plane. 

World  Health  Organization.     Czecho- 
slovakia withdrew  from  the  W.H.O. 
22:  Italy.    Count  Carlo  Sforza  stated  that 
Italy  was  willing  to  negotiate  directly  with 
Yugoslavia  over  Trieste. 
23 :  Great  Britain.  The  centenary  of  William 
Wordsworth,  who  died  at  Ambleside  on 
April  23,  1 850,  was  celebrated  in  the  Lake 
district. 

Roman   Catholic   Church.      The  first 

canonization  during  the  Holy  Year  took 

place  at  St.  Peter's  when  Emilias  dc  Rodat 

was  declared  a  saint. 

24:  Norway.     The  rationing  of  chocolate 

and  sweets  ended. 

25:  Great  Britain.  The  Labour  party 
retained  its  seat  in  the  Dumbarton  west 
by-election  with  a  majority  of  293. 

Czechoslovakia.  Alexej  Cepicka,  mini- 
ster of  justice,  was  appointed  minister  of 
defence. 

Food  and  Agriculture  Organization. 
Poland  left  the  organization  because,  it 
alleged,  the  F.A.O.  had  not  given  it 
sufficient  help  after  World  War  II. 

France.  It  was  announced  that  oil 
deposits  had  been  found  near  Pau. 

South  Pacific.  The  first  conference  of 
representatives  of  the  native  peoples  of 
the  South  Pacific  opened  in  Suva,  Fiji. 
26:  Great  Britain.  The  government  sur- 
vived two  divisions  on  its  budget  propo- 
sals with  majorities  of  five  in  each  division. 

Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The 
deputies  held  their  252nd  meeting  in 
London. 

Indonesia.  A  republic  of  the  South 
Moluccas  was  declared  in  Amboina. 

Pakistan-India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru 
arrived  in  Karachi  for  talks  with  Liaquat 
Ali  Khan. 

27:  Great  Britain.  The  British  government 
recognized  Jordan  and  granted  de  jure 
recognition  to  Israel. 

The  London  Dock  Labour  board 
announced  that  unless  the  strikers 
returned  by  May  1  their  services  would  be 
terminated.  About  14,400  men  were  on 
strike. 

Australia.  R.  G.  Menzies,  prime 
minister,  introduced  in  the  House  of 
Representatives  a  bill  dissolving  the 
Communist  party. 

Indo-China.  The  prime  minister  of 
Vietnam,  N'guyen  Phan  Long,  resigned. 
Bao  Dai  asked  Tran  Van  Huu  to  form  a 
government. 


Pakistan-India.  Talks  in  Karachi 
between  Liaquat  Ali  Khan  and  Jawahar- 
lal Nehru  were  ended. 
28:  France.  F.  Joliot  was  dismissed  from 
his  post  of  high  commissioner  for  atomic 
energy. 

Singapore.  An  attempt  was  made  on 
the  life  of  governor,  Sir  Franklin  Girnson, 
when  a  grenade  was  thrown  at  him. 

Thailand.  The  marriage  of  King 
Phumiphon  Adundet  and  Princess  Sirikit 
Kitiyakara  was  solemnized  in  Bangkok. 
29:  Australia.  The  Labour  government  in 
Queensland  was  returned  to  office  in  a 
general  election. 

Belgium.  The  regent  dissolved  parlia- 
ment. 

Football.  Arsenal  beat  Liverpool  by 
2  goals  to  0  in  the  Football  Association 
cup  final  at  Wembley. 
30:  Italy.  The  Free  Italian  Confederation 
of  Trade  Unions,  the  Italian  Federation 
of  Labour  and  the  Italian  Confederation 
of  Worker's  Trade  Unions  decided  to 
form  one  trade  union  federation. 

Panama.  The  government  outlawed 
the  Communist  party. 


MAY 

1 :  Great  Britain.  After  a  debate  in  the 
House  of  Commons  on  the  government's 
road  transport  policy  the  government  and 
opposition  tied  in  a  division  with  278 
votes  each.  The  chairman  of  committees 
gave  a  casting  vote  in  favour  of  the 
government. 

Commonwealth.  Representatives  of  the 
Commonwealth  countries  met  in  London 
to  consider  the  terms  of  a  peace  settlement 
with  Japan. 

Indo-China.  King  Norodom  Sihanouk 
of  Cambodia  took  over  the  functions  of 
head  of  the  government  in  view  of  the 
serious  internal  situation. 

South  Africa.  In  May  day  disturbances 
on  the  Rand,  18  Africans  were  killed  and 
38  wounded. 

2:  Great  Britain.  The  5s.  limit  on  meals 
in  restaurants  was  removed. 

India.  Chandernagore,  French  India, 
was  formally  merged  with  the  republic  of* 
India.  * 

Italy.  At  a  trial  in  Rome  Marshal 
Graziani  was  found  guilty  of  military 
collaboration  with  the  Germans.  He  was 
sentenced  to  19  yr.  imprisonment,  of 
which  13  yr.  8  rrKh.  were  remitted. 

3 :  Great  Britain.  It  was  announced  that  a 
British  trawler  fishing  in  the  White  sea  had 
been  arrested  by  the  Russians  and  taken 
into  Murmansk. 

4:  Great  Britain.  In  a  by-election  at 
Brighouse  and  Spenborough  Labour 
retained  its  seat  with  a  reduced  majority. 
Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The 
253rd  meeting  of  the  deputies  discussing 
the  Austrian  treaty  was  held  in  London. 
The  deputies  adjourned  till  May  22. 

5:  India.  After  resignations  over  the  Indo- 
Pakistan  minorities  agreement  Jawaharlal 
Nehru  formed  a  new  government. 
C.  C.  Biswas  was  appointed  minister  of 
state  for  minorities. 

South  Africa.  A  bill  to  outlaw  the 
Communist  party  was  introduced  in  the 
House  of  Assembly. 

United  States.  The  Senate  approved  a 
$3,122  million  programme  of  U.S.  foreign 
economic  aid  for  the  financial  year 
starting  on  July  1. 

6:  Nicaragua.  President  Manuel  Roman  y 
Reyes  died  in  Philadelphia,  U.S. 


7:  Great  Britain.  In  May  day  demon- 
strations in  London  skirmishes  took  place 
and  70  persons  were  arrested. 

Haiti.  The  cabinet  resigned  over  a 
move  to  permit  the  re-election  of  President 
Dumarsais  Estime. 

India.  The  Punjab  mail  train  was 
derailed.  More  than  70  persons  were 
killed. 

8:  Hungary.  A  bill  to  establish  local 
councils  on  the  Soviet  model  was  passed 
by  the  National  Assembly. 

Syria.  K  ha  led  el  Azam,  prime  minister, 
resigned.  He  was  asked  to  form  a  new 
government. 

United  States.  After  discussions  in 
Paris  with  Robert  Schuman,  Dean 
Acheson  announced  that  the  U.S.  would 
provide  economic  aid  to  Indo-China. 

World  Health  Organization.  The  third 
world  health  assembly  opened  in  Geneva. 
Rajkumari  Amrit  Kaur  of  India  was 
elected  president. 

9:  Great  Britain.  The  House  of  Commons 
approved  a  loan  of  £3-75  million  to 
Burma.  This  was  Great  Britain's  share 
of  a  Commonwealth  loan  of  £6  million. 

France.  Robert  Schuman  announced  a 
French  plan  for  the  joint  control  of 
French  and  German  steel  and  coal  under 
a  common  authority  which  other  coun- 
tries would  join.  (This  became  known  as 
the  "  Schuman  plan  "). 

Western  Germany.  The  cabinet 
decided  to  accept  the  invitation  to  join 
the  Council  of  Europe  as  an  associate 
member. 

10:  Haiti.  President  Dumarsais  Estime 
resigned  after  a  coup  d'hat  led  by  a 
military  junta. 

Red  Cross.  The  Soviet  delegation  left 
the  committee  of  the  League  of  Red  Cross 
Societies  in  Geneva  in  protest  at  the 
presence  of  Chinese  Nationalists. 
1 1 :  Great  Britian.  A  conference  in  London 
between  Ernest  Bevin,  Dean  Acheson 
and  Robert  Schuman  opened  with  a 
general  review  of  the  world  situation. 

In  the  House  of  Commons,  Clement 
Attlee  welcomed  the  French  proposal 
for  integrating  French  and  German  heavy 
industry  as  a  contribution  towards  the 
solution  of  a  major  European  problem. 

United  Nations.  The  secretary  general, 
Trygve  Lie,  arrived  in  Moscow. 
12:  Czechoslovakia.  The  government 
denounced  the  1947  cultural  agreement 
with  Great  Britain  and  ordered  British 
information  offices  in  Czechoslovakia  to 
close  from  May  13. 

Monaco.  The  offices  of  the  French 
Communist  party  in  Monaco  were  closed. 
13:  Great  Britain.  The  British,  French  and 
the  U.S.  foreign  ministers  announced  that 
they  had  reached  agreement  on  the  main 
lines  of  policy  in  all  parts  of  the  world. 

Australia.  Elections  were  held  for  the 
Victoria  Legislative  Assembly.  The 
Liberal  and  Country  party  lost  3  seats  but 
remained  the  largest  with  27  scats. 
14:  Great  Britain.  The  foreign  ministers  of 
Great  Britain,  France  and  the  U.S. 
issued  a  declaration  on  Germany. 

Norway.  The  city  of  Oslo  began  to 
celebrate  the  900th  anniversary  of  its 
founding. 

Soviet  Union.  The  government  sent  a 
note  to  the  government  of  Persia  pro- 
testing at  the  carrying  out  of  surveys  near 
the  Soviet  Union-Persian  frontier  by 
foreigners. 

Turkey.  In  a  general  election  the 
People's  party  led  by  President  Ismet 
Indnii  was  heavily  defeated  by  the 
Democrats  under  CelAl  Bavar. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


15:  Great  Britain.  In  retaliation  against 
the  Czechoslovak  action  the  British 
government  ordered  the  closing  of  the 
Czechoslovak  institute  in  London  and 
the  discontinuance  of  the  information 
work  of  the  embassy. 

Commonwealth  Conference.  A  con- 
ference of  Commonwealth  countries  on 
economic  aid  to  southeast  Asia  opened 
in  Sydney. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  North 
Atlantic  council  met  for  its  fourth  session 
in  London. 

Soviet  Union.  J.  V.  Stalin  received 
Trygve  Lie,  secretary  general  of  the 
United  Nations. 

Universal  Postal  Union.  The  executive 
and  liaison  committee  met  in  Berne.  For 
the  first  time  at  an  international  confer- 
ence representatives  from  Communist 
China  were  admitted. 

16:  Arab  League.  The  political  committee 
of  the  league  announced  that  Syria, 
Saudi  Arabia,  Lebanon  and  Egypt  were 
in  favour  of  expelling  Jordan. 

Egypt.  The  crown  council  deprived 
Princess  Fathia  of  her  title  following  her 
marriage  in  San  Francisco  to  a  commoner. 

France.  The  National  Assembly,  by 
320  votes  to  1 79,  passed  a  resolution  that 
would  permit  the  Comtc  de  Paris, 
pretender  to  the  French  throne,  to  return 
to  France. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  The 
court  started  hearings  on  the  status  of 
South- West  Africa. 

1 7 :  United  States.  The  Export-Import  bank 
announced  a  credit  of  $125  million  to  a 
group  of  Argentine  banks. 
18:  Council  of  Europe.  Representatives  of 
the  committee  of  ministers  and  of  the 
consultative  assembly  met  in  London  and 
decided  to  create  a  joint  committee  of 
five  representatives  of  the  ministers  and 
seven  of  the  assembly. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  fourth 
meeting  of  the  Council  ended.  It  was 
decided  to  set  up  a  permanent  defence 
organization  in  London. 
19:  Burma.  Government  forces  recaptured 
Prome. 

Commonwealth  Conference.  The  con- 
ference at  Sydney  ended.  Agreement  was 
reached  on  the  need  for  a  programme  of 
economic  development  for  south  and 
southeast  Asia. 

Indonesia.  A  treaty  was  signed  between 
the  republic  of  the  United  States  of 
Indonesia  and  the  republic  of  Indonesia 
providing  for  the  implementation  of  the 
principle  of  the  unitary  state. 
20:  Great  Britain.  The  points  rationing 
system  ended.  (The  only  foods  remaining 
on  the  ration  were  meat,  butter,  mar- 
garine, tea,  cooking  fat,  cheese,  sugar  and 
sweets.) 

Western  Germany.  A  mining  disaster 
at  Gclsenkirchen  caused  more  than  75 
deaths. 

21:  Great  Britain.  During  widespread 
storms  in  southern,  central  and  eastern 
England,  a  tornado  developed  over  the 
Chiltern  hills  causing  considerable  dam- 
age. 

A  conference  of  Labour  party  leaders, 
T.U.C.  and  Co-operative  party  repre- 
sentatives ended  at  Dorking,  Surrey. 

Bolivia.  The  government  announced 
that  13  persons  were  killed  and  112 
wounded  in  rioting  at  La  Paz  on  May  18 
and  19. 

Nicaragua.  General  Anastasio  Samoza 
was  elected  president  in  succession  to 
V.  M.  Roman  y  Reyes,  who  died  on 
May  6. 


Peru.  A  severe  earthquake  shook  parts 

of  Peru.  The  city  of  Cuzco  was  destroyed. 

22:  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.      The 

253rd  meeting  of  the  deputies  discussing 
the  Austrian  treaty  was  held  in  London. 
No  progress  was  made. 

India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  stated  that  it 
had  been  decided  not  to  recognize  the 
Bao  Dai  government  in  Vietnam  or  the 
Vietminh  communist  government. 

Turkey.  Celal  Bayar,  leader  of  the 
Democratic  party,  was  elected  president 
by  the  Grand  National  Assembly. 
Adnan  Menderes  was  appointed  prime 
minister. 

U.N.E.S.C.O.  The  fifth  general 
conference  opened  in  Florence.  The 
delegates  of  Czechoslovakia  and  Hungary 
left  in  protest  at  the  presence  of  Chinese 
Nationalist  delegates. 

Western  Union.  Naval  exercises  of 
units  from  the  British,  French  and 
Netherlands  navies  started  in  the  Bay  of 
Biscay. 

23:  Eastern  Germany.  The  British,  United 
States  and  French  governments  sent  notes 
to  the  Soviet  government  protesting 
at  the  creation  of  a  militarized  police 
force  in  Eastern  Germany. 

Netherlands.  Queen  Juliana  and  the 
Prince  of  the  Netherlands  arrived  in 
Paris  on  a  state  visit. 

South  Africa.  General  Smuts  was  made 
a  freeman  of  Johannesburg  on  the  eve  of 
his  80th  birthday. 

United  States.    The  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives, by  247  votes  to  88,  passed  the 
Foreign  Economic  Aid  bill. 
24:  Great   Britain.      Field   Marshal   Earl 
Wavell  died  in  London. 

The  Minister  of  Food  announced  that 
Sir  Leslie  Plummer  had  agreed  to  relin- 
quish the  chairmanship  of  the  Overseas 
Food  corporation 

25:  Finland.  The  Trade  Union  federation, 
the  last  non-Communist  member  of  the 
W.F.T.U.  decided  to  withdraw  from 
membership. 

Malta.  It  was  announced  in  London 
and  Valetta  that  the  British  government 
would  ferant  Malta  £1  -5  million  over  the 
next  five  years. 

Middle  East.  The  governments  of 
Great  Britain,  France  and  the  U.S. 
announced  that  they  had  reached  agree- 
ment on  the  supply  of  arms  to  Arab 
countries  and  to  Israel. 
26:  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The 
deputies  met  in  London  to  fix  the  date  of 
their  next  meeting. 

Germany.  The  text  was  published  of 
letters  sent  by  the  British,  French  and 
U.S.  high  commissioners  in  Germany  to 
General  Kotikov  proposing  measures  to 
bring  about  the  political  and  economic 
unity  of  Germany. 

27:  Great  Britain.  Petrol  rationing — in 
force  from  Sept.  1939— was  ended. 

Bulgaria.  Vladimir  Poptomov  was 
replaced  as  foreign  minister  by  Mincho 
Neychev. 

Horse  Racing.  M.  Boussac's  Galcador, 
ridden  by  W.  R.  Johnstone,  won  the 
Derby  at  Epsom. 

28:  Albania.  Elections  were  held  for  the 
People's  Assembly.  99%  of  the  electorate 
voted;  98%  of  the  votes  were  cast  for 
candidates  of  the  Democratic  Front. 

Germany.  The  Free  German  Youth, 
during  a  great  Whitsun  rally  in  Berlin, 
marched  past  the  East  German  govern- 
ment in  flic  Lustgarten. 
29:  Syria.  The  prime  minister,  Khaled  el 
Azam,  and  his  government  resigned.  He 
was  asked  to  form  a  new  government. 


30:  Asian  Conference.  A  conference  of 
seven  southeast  Asian  and  Pacific  coun- 
tries ended  at  Baguio,  Philippines. 

Hungary.  The  government  announced 
the  closing  of  a  10-mi.  zone  along  the 
Yugoslav  frontier. 

Korea.  A  general  election  was  held  in 
South  Korea.  Nine  persons  were  killed 
in  disturbances.  Of  the  2,237  candidates, 
30  had  been  arrested  after  the  discovery 
of  a  "  Communist  spy-ring." 

Yugoslavia.  The  government  recalled 
its  diplomatic  staff  in  Tirana,  Albania, 
and  closed  the  legation. 
31:  France.  Jean  Mons  was  replaced  as 
resident  general  of  Tunisia  by  Louis 
Perillier. 

New  Zealand.  The  immediate  ending 
of  petrol  rationing  was  announced. 

South  Africa.  The  House  of  Assembly 
gave  a  second  reading,  by  69  votes  to  61, 
to  the  Group  Areas  bill. 

Cricket.  In  the  test  trial  at  Bradford 
the  Rest  were  dismissed  for  27  runs, 
J.  Laker  taking  8  wickets  for  2  runs. 


JUNE 

1:  Poland.  The  government  decided  to 
create  three  new  provinces  to  be  known  as 
Koszalin,  Opole  and  Zielona  G6ra. 

United  Nations.  The  Soviet  represen- 
tatives left  the  Trusteeship  council  in 
protest  at  the  presence  of  Chinese 
Nationalists. 

Aviation.  The  first  permanent  passenger 
helicopter  service — from  Liverpool  to 
Cardiff — was  started. 

2:  India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  left  India  for 
a  tour  of  southeast  Asian  countries. 

South  Africa.  Dr.  Malan  announced 
that  the  government  had  decided  not  to 
recognize  the  Chinese  Communist  govern- 
ment. 

3:  North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  defence 
ministers  of  Great  Britain,  Norway  and 
Denmark  met  in  London. 
4:  Belgium.  A  general  election  was  held. 
In  both  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  and  the 
Senate  the  Social  Christian  party  obtained 
a  small  overall  majority. 

Japan.  Elections  were  held  for  132 
scats  in  the  House  of  Councillors.  The 
Liberals  (the  government  party)  obtained 
76  seats.  The  Socialists  vote  was  doubled, 
the  Communist  halved,  compared  with 
1949. 

Switzerland.  A  referendum  was  held 
on  a  law  proposing  to  withdraw  the  power 
of  levying  direct  taxes  from  the  federal 
government.  The  proposed  law  was 
defeated  by  485,400  votes  to  266,800. 

Syria.  A  new  cabinet  was  formed  by 
Nazim  el  Kudsy. 

5:  Brunei.  Omar  Ali  Saifudin,  brother  of 
the  last  sultan,  was  chosen  as  the  new 
sultan  of  Brunei. 

Eastern  Germany-Poland.  A  German 
delegation  led  by  Walter  Ulbricht  arrived 
in  Warsaw.  Agreement  was  reached  on 
the  Oder-Neisse  frontier  between  Ger- 
many and  Poland. 

Egypt.  Field  Marshal  Sir  William  Slim 
held  discussions  in  Cairo  with  the  prime 
minister  and  foreign  minister. 

United  States.  President  Truman 
signed  the  Foreign  Aid  bill. 

Mountaineering.  Two  Frenchmen 
climbed  the  26,492-ft.  Annapurna  peak  in 
Nepal.  This  became  the  highest  peak 
climbed  by  man. 

6:  Belgium.  G.  Eyskens,  prime  minister, 
placed  the  resignation  of  his  cabinet  in 
the  hands  of  the  regent. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,   1950 


Malta.  Dr.  P.  Boffa's  government  was 
defeated  by  21  votes  to  18  on  a  motion  to 
consider  the  1950-51  budget. 

7:  Eastern  Germany.  It  was  announced 
that  the  commandant  of  Berlin,  General 
A.  G.  Kotikpv,  was  to  be  replaced  by 
S.  A.  Dienghin. 

Indonesia.  Jawaharlal  Nehru,  prime 
minister  of  India,  arrived  at  Jakarta  at 
the  beginning  of  a  ten-day  visit  to 
Indonesia. 

Soviet  Union.  The  government  sent 
notes  on  the  administration  of  the 
Antarctica  to  the  governments  of  Great 
Britain,  Argentina,  Australia,  France, 
New  Zealand,  Norway  and  the  U.S. 

8:  Great  Britain.  Seven  barons  were 
created  in  the  Birthday  Honours.  They 
included  Lewis  Silkin,  D.  R.  Rees- 
Williams,  Sir  Gilbert  Campion  and  E.  W. 
Hives. 

Belgium.  A  new  Social  Christian 
government  under  Jean  Duvieusart  was 
sworn  in. 

Burma-China.  Diplomatic  relations 
were  established. 

India.  The  government  announced  that 
it  would  not  participate  in  the  proposed 
round  table  conference  between  South 
Africa,  India  and  Pakistan. 

Western  Germany.  The  Allied  High 
commission  announced  that  the  Federal 
German  government  would  have  greater 
freedom  to  negotiate  and  conclude  inter- 
national agreements  other  than  on  trade 
and  payments. 

9:  Great  Britain.  The  report  was  pub- 
lished of  the  disturbances  in  Nigeria  in 
Nov.  1949.  The  view  was  expressed  that 
the  chief  commissioner  for  the  eastern 
provinces  had  erred  in  treating  the 
miners'  dispute  at  Enugu  as  political 
rather  than  industrial. 

Finland.  Urho  Kekkonen,  prime 
minister,  arrived  in  Moscow  to  sign  the 
Finnish-Soviet  trade  agreement. 

10:  Singapore.  Field  Marshal  Sir  William 
Slim  arrived  in  Singapore. 

11:  Great  Britain.  James  Griffiths  and 
John  Strachey  returned  to  London  after 
visiting  the  far  east. 

12:  Arab  League.  The  council  of  the  league 
met  in  Alexandria. 

Austria. '  The  governments  of  Great 
Britain,  France  and  the  U.S.  sent  notes 
to  the  Soviet  Union  concerning  Austria. 
They  asked  the  Soviet  Union  to  appoint 
a  civilian  high  commissioner. 

Soviet  Union.  The  Supreme  Soviet  met. 
Mikhail  Yasnov  was  elected  chairman 
of  the  Soviet  of  the  Union,  and  Z. 
Shayakhmetov,  chairman  of  the  Soviet  of 
Nationalities. 

Cricket.  England  won  the  first  test 
against  the  West  Indies  at  Old  Traffbrd, 
Manchester,  by  202  runs. 

13:  Great  Britain.  Parliament  re-assembled 
after  the  Whitsun  recess.  The  prime 
minister,  in  a  statement  on  the  Schuman 
plan  said  that  the  British  government  was 
unable  to  accept  commitments  in  advance. 
The  Labour  party  issued  a  policy  state- 
ment on  European  unity. 

Malta.  Dr.  Boffa,  prime  minister, 
requested  the  governor  to  dissolve  the 
Legislative  Assembly. 

Peru.  A  revolt,  led  by  Francisco  J. 
Mostajo,  broke  out  in  Arequipa. 

South  Africa.  The  House  of  Assembly, 
by  73  votes  to  58,  gave  a  third  reading  to 
the  Group  Areas  bill. 


Soviet  Union.  A.  G.  Zverev,  minister 
of  finance,  presented  his  budget  to  the 
Supreme  Soviet.  Revenue  was  estimated 
at  432,000  million  roubles  and  expendi- 
ture at  427,937  million  roubles. 

Soviet  Union-Finland.  A  five-year  trade 
agreement  was  signed  in  Moscow. 

U.N.E.S.C.O.  Atthegeneralconference 
in  Florence,  Dr.  Jaime  Torres  Bodet, 
director  general,  submitted  his  resignation 
in  protest  at  the  inadequate  budget  for 
the  organization. 

14:  Belgium.  The  government  rejected  a 
plan  to  give  further  credits  of  Belgian 
francs  to  finance  intra-European  trade. 

Netherlands.  The  minister  of  economic 
affairs,  J.  R.  M.  Van  Der  Brink,  an- 
nounced that  the  Netherlands  had 
reserved  freedom  of  action  in  case  the 
Schuman  plan  proved  to  be  impracticable. 

O.E.E.C.  The  Netherlands  government 
circulated  proposals  for  the  integration 
of  European  economies. 

United  Nations.  The  Trusteeship 
council  voted  in  favour  of  returning  the 
Jerusalem  question  to  the  general 
assembly. 

15:  Great  Britain.  The  first  German  consul- 
general  in  London  since  1939  arrived  in 
London. 

Peru.  The  revolt  was  quelled.  More 
than  40  persons  had  been  killed. 

U.N.E.S.C.O.  Dr.  Jaime  Torres  Bodet 
withdrew  his  resignation. 

Western  Germany.  The  Bundestag 
voted  by  220  votes  to  152  to  join  the 
Council  of  Europe. 

16:  Trieste.  The  governments  of  Great 
Britain,  France  and  the  U.S.  rejected  the 
Soviet  note  of  April  20  in  which  the 
Soviet  government  claimed  that  the 
western  powers  had  violated  the  Italian 
peace  treaty. 

United  States.  President  Truman 
appointed  W.  Averell  Harriman,  E.C.A. 
representative  in  Europe,  to  be  his  special 
assistant. 

17:  Africa.  A  20-yr.  convention  relating  to 
the  port  of  Beira  and  the  Beira  railway 
was  signed  in  Lisbon  by  representatives 
of  the  British,  Portuguese  and  Southern 
Rhodesian  governments. 

Arab  League.  Egypt,  Saudi  Arabia,' 
Syria,  the  Lebanon  and  the  Yemen  signed 
a  collective  security  pact.  Iraq  did  not 
sign  and  Jordan  was  not  present. 

Australia.  Elections  were  held  in  New 
South  Wales.  The  Labour  government 
was  returned  with  a  majority  of  two 
(including  the  two  independent  members). 

India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  arrived  in 
Singapore. 

Soviet  Union.  The  Soviet  of  the  Union 
and  the  Soviet  of  Nationalities  both 
adopted  the  budget.  The  proposed 
income  was  increased  to  433,167  million 
roubles. 

18:  Western  Germany.  Elections  were  held 
in  North  Rhine- Westphalia.  The  Christ- 
ian Democrats  remained  the  largest  party. 

19:  Egypt.  King  Farouk  ordered  the 
enlargement  of  the  Senate  by  30  seats. 
A  number  of  senators  were  removed  and 
replaced  by  Wafdists. 

New  Zealand.  The  prime  minister 
announced  that  the  Legislative  Council 
would  be  abolished  in  the  next  parlia- 
mentary session. 

South  Africa.  The  Group  Areas  bill 
was  given  a  third  reading  in  the  Senate 
by  20  votes  to  19. 

20:  India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  arrived  in 
Rangoon. 


Schuman  Plan.  A  six-power  conference 
opened  in  Paris.  The  countries  repre- 
sented were  Belgium,  France,  Italy, 
Luxembourg,  Netherlands  and  Western 
Germany. 

South  Africa.  During  a  debate  in  the 
House  of  Assembly  on  the  Suppression  of 
Communism  bill  the  Communist  party 
announced  its  dissolution. 

United  States.  Dean  Acheson,  addres- 
sing the  annual  conference  of  state 
governors  at  White  Sulphur  Springs,  West 
Virginia,  spoke  of  U.S.  assistance  to 
under-developed  areas. 
21:  South  Africa.  The  Suppression  of 
Communism  bill  was  read  a  third  time  in 
the  House  of  Assembly  by  61  votes  to  49. 
22:  Argentina.  The  Senate  approved  a 
declaration  affirming  Argentine  sover- 
eignty over  the  Falkland  islands. 

France.  The  government  was  defeated 
when  the  National  Assembly  approved, 
by  351  votes  to  201,  a  Socialist  bill  to 
increase  civil  servants'  salaries. 

New  Zealand.  25  members  were 
appointed  to  the  Legislative  Council 
thus  giving  the  government  a  majority. 

South  Africa.  The  president  of  the 
Senate  used  his  casting  vote  to  secure  a 
second  reading  of  the  Suppression  of 
Communism  bill. 

War  Crimes.  The  court  at  Los  Negros, 
Philippines,  found  Takuma  Nishimura,  a 
former  lieut.  general  in  the  Japanese  army, 
guilty  of  the  murder  of  1 10  Australian 
and  35  Indian  prisoners  of  war  and 
sentenced  him  to  death. 
23:  Australia.  Parliament  rose  for  the 
winter  recess  without  passing  the  Com- 
munist Party  Dissolution  bill. 

Egypt.  The  Liberal,  Saadist,  National- 
ist and  Kotla  parliamentary  groups 
decided  to  boycott  the  sittings  of  the 
Senate  and  the  Chamber  of  Deputies. 
24:  Council  of  Europe.  The  joint  committee 
of  representatives  of  the  committee  of 
ministers  and  the  consultative  assembly 
met  in  Strasbourg. 

France.  The  Bidault  government  was 
defeated  on  a  motion  of  confidence  in  the 
National  Assembly  by  230  votes  to  352. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  defence 
ministers  of  Great  Britain,  Denmark  and 
Norway  met  in  Copenhagen. 

Football.  The  World  Cup  series  opened 
in  Rio  de  Janeiro. 

25 :  Australia.  The  government  of  Victoria 
resigned  after  the  governor  had  refused  a 
dissolution. 

Korea.  Troops  from  the  Democratic 
People's  Republic  of  Korea  (North 
Korea)  invaded  the  territory  of  the 
Republic  of  Korea  (South  Korea).  The 
Ongjin  peninsular  was  evacuated.  The 
Security  council  met  at  Lake  Success. 
By  9  votes  to  0  (U.S.S.R.  absent  and 
Yugoslavia  abstaining)  the  council  de- 
clared the  fighting  in  Korea  a  threat  to 
international  peace  and  called  upon 
North  Korea  to  cease  hostilities  forth- 
with and  to  retire  to  the  38th  parallel. 
26:  France.  President  Auriol  invited  Henri 
Queuille,  Radical,  to  try  to  form  a 
government. 

Korea.  Troops  from  North  Korea 
entered  Suisak,  seven  miles  north  of 
Seoul.  A  seven-man  military  committee 
was  formed  in  North  Korea  under  Kim 
lr  Sung. 

Persia.  A  new  cabinet  was  formed  by 
General  AH  Razmara,  formerly  chief  of 
staff. 

South  Africa.  A  day  of  protest  by  non- 
Europeans  in  South  Africa  passed  off 
quietly.  * 


8 


DIARY  OF  EVfeNTS,  1950 


27:  Great  Britain.  The  government's  policy 
on  the  Schuman  plan  was  approved  in  the 
House  of  Commons  by  309  votes  to  296. 

A  private  member's  bill,  the  Liberties 
of  the  Subject  bill,  was  given  a  second 
reading  in  the  House  of  Lords  by  66 
votes  to  24,  a  majority  of  42  against  the 
government. 

Korea.  President  Truman  ordered  U.S. 
planes  and  warships  to  give  cover  and 
support  to  the  South  Koreans,  and 
directed  the  U.S.  7th  fleet  to  be  prepared 
to  intervene  to  prevent  any  attack  on 
Formosa.  He  also  announced  increased 
military  aid  to  the  Philippines  and  Indo- 
China.  Clement  Attlee  in  the  House  of 
Commons  endorsed  President  Truman's 
statement.  The  Security  council,  by  7 
votes  to  1  (Yugoslavia)— the  U.S.S.R. 
was  absent  and  Egypt  and  India  abstained 
—-denounced  the  attack  in  Korea  as  a 
breach  of  the  peace  and  authorized  all 
members  of  the  U.N.  to  help  the  South 
Koreans. 

28:  Burma.  The  agreement  of  the  Common- 
wealth loan  to  Burma  was  signed  in 
Rangoon. 

Japan.  Shigeru  Yoshida  formed  a  new 
government.  He  retained  the  posts  of 
prime  minister  and  foreign  minister. 

Korea.  The  British  government  put 
their  naval  forces  in  the  Pacific  at  the 
disposal  of  the  United  Nations.  The 
North  Koreans  occupied  Seoul.  The 
South  Korean  government  moved  to 
Taejon. 

29:  Great  Britain.  Sir  David  Kelly, 
ambassador  in  Moscow,  called  at  the 
Soviet  foreign  office  and  expressed  the 
British  hope  that  the  Soviet  Union  would 
co-operate  in  effecting  a  peaceful  settle- 
ment in  Korea. 

Indo-China.  A  conference  opened  at 
Pau,  France,  to  discuss  the  establishment 
of  certain  federal  services. 

Korea.  General  Douglas  Mac  Arthur 
visited  Korea.  The  South  Koreans 
recaptured  Kimpo  airport.  The  Austra- 
lian and  New  Zealand  governments  put 
naval  forces  at  the  disposal  of  the  United 
Nations.  India  announced  its  support 
for  the  Security  council  resolution  of 
June  27  on  Korea. 

United  Nations.  The  Commission  for 
Eritrea  presented  three  separate  reports 
to  the  general  assembly. 

Cricket.  West  Indies  beat  England  by 
326  runs  in  the  second  test  match  at 
Lords. 

30:  Australia.  A  new  Labour  government 
in  New  South  Wales  led  by  James  McGirr, 
prime  minister  from  1947,  was  sworn  in. 

Belgium.  Jean  Duvieusart's  govern- 
ment obtained  a  vote  of  confidence  in  the 
House  of  Representatives  by  108  votes  to 
100. 

Korea.  General  MacArthur  was 
authorized  "  to  use  certain  supporting 
ground  units "  in  Korea.  It  was  an- 
nounced that  23  member  states  had 
endorsed  the  security  council  decision  of 
June  28. 


JULY 

1:  France.  Henri  Queuillc  was  elected 
prime  minister  by  363  votes  to  208  in  the 
National  Assembly. 

Jordan.  A  new  currency  was  intro- 
duced. The  Palestine  pound  was  replaced 
by  the  Jordan  dinar,  and  Jordan  re- 
entered  the  Stirling  area. 


2:  France*  Henri  Queuille  announced  his 

cabinet.       Robert   Schuman    remained 

foreign  minister  and  Paul  Reynaud  was 

appointed  minister  for  associated  states 

,  and  far  east. 

Korea.  R.A.A.F.  aircraft  went  into 
action  for  the  first  time. 

Pakistan.  Liaquat  AH  Khan  arrived 
in  London  from  the  United  States. 

Peru.  Presidential  elections  were  held. 
General  Manuel  A.  Odrfa  was  elected. 

Football.  England  was  beaten  by  Spain 
in  the  World  cup  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  and 
was  thus  eliminated  from  the  competition. 

3:  Korea.  U.S.  marines  and  marine  air 
units  were  ordered  to  Japan.  The  North 
Korean  forces  were  pushing  forward  on  a 
wide  front.  Two  New  Zealand  frigates 
left  for  Korean  waters. 

United  Nations.  The  1 1th  session  of  the 
Economic  and  Social  council  opened  in 
Geneva.  The  Soviet,  Polish  and  Czecho- 
slovak delegates  were  absent. 

4:  France.  The  National  Assembly 
unseated  the  Queuille  government  by 
334  votes  to  221. 

Korea.  North  Korean  forces  captured 
the  town  and  airfield  of  Suwon.  A.  A. 
Gromyko,  Soviet  deputy  foreign  minister, 
described  the  events  in  Korea  as  "an 
internal  conflict  between  two  groups  in 
one  state  "  and  accused  the  United  States 
of  aggression.  Kim  Ir  Sung  was  appointed 
supreme  commander  of  North  Korean 
forces.  The  North  Korean  government 
announced  measures  for  agrarian  reform 
in  South  Korea. 

5:  Great  Britain.  The  House  of  Commons 
approved,  without  a  division,  the  govern- 
ment's policy  on  Korea. 

France.  Guy  Mollet,  secretary  general 
of  the  Socialist  party,  agreed  to  undertake 
a  "  mission  of  inquiry  "  to  form  a  govern- 
ment. 

6:  Korea.  The  North  Koreans  captured 
Pyongtaek  and  Chonan,  23  mi.  and  37  mi. 
respectively  south  of  Suwon.  The  United 
Nations  announced  that  45  member 
states  nad  replied  to  the  Security  council 
resolution— 3  states,  U.S.S.R.,  Poland, 
and  Czechoslovakia,  had  rejected  the 
appeal. 

Poland-Eastern  Germany.  The  frontier 
treaty,  negotiated  in  Warsaw  in  June,  was 
signed  by  J6zef  Cyrankiewicz  and  Otto 
Grotewohl  in  Zgorzelec  (Gorlitz). 

Soviet  Union.  At  the  request  of  A. 
Gromyko,  deputy  foreign  minister,  the 
British  ambassador  called  at  the  Soviet 
foreign  office. 

7:  Korea.  The  U.N.  Security  council 
approved  a  unified  command  for  the  U.N. 
forces  in  Korea.  The  United  States  was 
asked  to  name  a  commander. 

O.E.E.C.  The  council  approved  a 
scheme  for  a  European  Payments  union. 

United  States.  The  government  decided 
to  use  conscription  to  bring  its  forces  up 
to  strength  required  for  the  fighting  in 
Korea. 

Golf.  A.  D.  Locke  of  South  Africa  won 
the  Open  championship  at  Troon,  Ayr- 
shire, for  the  second  year  in  succession. 

Lawn  Tennis.  B.  Patty  (U.S.A.)  beat 
F.  A.  Sedgrnan  (Australia)  in  the  final  of 
the  men's  singles  at  Wimbledon. 

8:  France.  Ren6  Pleven  accepted  the 
president's  invitation  to  form  a  govern- 
ment. 

Korea.  The  North  Koreans  occupied 
Chonan. 


Trieste.  The  Soviet  government  replied 
to  the  notes  of  Great  Britain,  France  and 
the  United  States  on  June  16  and  again 
maintained  that  the  responsibility  for  the 
non-implementation  of  the  Italian  peace 
treaty  concerning  Trieste  lay  with  the 
western  powers. 

Lawn  Tennis.  Miss  Louise  Brough 
(U.S.A.)  won  the  women's  singles,  the 
women's  doubles  with  Mrs.  M.  du  Pont 
(U.S.A.)  and  the  mixed  doubles  with  E. 
W.  Sturgess  (South  Africa)  at  Wimbledon. 

9:  Western  Germany.  Elections  were  held 
for  a  new  Landtag  in  Schleswig-Holstein. 

10:  Great  Britain.  The  Finance  bill  was 
given  a  third  reading  in  the  House  of 
Commons.  The  government  had  received 
majorities  in  all  the  divisions  on  Opposi- 
tion amendments. 

Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The 
deputies  held  the  256th  meeting  in  London 
to  discuss  the  Austrian  treaty.  The  Soviet 
delegate,  G.  N.  Zarubin,  repeated  the 
Soviet  view  on  Trieste  and  the  deputies 
adjourned  until  Sept.  7. 

Korea.  The  United  Nations  announced 
that  48  member  states  were  supporting 
the  Security  council  resolution.  In  addi- 
tion 3  non-members—Ceylon,  Italy  and 
Jordan — had  announced  their  support. 

World  Power  Conference.  The  fourth 
World  Power  conference  opened  in 
London  under  the  chairmanship  of  Sir 
Harold  Hartley. 

1 1 :  France.  Ren6  Pleven  was  elected  prime 
minister  in  the  National  Assembly  by 
373  votes  to  185. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  The 
court  gave  an  advisory  opinion  on  the 
international  status  of  South- West  Africa. 
The  court  declared  unanimously  that 
South-West  Africa  was  still  under  man- 
date and  also  declared  that  the  inter- 
national obligations  from  the  mandate 
were  still  incumbent  on  the  South  African 
government. 

Korea.  The  North  Koreans  broke 
through  the  U.S.  line  between  Chonui 
and  Chochiwon.  The  North  Koreans 
occupied  Chochiwon. 

International  Bank.  Pakistan  joined  the 
bank  and  the  International  Monetary 
fund. 

Soviet  Union.  The  government  sent  a 
note  to  United  Nations  challenging  the 
decision  of  the  Security  council  regarding 
a  unified  command  in  Korea  and  the  use 
of  the  United  Nations  flag.  A.  Gromyko, 
deputy  foreign  minister,  again  received  the 
British  ambassador. 

12:  France.  Ren6  Pleven  announced  his 
new  cabinet.  R.  Schuman  remained 
foreign  minister.  Guy  Mollet  was 
appointed  minister  in  charge  of  Council 
of  Europe  affairs. 

Korea.  The  U.S.  forces  withdrew  to 
the  south  bank  of  the  Kum  river. 

13:  Australia.  The  prime  minister,  R.  G. 
Menzies,  arrived  in  London. 

France.  The  Pleven  government 
received  a  vote  of  confidence  by  335  votes 
to  226. 

India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  in  a  letter  to 
Marshal  Stalin  appealed  to  him  to  use  his 
influence  to  help  to  find  a  basis  for  a  final 
solution  of  the  Korean  situation. 

Korea.  U.S.  Superfortresses  dropped 
500  tons  of  bombs  on  military  targets  in 
North  Korea.  The  United  Nations  flag 
was  flown  for  the  first  time  over  General 
MacArthur's  headquarters  in  Tokyo. 

Persia.  The  shah  offered  to  mediate  in 
the  Pakistan-Afghanistan  dispute. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


14:  Great  Britain.  Several  naval  ammuni- 
tion barges  blew  up  in  Portsmouth  har- 
bour. Sabotage  was  suspected. 

Korea.  The  secretary  general  of  the 
United  Nations  telegraphed  all  member- 
states  asking  them  to  provide  further 
assistance  to  the  South  Koreans. 

Sierra  Leone.  Proposals  for  a  new 
constitution  in  the  colony  were  published. 

Yugoslavia.     The  government  sent  a 
note  to  Bulgaria  demanding  an  immediate 
end  to  frontier  provocations. 
15:  Korea.  The  North  Koreans  crossed  the 
Kum  river. 

Persia.  The  government  replied  to  the 
Soviet  note  complaining  about  the 
alleged  conduct  of  Americans  engaged  in 
oil  surveys  near  the  Soviet-Persian  border. 
The  Persian  government  stated  that  to 
avoid  friction  it  would  engage  only 
Persian  subjects  to  make  the  surveys. 

Soviet  Union.  Marshal  Stalin,  in  a 
reply  to  Pandit  Nehru's  letter,  stated  that 
he  believed  a  settlement  of  the  Korean 
question  could  only  be  achieved  if  the 
Security  council  heard  representatives  of 
the  Korean  people  and  of  the  People's 
Government  of  China. 
16:  Korea.  The  U.S.  defence  on  the  Kum 
river  collapsed. 

Football.  Uruguay  beat  Brazil  by  2 
goals  to  1  to  win  the  World  cup  at  Rio  de 
Janeiro. 

17:  Council  of  Europe.  It  was  announced 
that  the  Saar  and  Western  Germany  had 
accepted  the  statute  of  the  council  and  had 
become  associate  members. 

Korea.  U.S.  forces  abandoned  the 
airfield  at  Taejon. 

Soviet  Union-Afghanistan.  A  four-year 
trade  agreement  was  signed  in  Moscow. 
18:  Indonesia.  The  Ministry  of  Defence 
announced  that  landings  had  taken  place 
on  Buru  against  the  rebel  "  Republic  of 
the  South  Moluccas." 
19:  United  States.  President  Truman  in  a 
message  to  congress  asked  for  $10,000 
million  for  the  armed  forces.  He  also 
reported  that  he  had  empowered  the 
secretary  of  defence  to  call  up  as  many  men 
as  necessary. 

20:  Great  Britain.  In  the  House  of  Com- 
mons Clement  Attlee  welcomed  President 
Truman's  statement  on  July  19.  He  also 
reported  on  the  talks  in  Moscow  between 
the  British  ambassador,  Sir  David  Kelly, 
and  A.  Gromyko,  Soviet  deputy  foreign 
minister. 

Belgium.  A  joint  session  of  both  houses 
of  parliament  recalled  King  Leopold  to 
the  throne  after  six  years  of  exile.  198 
votes  were  cast  in  favour,  none  against — 
the  opposition  parties  leaving  the  chamber 
before  the  vote  was  taken. 

India.  Liaquat  Ali  Khan  arrived  in  New 
Delhi  for  talks  with  Jawaharlal  Nehru. 
Both  ministers  later  met  Sir  Owen  Dixon, 
U.N.  mediator  on  Kashmir. 

Indonesia.  A  conference  was  held  in 
Jakarta  between  the  federal  state  and  the 
republic  of  Indonesia.  Many  issues 
concerning  the  establishment  of  a  unitary 
state  were  settled. 

Korea.  Taejon  was  occupied  by  the 
North  Koreans. 

Western  Union.  The  five  defence 
ministers  met  in  Paris.  The  ministers 
considered  the  international  situation  and 
decided  on  increasing  the  defensive  power 
of  the  western  Union  land,  air  and  sea 
forces. 

21 :  Argentina.  The  government  suspended 
meat  shipments  to  Britain  because  of  the 
failure  to  reach  agreement  with  the 
British  government  on  prices. 


Belgium.  The  prime  minister,  Jean 
Duvieusart,  flew  to  Geneva  to  see  King 
Leopold. 

22:  Belgium.  King  Leopold,  accompanied 
by  Prince  Baudouin  and  Prince  Albert, 
returned  to  Belgium  after  six  years  of 
exile.  He  broadcast  to  his  peoples  and 
appealed  for  unity.  The  Socialist  ministers 
of  state  resigned  and  the  Liberal  ministers 
refused  to  attend  a  meeting  of  the  state 
council.  The  government  formally 
resigned  and  was  asked  by  the  king  to 
remain  in  office. 

Canada.  W.  L.  Mackenzie  King  died 
at  Kingsmere,  near  Ottawa. 

23:  Korea.  The  North  Koreans  occupied 
Kwangchwu,  capital  of  South  Chunra 
province,  and  Boyn. 

24:  Commonwealth.  The  standing  commit- 
tee of  the  Commonwealth  Consultative 
committee  met  in  Colombo. 

India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  and  Liaquat 
Ali  Khan  met  in  New  Delhi  to  discuss  the 
working  of  the  minorities  agreement. 
The  five-day  tripartite  talks  on  Kashmir 
ended. 

Guatemala.  After  disturbances  and 
strikes  the  government  suspended  all 
civil  rights  for  thirty  days. 

25:  Baltic  Sea.  Denmark  and  Sweden 
jointly  accused  the  Soviet  Union  of 
"  encroaching  upon  the  freedom  of  the 
open  sea  "  in  a  protest  on  the  Soviet  claim 
for  a  12-mi.  limit  in  the  Baltic. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  first  meeting 
of  the  deputies*  council  met  in  London. 
Charles  Spoffard  (U.S.)  was  elected 
chairman. 

Cricket.  West  Indies  beat  England  by 
10  wickets  in  the  third  test  match  at 
Nottingham. 

26:  Great  Britain.  At  the  opening  of  a  two- 
day  debate  on  defence,  Emanuel  Shinwcll, 
minister  of  defence,  announced  that  a 
self-contained  British  force  would  be  sent 
to  Korea. 

Indonesia.  The  Royal  Netherlands 
Indonesian  army  ceased  to  exist. 

Korea.  The  New  Zealand  government 
decided  to  send  a  special  combat  unit  to 
Korea,  and  the  Australian  government 
decided  to  provide  ground  forces. 

United  States.  President  Truman  signed 
the  bill  authorizing  $1,222-5  millicfn  in 
arms  aid  to  the  North  Atlantic  treaty 
and  other  nations. 

27:  Great  Britain.  The  debate  on  defence 
continued.  Winston  Churchill  moved 
that  the  debate  be  continued  in  private 
session.  This  was  defeated  by  one  vote. 

Australia.  R.  G.  Menzies  arrived  in 
Washington. 

United  Nations.  Yakov  Malik 
announced  that  the  Soviet  Union  was 
resuming  its  seat  on  the  Security  council 
on  Aug.  1. 

28 :  Israel.  It  was  announced  that  de  jure 
recognition  had  been  granted  by  New 
Zealand. 

Korea.  The  North  Koreans  launched 
attacks  all  along  the  front  and  occupied 
Hatong  and  Kwangyang. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  council  of 
deputies  unanimously  approved  recom- 
mendations designed  to  accelerate  defence 
production. 

Aviation.  British  European  Airways 
used  the  Vickers  Viscount  jet  airliner  on 
the  London-Paris  route.  This  was  the 
first  time  a  jet  aircraft  was  used  on  a 
regular  scheduled  service. 

29:  Belgium.  Disturbances  took  place  all 
day  in  Brussels. 


30:  Great  Britain.  C.  R.  Attlee  broadcast 
an  appeal  for  increased  production,  per- 
sonal service  and  a  close  watch  on  the 
"enemy  within.** 

Belgium.  Anti-Leopold  disturbances 
increased  in  many  parts  of  the  country. 
Three  men  were  shot  by  police  near 
Li£ge.  J.  Duvieusart  called  on  King 
Leopold  during  the  evening. 
31:  Great  Britain.  Patrick  Gordon- Walker, 
secretary  of  state  for  commonwealth 
relations,  arrived  in  Australia  from  New 
Zealand. 

China.  General  MacArthur  arrived  in 
Formosa  for  two-day  talks  with  Chiang 
Kai-shek. 

Egypt.  The  Senate  and  Chamber  of 
Deputies  approved  an  addition  to  the 
penal  code  forbidding  the  publication  of 
news  concerning  the  royal  family  unless 
issued  by  the  minister  of  the  interior. 

India.  An  emergency  session  of  the 
parliament  opened  in  New  Delhi. 
Hyderabad  was  represented  for  the  first 
time. 

Korea.  The  U.S.  2nd  Infantry  division 
arrived  at  Pusan.  The  North  Koreans 
continued  to  advance  and  occupied 
Chinju. 

Nepal-India.  Treaties  of  peace  and 
friendship  and  of  trade  and  commerce 
were  signed  at  Kathmandu. 

Portugal.  Dr.  Salazar  reshuffled  his 
cabinet  and  created  three  new  ministries. 


AUGUST 

1:  Belgium.  King  Leopold's  agreement 
with  the  leading  political  parties  was 
announced.  He  would  transfer  the  royal 
prerogatives  to  Prince  Baudouin  at  once, 
and  would  abdicate  on  Sept.  7,  1951 — 
Prince  Baudouin's  21st  birthday. 

Korea.  North  Korean  troops  entered 
Masan. 

United  Nations.  Yakov  Malik  returned 
to  the  Security  council.  As  president  he 
ruled  that  Dr.  T.  F.  Tsiang  was  not  the 
legal  representative  of  China.  He  was 
over-ruled  by  8  votes  to  3  (Soviet  Union, 
India  and  Yugoslavia). 
2:  Nigeria.  30,000  technicians  and  clerks 
employed  by  the  United  Africa  company 
started  a  strike. 

Western  Union.  The  ninth  session  of 
the  consultative  council  was  held  at 
The  Hague. 

3 :  Great  Britain.  Details  were  announced 
of  the  government's  defence  plan.  It  was 
estimated  that  £3,400  million  would  be 
spent  in  three  years,  but  this  would 
depend  on  the  amount  of  U.S.  aid. 

Council  of  Europe.  The  committee  of 
ministers  met  at  Strasbourg  for  their 
fifth  session. 

Pakistan.  The  government  accepted 
Persia's  offer  to  mediate  in  the  dispute 
with  Afghanistan. 

United  Nations.  The  U.S.  proposal  that 
the  Korean  situation  should  be  the  only 
item  on  the  Security  council  agenda  was 
approved  by  8  votes  to  1 .  On  a  proposal 
to  discuss  the  question  of  Chinese 
representation  the  voting  was  5-5. 
4:  Great  Britain.  Raymond  Blackburn, 
Labour  M.P.  for  Northfield,  Birmingham, 
resigned  from  the  Labour  party. 

Venezuela.  A  severe  earthquake  shook 
El  Tocuyo,  200  mi.  west  of  Caracas. 
More  than  100  deaths  were  reported. 
6:  France.  The  government  handed  its 
memorandum  on  defence  to  the  U.S. 
ambassador.  It  estimated  an  expenditure 
in  three  years  of  about  £2,000  million. 


10 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


7:  Colombia.  Laureano  G6mez  was 
sworn  in  as  48th  president  of  Colombia. 

Council  of  Europe.  Paul-Henri  Spaak 
was  re-elected  president  of  the  consulta- 
tive assembly  by  90  votes  to  23.  The  four 
vice-presidents  elected  were:  Lord  Lay  ton 
(Great  Britain),  F.  de  Menthon  (France), 
S.  Jocini  (Italy)  and  A.  Gjores  (Sweden). 
The  Saar  and  Western  Germany  took 
their  seats  in  the  assembly. 

Korea.  U.S.  troops  launched  an  attack 
east  of  Chinju. 

8:  Belgium.  Jean  Duvieusart,  prime 
minister,  announced  that  the  government 
intended  to  propose  an  increase  in 
defence  expenditure  of  Fr.  5,000  million. 

Indonesia.  The  Ministry  of  Defence 
announced  that  a  cease-fire  had  been 
achieved  in  the  fighting  in  Macassar. 

Swimming.  Florence  Chad  wick  (U.S.) 
completed  her  crossing  of  the  English 
channel  in  13  hr.  23  min.— 1  hr.  11  min. 
faster  than  the  previous  fastest  time  by  a 
woman. 

9:  Belgium.  The  Chamber  of  Representa- 
tives passed  the  bill  transferring  the  royal 
prerogatives  to  Prince  Baudouin  by 
165  votes  to  27. 

Denmark.  Hans  Hedtoft,  prime  minis- 
ter, announced  that  he  would  ask  the 
king  to  dissolve  parliament.  The  lower 
house  passed  a  bill  authorizing  an 
additional  expenditure  of  Kr.  350  million 
for  defence  over  the  next  two  years. 

Korea.  U.S.  forces  continued  to  drive 
North  Korean  forces  back  across  the 
Naktong  river. 

10:  Belgium.  The  Senate  approved  the  bill 
to  transfer  the  royal  powers  by  121  votes 
to  22. 

Korea.  United  States  forces  continued 
their  advance  towards  Chinju.  The  North 
Koreans  occupied  Pohang. 

United  Nations.  The  eleven  members 
of  the  Security  council  met  informally 
to  discuss  the  Soviet  obstruction  in  the 
council,  but  no  agreement  was  reached. 

11:  Great  Britain.  The  prime  minister 
announced  that  parliament  would  be 
recalled  on  Sept.  12. 

Belgium.  Prince  Baudouin  was  sworn 
in  as  prince  royal.  Jean  Duvieusart, 
prime  minister,  submitted  the  resignation 
of  his  government. 

Council  of  Europe.  A  resolution 
introduced  by  Winston  Churchill  calling 
for  the  creation  of  a  European  army  was 
carried  by  89  votes  to  5,  with  27  absten- 
tions. 

12:  Korea.  Two  British  correspondents, 
Ian  Morrison,  The  Times,  and  Christopher 
Buckley,  Daily  Telegraph,  were  killed. 

Nigeria.  23  people  were  killed  in  inter- 
tribal rioting  in  eastern  Nigeria. 

13:  Australia.  Robert  Menzies,  prime 
minister,  arrived  in  Tokyo. 

Belgium.  Paul  Van  Zeeland  accepted 
the  prince  royal's  invitation  to  try  to 
form  a  government. 

14:  Belgium.  Princess  de  Rethy,  wife  of 
King  Leopold,  returned  to  Belgium  after 
an  exile  of  six  years. 

Indonesia.  The  House  of  Assembly 
approved  a  provisional  unitary  constitu- 
tion by  90  votes  to  18. 

United  Nations.  In  the  Security  council 
the  Indian  delegate  proposed  the  setting 
up  of  a  commission  of  the  six  non- 
permanent  members  to  prepare  plans  for 
the  future  of  Korea. 

15:  Great  Britain.  Princess  Elizabeth 
gave  birth  to  a  daughter  at  Clarence 
House.  London  at  11  SO  a  m 


Arab  League.  The  political  committee 
of  the  league  met  in  Alexandria. 

Belgium.  A  new  Social  Christian 
government  was  formed.  Joseph  Pholien 
became  prime  minister;  Paul  van  Zeeland 
remained  foreign  minister. 

India.  Severe  earth  tremors  rocked 
parts  of  eastern  India.  Most  damage 
was  done  in  Upper  Assam. 

Korea.  North  Korea  forces  occupied 
Kosung. 

16:  Great  Britain.  The  prime  minister 
met  Winston  Churchill  and  Clement 
Davies  who  had  asked  for  an  earlier 
recall  of  parliament.  Mr.  Attlee  was 
unable  to  meet  their  request. 

Burma.  The  government  announced 
that  its  forces  had  liberated  the  entire 
Henzada  district  in  western  Burma. 

Cricket.  West  Indies  beat  England 
by  an  innings  and  56  runs  in  the  fourth 
and  last  test  match  at  the  Oval.  West 
Indies  thus  won  the  rubber  by  three 
matches  to  one. 

17:  Belgium.  The  Chamber  of  Representa- 
tives passed  a  vote  of  confidence  in  the 
government  of  J.  Pholien  by  107  votes 
to  78. 

China.  Chinese  batteries  mounted  on 
Taitami  and  Puntin  islands  opened  fire 
on  H.M.S.  "Concord."  The  ship  was 
not  damaged  but  there  was  one  minor 
casualty. 

Greece.  The  nine  Liberal  ministers 
tendered  their  resignations. 

Indonesia.  On  the  fifth  anniversary  of 
the  declaration  of  the  republic  Indonesia 
was  declared  a  unitary  state.  President 
Sukarno  in  a  speech  in  Jakarta  re- 
affirmed the  Indonesian  claim  to  Irian 
(Dutch  New  Guinea).  The  government 
formally  resigned. 

Korea.  The  North  Koreans  launched  a 
big  offensive  east  of  the  Naktong  river. 

18:  Belgium.  Julien  Lahaut,  leader  of  the 
Communist  party,  was  shot  dead  in  his 
home  at  Seraing. 

The  Senate,  by  82  votes  to  61,  passed 
a  motion  of  confidence  in  the  government. 

Council  of  Europe.  The  consultative 
assembly  adopted  a  series  of  resolutions 
to  reinforce  the  council  and  also  its  own 
authority. 

Greece.  The  cabinet  resigned. 
Sophocles  Venizelos,  Liberal,  was  asked 
to  form  a  new  government. 

19:  Korea.  The  government  of  Syngman 
Rhee  left  Taegu  for  Pusan. 

New  Zealand.  The  Legislative  Council 
Abolition  bill  passed  through  its  final 
stages. 

20:  Great  Britain.  The  War  Office 
announced  that  an  infantry  force  was 
being  sent  immediately  from  Hong  Kong 
to  Korea. 

21:  Great  Britain.  The  Labour  party 
issued  a  statement  of  policy  entitled 
Labour  and  the  New  Society.  It  proposed 
a  world  plan  for  mutual  assistance  to 
succeed  the  European  Recovery  pro- 
gramme in  1952. 

Bechuanaland.  Seretse  Khama,  exiled 
chief-designate  of  the  Bamangwato, 
arrived  in  London,  with  his  wife  and 
daughter. 

Greece.  A  partial  cabinet  of  members 
of  the  Liberal  party  was  sworn  in  under 
Sophocles  Venizelos  as  prime  minister. 

United  States.  The  Senate,  by  84  votes 
to  3,  passed  the  Economic  Controls  bill. 

22:  Canada.  A  national  railway  strike 
began.  Louis  St.  Laurent,  prime  minister, 
announced  the  recall  of  parliament. 


France.  The  government  decided  to 
send  a  battalion  of  troops  to  Korea. 

Internationa)  Bank.   It  was  announced 
that  the  bank  would  make  a  loan  of 
$100  million  to  Australia. 
>    North  Atlantic  Treaty.   The  council  of 
deputies  opened  its  second  session. 

Southeast  Asia.  A  conference  of 
governors  of  British  territories  opened  in 
Bukit  Serene,  Malaya. 

Swimming.  24  swimmers  left  Cap  Griz 
Nez  in  the  Daily  Mail  international  cross- 
channel  swimming  race.  9  of  them,  7 
men  and  2  women,  completed  the 
crossing. 

23:  Kashmir.  The  U.N.  mediator,  Sir 
Owen  Dixon,  left  Karachi  for  London 
and  Lake  Success  to  report  the  failure 
of  his  mission.  Liaquat  Ali  Khan  said 
the  responsibility  for  the  failure  M  lies 
squarely  on  the  shoulders  of  India." 

Netherlands.  It  was  announced  that 
2,000  infantrymen  would  be  sent  to 
Korea. 

United  States.  Two  trade  unions  called 
for  a  nation-wide  rail  strike  to  start  on 
Aug.  28. 

24:  China.  Chou  En-lai,  foreign  minister, 
cabled  to  the  U.N.  Security  council 
asking  for  action  to  be  taken  against 
4i  U.S.  armed  aggression  in  Formosa.*' 

Kashmir.  Jawaharlal  Nehru,  in  a  state- 
ment in  New  Delhi  said  "  I  put  the  blame 
100%  on  Pakistan  for  the  whole  Kashmir 
trouble." 

25:  Council  of  Europe.  The  consultative 
assembly  adopted  the  report  of  its  legal 
administrative  committee  expressing  gen- 
eral approval  of  the  draft  European 
convention  on  human  rights. 

Hong  Kong.  British  troops  left  Hong 
Kong  for  service  in  Korea. 

Norway.  The  government  announced 
that  defence  expenditure  would  be 
increased  by  £12-5  million  over  the 
next  2i  years. 

Pakistan.  Liaquat  Ali  Khan  announced 
a  gift  of  400  tons  of  rice  to  the  victims  of 
the  Assam  earthquake  in  India. 

United  States.  A  proposed  rail  strike 
was  called  off  after  President  Truman 
ordered  the  taking  over  of  the  nation's 
railways. 

26:  Bulgaria.  Two  former  Communist 
ministers,  Bonu  Petrovski  and  Lubomir 
Kayrakov,  were  sentenced  to  life 
imprisonment  for  "  passing  economic 
information  to  the  west." 

Council  of  Europe.  By  73  votes  to  0 
with  32  abstentions,  the  assembly 
approved  the  proposals  of  the  economic 
committee  on  the  links  between  the  coal 
and  steel  pool  and  the  Council  of  Europe. 

Lawn  Tennis.    Australia  beat  the  U.S. 
in  the  Davis  Cup  contest.    The  cup  was 
won  from  Australia  by  the  U.S.  in  1946. 
27:  China.    U.S.  planes  crossed  the  boun- 
dary  between   Korea  and   China  and 
raided  Antung  airfield  causing  casualties. 
28:  Council  of  Europe.     The  consultative 
assembly  adjourned  its  second  session. 

Greece,  The  government  was  enlarged 
by  the  inclusion  of  members  of  the 
Democratic  Socialist  party. 

Israel.  The  Haifa  refineries  resumed 
operations  for  the  first  time  for  over  two 
years. 

Peru.  General  Manuel  A.  Odrla  was 
installed  as  president. 

United  States.  President  Truman 
reaffirmed  his  government's  policy  on 
Formosa  after  directing  (on  Aug.  26) 
General  MacArthur  to  withdraw  a  state- 
ment \vhich  related  Formosa  to  the  U.S. 
defence  position  in  the  Pacific. 


DIARY   OF  EVENTS,   1950 


11 


29:  Great  Britain- Yemen.  Discussions 
began  at  the  Foreign  Office  on  frontier 
and  diplomatic  matters  affecting  Great 
Britain,  Yemen  and  Aden  protectorate. 

Argentina.  The  peso  was  devalued  from 
9-4  to  14  to  the  pound. 

China.  A  U.S.  aircraft  shot  at  Chinese 
boats  on  the  Chinese  bank  of  the  Yalu 
river  killing  10  and  injuring  23. 

Korea.  British  troops,  the  first  United 
Nations  troops  to  be  sent  to  aid  the 
United  States  forces,  landed  in  Korea. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council, 
by  7  votes  to  2  with  1  abstention,  decided 
to  place  the  question  of  Formosa  on  the 
agenda. 

30:  Great  Britain.  Clement  Attlee,  in  a 
broadcast,  announced  increased  pay  for 
servicemen  and  an  increase  to  2  yr.  in  the 
period  of  national  service. 

The  1 12th  annual  meeting  of  the  British 
Association  for  the  Advancement  of 
Science  opened  in  Birmingham  under  the 
presidency  of  Sir  Harold  Hartley. 

Canada.  A  bill  to  end  the  Canadian 
railway  strike  was  given  a  third  reading 
in  the  House  of  Commons.  The  strike 
ended  the  same  evening. 

South- West  Africa.  Voting  took  place 
for  six  members  to  sit  in  the  Union  House 
of  Assembly,  and  for  18  members  in  the 
South-West  African  Legislative  Assembly. 
Dr.  Malan's  Nationalist  party  won  the  6 
seats  in  the  Union  House  of  Assembly 
and  15  of  the  seats  in  the  South- West 
Africa  Legislative  Assembly. 

United  States.  Dean  Acheson  reaffirmed 
that  the  U.S.  had  no  agressive  intentions 
towards  Communist  China  in  Formosa 
or  elsewhere. 

31:  Great  Britain.  The  Foreign  Office 
announced  that  British  Ally,  the  Russian- 
language  newspaper  published  in  Mos- 
cow, would  close  down. 

India.  Police  opened  fire  on  demon- 
strators in  Bombay  killing  5  and  wound- 
ing 41. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
decided  to  add  to  its  agenda  the  question 
of  a  complaint  by  China  that  a  U.S. 
plane  caused  damage  in  China  near  the 
Korean  border. 

Aviation.  55  persons  were  killed  when 
an  American  Trans- World  Airlines  Con- 
stellation crashed  in  Egypt. 


SEPTEMBER 

1 :  Korea.  The  North  Koreans  launched 
an  offensive  on  a  50-mi.  front  against 
U.S.  troops.  They  gained  much  ground 
east  of  Naktong  while  the  Americans 
regained  Haman  in  the  south. 

Scandinavia.  A  meeting  of  the  foreign 
ministers  of  Denmark,  Iceland,  Norway 
and  Sweden  ended  in  Reykjavik.  The 
ministers  discussed  the  agenda  for  the 
U.N.  general  assembly. 

2:  Belgium.  The  government  announced 
that  a  bill  extending  military  service 
from  one  to  two  years  would  be  laid 
before  parliament. 

France.  R.  Pleven,  prime  minister, 
announced  that  the  period  of  military 
service  would  be  increased. 

India.  Purshottamdas  Tandon  was 
elected  president  of  the  Indian  national 
congress. 

3.  Israel.  A  conference  opened  in 
Jerusalem  between  cabinet  ministers  and 
Jewish  leaders  from  the  United  States, 
Great  Britain  and  South  Africa  to 
prepare  a  long-term  plan  for  maintaining 
the  existing  rate  of  immigration. 


4:  Greece.  The  E.P.E.K.  party  decided 
not  to  join  the  government  of  S.  Veniz- 
elos.  The  cabinet  was  completed  by  the 
inclusion  of  more  Liberal  and  Demo- 
cratic Socialist  ministers. 

Korea.  The  U.N.  forces  shot  down  a 
plane  "  bearing  a  red  star/'  The  body 
of  a  Russian  was  discovered. 

Persia.  Fighting  broke  out  between 
Kurdish  tribesmen  and  government  forces 
near  the  Iraqi  frontier. 

5 :  Commonwealth.  It  was  announced  that 
the  King  and  Queen  would  visit  Australia 
and  New  Zealand  in  1952. 

Denmark.  A  general  election  was  held 
for  the  lower  house.  Hans  Hedtoft's 
Social  Democrat  party  obtained  59 
seats  as  against  57  in  the  old  house. 

Korea.  The  North  Koreans  captured 
Pohang. 

Syria.  Hashem  Bey  Atassi  was  elected 
president. 

Tibet,  A  Tibetan  mission  arrived  in 
New  Delhi  for  talks  with  the  Chinese 
ambassador. 

Western  Union.  The  five  defence 
ministers  held  their  eighth  meeting. 

6:  International    Monetary    Fund.       The 

annual  session  of  the  fund  and  of  the 
International  Bank  for  Reconstruction 
and  Development  opened  in  Paris. 

Korea.  The  North  Koreans  continued 
their  pressure  against  the  U.N.  troops 
on  the  northern  front. 

United  Nations.  Y.  Malik,  the  Soviet 
delegate  to  the  Security  council,  explained 
that  the  Soviet  plane  shot  down  off  Korea 
was  unarmed  on  a  training  flight  from 
Port  Arthur.  A  U.S.  resolution  seeking 
to  isolate  the  Korean  war  was  vetoed 
by  the  Soviet  delegate. 

7:  Great  Britain.  The  Trades  Union 
congress  voted  in  favour  of  abandoning 
the  policy  of  wage  restraint  and  in  favour 
of  equal  pay  for  women. 

France.  The  minister  of  the  interior 
declared  illegal  the  Spanish  Communist 
party  (whose  headquarters  were  in 
France)  and  the  Unified  Socialist  Party 
of  Catalonia  (Pyrenean  France). 

Syria.  Nazim  el  Kudsi  formed  the  first 
constitutional  cabinet  in  Syria  since  the 
coup  d'etat  of  Husni  ez  Zaim  in  March, 
1949. 

Western  Germany.  Hans  Ehard  was 
elected  president  of  the  Bundesrat  in 
succession  to  K.  Arnold. 

9:  Canada.  The  minister  of  national 
defence  announced  that  the  Canadian 
regular  forces  had  been  placed  on  active 
service. 

Greece.  The  government  led  by 
S.  Venizelos  was  defeated  on  a  vote  of 
confidence  by  124  votes  to  106.  Venizelos 
resigned  and  recommended  a  general 
election.  The  king  called  on  C.  Tsaldaris, 
Populist,  to  form  a  government. 

10:  Great  Britain.  116  of  129  miners 
trapped  in  a  mine  at  New  Cumnock, 
Ayrshire,  were  brought  safely  to  the 
surface. 

South  Africa.  An  exchange  of  notes 
between  South  Africa  and  Great  Britain 
confirming  the  transfer  of  Prince  Edward 
and  Marion  islands  to  South  Africa  was 
published. 

1 1 :  Greece.  The  king  called  on  K.  Tsald- 
aris, S.  Venizelos  and  G.  Papandreou 
to  collaborate  in  order  to  give  Greece  a 
strong  government.  Venizelos  became 
prime  minister,  the  other  leading  parties 
agreeing  to  serve  in  the  government. 

Iraq.  The  government  led  by  Tewfik 
el  Suwaidi  resigned. 


Malta.  The  final  results  in  the  general 
election  were  announced.  The  Nationalist 
party  obtained  12  seats,  the  Malta 
Labour  party  11,  Dr.  P.  Sofia's  Labour 
group  1 1  and  others  6. 

South  Africa.  Field  Marshal  Jan 
Christiaan  Smuts  died  at  his  home  near 
Pretoria. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
rejected  a  proposal  to  invite  Chinese 
Communists  to  attend  the  debate  on 
charges  that  U.S.  planes  had  violated 
Chinese  territory.  The  voting  was  6  votes 
to  3  in  favour  with  2  abstentions,  but 
7  votes  were  necessary  for  a  resolution 
to  be  carried. 

12:  Great  Britain.  Parliament  reassembled 
for  an  emergency  session.  Clement 
Attlee  opened  a  debate  on  defence  in  the 
House  of  Commons.  The  Conservatives 
supported  the  government. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
approved  the  annual  report  by  10  votes 
to  0.  The  Soviet  delegate  abstained. 

United  States.     The  foreign  ministers 

of  the  U.S.,  Great  Britain  and  France 

opened  a  three-day  session  in  New  York. 

13:  Greece.      A    three-party   government 

under  S.  Venizelos  was  sworn  in. 

Denmark.  King  Frederik  asked  the 
outgoing  prime  minister,  Hans  Hedtoft, 
Socialist,  to  form  a  government. 

United  Nations.  A  U.S.  proposal  that  a 
committee  of  inquiry  should  be  sent  to 
China  to  investigate  charges  of  U.S. 
violation  of  the  border  was  vetoed  by 
the  Soviet  representative. 
14:  Great  Britain.  The  government 
announced  its  intention  of  carrying  out 
the  Iron  and  Steel  act  at  the  earliest 
opportunity. 

Foreign  Ministers  Conference.  The 
conference  in  New  York  of  the  foreign 
ministers  of  Great  Britain,  France  and  the 
United  States  was  adjourned.  The 
ministers  agreed  that  "  immediate  effec- 
tive steps  must  be  taken  ...  to  strengthen 
the  defence  of  the  free  world,  both  in 
Europe  and  Asia." 

15:  Great  Britain.  The  National  Service 
bill,  extending  national  service  to  2  years 
was  passed  by  the  House  of  Commons. 

Greece.  The  new  government  led  by 
S.  Venizelos  received  a  vote  of  confidence 
with  a  majority  of  110. 

Korea.  United  Nations  forces  made  a 
number  of  landings.  The  U.S.  10th  Army 
corps  and  elements  of  the  1st  Marine 
division  landed  at  Inchon,  the  port  for 
Seoul. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  fifth  session 
of  the  council  opened  in  New  York  under 
the  chairmanship  of  Dean  Acheson. 
16:  Iraq.    General  Nuri  cs  Said  formed  a 

new  government. 

17:  Bahamas.  Sir  George  Sandford, 
governor  from  Feb.  1 950,  died  at  Govern- 
ment house,  Nassau. 

Korea.  United  Nations  forces  captured 
Kimpo  airfield,  15  mi.  northwest  of  Seoul. 

Malta.  Paul  Boffa,  prime  minister, 
resigned,  and  E.  Mizzi,  leader  of  the 
Nationalist  party,  was  asked  to  form  a 
government. 

18:  India.  The  government  granted  de  jure 
recognition  to  Israel. 

Indo-China.  Vietminh  forces  captured 
the  French  military  outpost  of  Dong-khe. 

Korea.  United  Nations  forces  crossed 
the  Han  river  and  reached  a  point  within 
7  mi.  of  Seoul. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  council 
"  warmly  welcomed "  the  proposal  to 
create  an  integrated  military  force  ade- 
quate enough  to  defend  turope. 


12 


DIARY  OF   EVENTS,   1950 


Trinidad.  The  first  general  elections 
were  held  in  the  colony.  The  Home  Rule 
party  fed  by  Uriah  Butler  and  the 
Independents  each  obtained  six  of  the 
18  seats. 

19:  Great  Britain.  The  House  of  Commons 
approved  the  government's  proposal  to 
take  over  the  iron  and  steel  industry  by 
306  votes  to  300. 

Commonwealth.  Commonwealth  minis- 
ters met  in  London  to  discuss  economic 
and  trade  questions. 

Foreign  Ministers  Conference.  The 
ministers  concluded  their  conference  in 
New  York  and  agreed  to  end  the  state  of 
war  with  Germany,  to  reinforce  their 
troops  in  Germany,  to  treat  an  attack  on 
Berlin  or  Western  Germany  as  an  attack 
upon  themselves  and  to  give  greater 
powers  to  the  West  German  government 
including  the  setting  up  of  a  foreign 
ministry. 

Korea.  Troops  of  the  U.S.  24th 
division  crossed  the  Naktong  river  4  mi. 
south  of  Waegwan. 

O.E.E.C.  The  agreement  setting  up  a 
European  Payments  union  within  the 
framework  of  the  O.E.E.C.  was  signed 
in  Paris. 

United  Nations.  The  fifth  session  of  the 
general  assembly  opened  at  Flushing 
Meadow.  The  question  of  Chinese 
representation  was  referred  to  a  com- 
mittee. 

20:  Korea.  United  Nations  troops  cut  the 
road  to  Pyongyang. 

New  Zealand.  A  state  of  emergency 
was  declared  because  of  a  dock  strike 
which  had  started  on  Sept.  15. 

Norway.  The  parliament  unanimously 
approved  proposals  for  spending  an 
additional  £12-5  million  on  defence. 

South  Africa.  E.  G.  Jansen,  minister 
of  Native  affairs,  was  appointed  governor 
general  designate  to  succeed  G.  B.  van 
Zyl. 

United  Nations.  In  the  general  assembly 
Dean  Acheson  (U.S.)  submitted  a  plan 
for  a  world  security  force  and  for  greater 
powers  for  the  assembly. 

21:  Great  Britain.  C.  R.  Attlee  flew  to 
Balmoral  for  an  audience  with  the  King. 
Indonesia.  The  government  decided 
to  give  Irian  (Dutch  New  Guinea)  direct 
representation  in  the  Indonesian  parlia- 
ment. 

22:  Foreign   Ministers   Conference.      The 

foreign  ministers  of  Great  Britain,  France 
and  the  U.S.  again  met  in  New  York. 
The  three  defence  ministers  were  also 
present. 

New  Zealand.  Dockers  at  all  New 
Zealand  ports  returned  to  work. 

Nobel  Prize.  The  Nobel  prize  com- 
mittee of  the  Norwegian  Storting  decided 
to  award  the  Peace  prize  to  Ralph  Bunche, 
former  U.N.  acting  mediator  in  Palestine. 

United  States.  President  Truman 
vetoed  the  Communist  Control  bill. 
The  House  of  Representatives  over-rode 
the  veto. 

23:  Korea.  U.S.  aircraft  accidentally 
attacked  men  of  the  Argyll  and  Suther- 
land Highlanders. 

United  States.  The  Senate  over-rode 
the  President's  veto  on  the  Communist 
Control  bill,  which  thus  became  law. 

24:  Indo-China.  French  forces  recaptured 
Chucphaithan,  a  frontier  post  west  of 
Moncay. 

25:  Great  Britain.  Lord  Trefgarne  resigned 
as  chairman  yf  the  Colonial  Develop- 
ment corporation. 


Commonwealth  Conference.  A  confer- 
ence on  economic  development  of  south 
and  southeast  Asia  opened  in  London. 

Korea.  United  Nations  troops  cap- 
tured Osan  and  Chochiwon,  thus  reducing 
the  gap  between  the  U.N.  northern  and 
southern  armies  to  25  mi. 

Spain-Portugal.  Dr.  O.  Salazar  arrived 
at  Vigo  for  talks  with  General  Franco. 

United  Nations.  Ernest  Bevin,  in  a 
speech  to  the  general  assembly,  pledged 
British  support  for  the  U.S.  4t  peace 
force  "  plan  outlined  by  Dean  Acheson 
on  Sept.  20. 

United  States.  Paul  Hoffman  resigned 
as  head  of  the  E.C.A.  and  was  succeeded 
by  his  deputy,  William  Foster. 
26:  Great  Britain.  80  miners  died  and  19 
escaped  in  a  fire  at  Creswell  colliery,  near 
Worksop,  Derbyshire. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  The 
court  began  public  hearings  of  a  dispute 
between  Peru  and  Colombia. 

Korea.  United  Nations  troops  occupied 
Seoul.  Troops  of  the  U.N.  northern  and 
southern  armies  met  south  of  Seoul. 

Malta.  E.  Mizzi,  leader  of  the  Nation- 
alist party,  formed  a  minority  govern- 
ment. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  council 
announced  a  plan  for  setting  up  an 
integrated  defence  force  for  Europe  under 
a  supreme  commander. 

United  States  The  resignation  of  Lewis 
Douglas  as  ambassador  in  London  was 
announced. 

27:  r;reat  Britain.  Labour  retained  its 
seat  in  a  by-election  at  North-East 
Leicester. 

United  States.  Walter  Sherman  Giffotd 
was  nominated  ambassador  to  Great 
Britain. 

28:  Spain-Portugal.  It  was  announced 
that  discussions  on  international  affairs 
had  taken  place  in  Spain  and  Portugal 
between  General  Franco  and  Dr.  Salazar. 

Trade  Conference.  International  talks 
on  tariffs  and  trade  opened  in  Torquay. 

United  Nations.  Indonesia  was  admit- 
ted as  the  60th  member. 
29:  Korea.  South  Korean  forces  reached 
the  38th  parallel:  General  MacArthur 
formally  handed  over  control  of  Seoul  to 
Syngman  Rhee. 

^Sweden.  The  village  of  Surte,  near 
Gothenburg,  was  wrecked  when  its  clay 
foundations  slid  into  the  river  valley. 
The  Gota  river,  railway  lines  and  roads 
were  blocked. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
decided  to  invite  the  Chinese  Communist 
government  to  be  represented  during  its 
discussion  on  Formosa.  Brazil  and  the 
Netherlands  were  elected  to  the  Security 
council.  After  12  ballots  neither  Turkey 
nor  Lebanon  secured  a  two-thirds  maj- 
ority for  the  third  seat.  Great  Britain, 
U.S.S.R.,  Uruguay,  Philippines,  Poland 
and  Sweden  were  elected  to  the  Economic 
and  Social  council.  Dominica  and  Thai- 
lancj  were  elected  to  the  Trusteeship 
council. 

30:  Canada.  Douglas  Abbott,  minister  of 
finance,  announced  the  freeing  of  the 
Canadian  dollar. 

India.  At  a  press  conference  in  New 
Delhi,  Jawaharlal  Nehru  said  it  would  be 
wrong  for  United  Nations  forces  to 
invade  North  Korea. 


OCTOBER 

1 :  Korea.  General  MacArthur  called  on 
the  North  Koreans  to  surrender.  South 
Korean  forces  crossed  into  North  Korea. 


Vietnam.  French  and  Vietnam  force* 
entered  the  town  of  Thai-Nguyen,  th< 
military  capital  of  the  Vietminh  forces. 

2:  Great  Britain.  The  49th  annual  con- 
ference of  the  Labour  party  opened  al 
Margate  under  the  chairmanship  of  Sam 
Watson. 

Indonesia.  An  offensive  was  launched 
by  Indonesian  troops  against  Amboina 
island,  centre  of  the  South  Moluccas 
republic.  This  was  the  only  state  still 
resisting  incorporation  into  Indonesia. 

Korea.  South  Korean  forces  occupied 
Yangyang,  north  of  the  38th  parallel. 

United  Nations.  A.  Vyshinsky  put 
forward  proposals  for  Korea  to  the 
political  committee.  His  draft  resolutions 
named  the  United  States  as  the  aggressor, 
and  called  for  the  withdrawal  of  the  U.S. 
forces  and  the  disbandment  of  the  existing 
U.N.  commission. 

3:  Great  Britain.  The  Treasury  announced 
that  the  gold  and  dollar  reserves  of  the 
sterling  area  on  Sept.  30,  1950,  were 
£2,756  million  compared  with  £1,340 
million  at  the  time  of  devaluation  of 
sterling,  Sept.  18,  1949. 

Brazil.  Getulio  Vargas  was  elected 
president  to  succeed  Eurico  Dutra. 

Islamic  Conference.  Ghulam  Moham- 
med, Pakistan  finance  minister,  in  his 
presidential  address  to  the  second  Islamic 
Economic  conference  at  Tehran,  called 
for  some  integration  of  Moslem  countries 
on  an  economic  basis. 

4:  Commonwealth  Conference.  The  meet- 
ings on  aid  to  Asia  ended  in  London. 

Pakistan.  The  Ministry  of  Defence 
announced  that  Afghan  tribesmen  and 
troops  had  crossed  into  Pakistan  and 
were  being  driven  back. 

5:  Israel.  The  cabinet  conferred  on  the 
prime  minister,  David  Ben-Gurion,  the 
special  powers  formerly  held  by  the 
British  high  commissioner,  enabling  him 
to  conduct  an  intensive  war  against  the 
black  market. 

7:  Tibet.  Chinese  forces  invaded  Tibet. 
(This  action  was  not  made  public  until 
the  end  of  October). 

United  Nations.  The  general  assembly 
approved,  by  47  votes  to  5  with  8 
abstentions,  an  eight-power  resolution 
for  the  unification  and  rehabilitation  of  a 
peaceful  and  democratic  Korea. 

8:  Great  Britain.  Hugh  Gaitskell,  minister 
of  state  for  economic  affairs,  arrived  in 
New  York. 

Korea.  U.S.  forces  crossed  the  38th 
parallel  and  South  Korean  troops 
occupied  Wonsan. 

Morocco.  The  sultan  of  Morocco 
arrived  at  Bordeaux  on  a  state  visist  to 
France. 

Pakistan.  Jogendra  Nath  Mandal, 
Hindu  minister  of  law,  resigned. 

9:  Great  Britain.  The  minister  of  supply 
appointed  Feb.  15,  1951,  as  the  general 
date  of  transfer  of  the  iron  and  steel 
industry. 

Denmark.  Winston  Churchill  arrived 
in  Copenhagen  as  the  guest  of  the  Danish 
government. 

Western  Germany.  Gustav  Heinemann, 
minister  of  the  interior,  resigned. 

10:  Canada-United  States.  The  Niagara 
waters  treaty  became  operative  after 
the  deposit  of  ratification  documents. 

Denmark.  Winston  Churchill  was  awar- 
ded the  degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy 
and  arts  by  Copenhagen  university. 

Morocco.  The  sultan  of  Morocco 
arrived  in  Paris. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,   1950 


13 


11:  Korea.  British  and  Commonwealth 
forces  advanced  across  the  38th  parallel. 

Medicine.  The  minister  of  health 
announced  the  setting  up  of  a  committee 
to  investigate  the  claims  of  David  Rees 
Evans  to  have  discovered  a  treatment  for 
cancer. 

12:  Great  Britain- Yemen.  Negotiations 
which  opened  on  Aug.  29  ended.  Among 
the  subjects  discussed  was  the  setting  up 
of  diplomatic  relations  between  the  two 
countries. 

Jordan.  King  Abdullah  accepted  the 
resignation  of  his  cabinet  and  asked 
Said  Pasha  el  Mufti  to  form  a  new 
government. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
notified  the  president  of  the  general 
assembly  that  it  had  been  unable  to  agree 
on  a  recommendation  regarding  the 
appointment  of  a  secretary  general. 

13:  United  States.  President  Truman 
arrived  at  Honolulu  on  his  way  to  a 
meeting  with  General  Douglas  Mac- 
Arthur. 

14:  Indonesia.    Mohammed  Hatta,  former 
prime  minister,  was  elected  vice-president. 
Jordan.     A  new  cabinet  was  formed 
under  Said  Pasfca  el  Mufti. 

United  States.  President  Truman  and 
General  MacArthur  held  a  three-hour 
meeting  on  Wake  island.  They  discussed 
Korea  and  other  far  eastern  matters. 

15:  Eastern  Germany.  Elections  were  held 
for  both  houses  of  parliament.  98-44% 
of  the  electorate  voted. 

Israel.  The  cabinet  resigned  after 
members  of  the  Religious  bloc  had 
notified  the  prime  minister,  David  Ben- 
Gurion,  that  they  were  unwilling  to 
accept  his  proposed  cabinet  changes. 

16:  Australia.  The  executive  of  the  Labour 
party  decided  to  withdraw  its  opposition 
to  the  government's  Communist  Party 
Dissolution  bill. 

Israel.  David  Ben-Gurion  proposed 
the  formation  of  a  caretaker  cabinet  until 
a  general  election. 

Malta.  The  second  parliament  elected 
under  the  1947  constitution  was  opened. 

Western  Germany.  Erich  Kohler 
resigned  as  president  of  the  Bundestag. 

17:  Great  Britain.  The  judicial  committee 
of  the  Privy  Council  reported  that  in 
their  opinion  the  Rev.  J.  G.  MacManaway 
was  disabled  from  sitting  in  the  House  of 
Commons  because  he  was  a  priest  of  the 
Church  of  Ireland. 

18:  Indo- China.  Vietminh  troops  entered 
the  border  town  of  Langson. 

Israel.  The  Knesset  rejected  David 
Ben-Gurion's  proposals  for  a  caretaker 
government. 

Scotland.  The  Queen  opened  the  Loch 
Sloy  scheme,  the  first  of  the  major 
projects  of  the  North  of  Scotland  Hydro- 
Electric  board  to  come  into  operation. 
19:  Great  Britain.  Sir  Stafford  Cripps 
resigned  as  chancellor  of  the  exchequer 
for  reasons  of  health.  Hugh  Gaitskell, 
minister  of  state  for  economic  affairs, 
was  appointed  to  succeed  him. 

The  House  of  Commons  declared 
vacant  the  Rev.  MacManaway's  seat  at 
West  Belfast. 

Israel.  President  Weizmann  asked 
P.  Rosen,  leader  of  the  Progressive  party, 
to  try  to  form  a  government. 

Korea.  United  Nations  forces  captured 
Pyongyang,  capital  of  North  Korea. 

Tibet.  Chinese  troops  occupied  Chang- 
tu  (Chamdo),  northeast  of  Lhasa. 
20:  Australia.       The    Communist    Party 
Dissolution  bill  received  the  royal  assent. 


21:  Great  Britain.  Princess  Elizabeth's 
second  child,  Princess  Anne  Elizabeth 
Alice  Louise,  was  christened  by  the 
archbishop  of  York  at  Buckingham 
palace. 

Germany.  A  statement  was  issued  at 
the  end  of  a  two-day  conference  in 
Prague  attended  by  V.  Molotov  and  the 
foreign  ministers  of  the  eastern  European 
countries  and  Eastern  Germany.  The 
conference  proposed  a  four-power  dec- 
laration against  the  remilitarization  of 
Germany,  and  a  peace  treaty  with 
Germany. 

Jordan.  King  Abdullah  arrived  in 
Baghdad. 

22:  Indo-China.  French  forces  withdrew 
from  Loc  Binh,  a  frontier  post,  and 
evacuated  Langson. 

Tibet.  Chinese  forces  occupied  Lhad- 
zong,  250  mi.  northeast  of  Lhasa. 

23:  Arab  League.  The  13th  regular  meeting 
of  the  council  was  held  in  Cairo.  It 
lasted  20  min. 

24:  Great  Britain.  The  House  of  Commons 
approved  an  address  to  the  King  for 
making  arrangements  for  the  building 
of  the  new  chamber  and  thanked  the 
Lords  for  the  hospitality  of  their  chamber 
for  nearly  ten  years. 

Australia.  Eric  Harrison,  minister 
resident  in  London,  was  sworn  in  as 
Australian  minister  of  the  interior  in 
London  by  the  lord  chancellor. 

France.  R.  Pleven,  prime  minister, 
proposed  the  creation  of  a  unified 
European  defence  force  in  which  Ger- 
many could  play  a  part. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  council  of 
deputies  decided  to  establish  an  economic 
and  financial  working  group  at  the  head- 
quarters of  O.E.E.C.  in  Paris. 

25:  Great  Britain.  The  Conservative 
party  retained  its  seat  in  a  by-election  at 
Scotstoun,  Glasgow. 

Hugh  Gaitskell  took  the  oath  as 
chancellor  of  the  exchequer. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
again  considered  the  appointment  of  a 
secretary  general.  Carlos  Romulo 
(Philippines)  and  Charles  Malik  (Leb- 
anon) each  received  4  votes.  , 

26:  Great  Britain.  The  King  opened  the 
new  House  of  Commons  chamber. 
Speakers  and  presiding  officers  of  29 
Commonwealth  assemblies  were  present. 
The  House  of  Lords  returned  to  its  own 
chamber,  which  since  1941  had  been 
occupied  by  the  Commons. 

Denmark.  Hans  Hedtoft's  minority 
Labour  government  resigned. 

Korea.  South  Korean  patrols  reached 
the  Manchurian  border  north  of  Kojang. 

Tibet.  India  sent  a  note  to  the  Chinese 
expressing  "  deep  regret "  that  the 
Chinese  had  invaded  Tibet  instead  of 
trying  to  reach  a  settlement  by  negotia- 
tion. 

Nobel  Prize.  The  prize  for  physiology 
and  medicine  was  awarded  jointly  to 
P.  S.  Hench  and  E.  C.  Kendall  of  the 
Mayo  clinic,  Rochester,  Minnesota,  U.S., 
and  to  T.  Reichstein  of  Basle,  Switzer- 
land, for  the  discovery  of  Cortisone. 

27:  France.  General  Juin  returned  to 
France  after  visiting  Indo-China. 

Tibet.  Chinese  forces  occupied  Shosh- 
ado. 

28 :  France.  The  bill  to  extend  compulsory 
military  service  from  1  yr.  to  18  months 
was  passed  by  414  votes  to  185. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  defence 
committee  met  in  Washington. 


29:  Sweden.  King  Gustaf  V  died  at 
Drottningholm  castle  at  the  age  of  92 
after  a  reign  of  43  years. 

Western  Germany.  K.  Adenauer 
publicly  rejected  the  French  terms  to 
allow  German  units  to  serve  in  a  Euro- 
pean army. 

30:  Israel.  David  Ben-Gurion  announced 
the  formation  of  a  coalition  government. 

Nepal-Great  Britain.  A  treaty  of 
perpetual  peace  and  friendship  was 
signed  in  Kathmandu. 

North  Borneo.  The  newly  constituted 
Legislative  Council  met  for  the  first 
time. 

Poland.  A  drastic  revaluation  of  the 
zloty  came  into  effect.  The  new  zloty 
was  based  on  gold  and  was  at  par  with  the 
Soviet  rouble. 

Sweden.  King  Gustaf  VI  Adolf  took 
the  royal  oath. 

Syria.  General  Sami  Hinnawi,  leader 
of  the  revolt  against  Husni  ez  Zaim  in 
Aug.  1949,  was  shot  dead  in  Beirut. 

Tibet.  In  a  reply  to  the  Indian  note 
the  Chinese  government  reiterated  its 
claim  that  Tibet  was  an  integral  part  of 
China  and  a  matter  solely  for  the  Chinese 
government. 

31:  Great  Britain.  The  King  opened  parlia- 
ment. The  King's  speech  included  pro- 
posals for  a  permanent  Supplies  and 
Service  bill  and  the  taking  over  of  the 
beet  sugar  industry. 

Italy.  Palmiro  Togliatti,  leader  of  the 
Communist  party,  underwent  an  emer- 
gency operation  for  the  removal  of  a 
blood  clot  on  the  brain. 

Puerto  Rico.  An  unsuccessful  attempt 
was  made  on  the  life  of  the  governor, 
Luis  Mufloz  Marin. 

Tibet.  In  a  further  note  to  the  Chinese 
government  the  Indian  government  again 
expressed  "  their  hope  that  the  Chinese 
government  will  still  prefer  methods  of 
peaceful  negotiation  and  settlement  to 
solution  under  duress  and  by  force." 

NOVEMBER 

1:  Roman  Catholic  Church.  The  Pope 
proclaimed  a  dogma  of  the  bodily 
assumption  into  heaven  of  the  Virgin 
Mary. 

United  Nations.  By  46  votes  to  5  with 
7  abstentions,  the  general  assembly 
decided  to  prolong  Trygve  Lie's  term  as 
secretary  general  for  three  years. 

United  States.  Two  Puerto  Ricans 
attempted  to  shoot  their  way  into 
President  Truman's  home  in  Washington 
with  the  intention  of  assassinating  him. 
One  was  shot  dead  and  the  other  wounded. 
One  guard  was  shot  dead.  An  attempt 
was  made  to  blow  up  the  Puerto  Rican 
government  offices  in  New  York. 
2:  Great  Britain.  George  Bernard  Shaw 
died  at  his  home  at  Ayot  St.  Lawrence, 
Hertfordshire. 

Conservatives  retained  their  seat  in  a 
by-election  at  Oxford  city. 

Greece.  S.  Venizelos's  coalition 
government  resigned  after  disagreements 
with  the  Populist  party. 

Indo-China.  Vietminh  forces  occupied 
Laokay. 

3:  Bulgaria.  A  decree  became  effective 
which  permitted  Soviet  citizens  to  assume 
posts  in  Bulgaria  as  though  they  were 
Bulgarians. 

Greece.  S.  Venizelos  formed  a  Liberal- 
Social  Democrat  coalition  government. 

Indonesia.  The  Indonesian  flag  was 
again  hoisted  in  the  city  cf  Amboina  after 
five  weeks  of  military  operations. 


14 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


Soviet  Union.  The  government  handed 
notes  to  the  British,  French  and  United 
States  ambassadors  in  Moscow  proposing 
a  meeting  of  the  Council  of  Foreign 
Ministers  to  consider  "  the  question  of 
implementing  the  Potsdam  agreement  on 
the  demilitarization  of  Germany.'* 

4:  Persia-Soviet  Union.  A  new  trade 
agreement  was  signed  in  Tehran. 

United  Nations.  The  general  assembly 
annulled  its  decision  of  Dec.  1946  calling 
on  member  states  to  withdraw  their 
ambassadors  or  ministers  from  Madrid. 

5:  Korea.  General  MacArthur  reported 
that  Chinese  Communist  troops  were  now 
engaged  with  the  U.N.  forces. 

6:  Great  Britain.  In  a  division  on  housing 
the  government  received  a  majority  of  12. 

7:  Great  Britain.  In  two  divisions  on  cost 
of  living  and  controls  the  government 
received  majorities  of  15  and  10. 

Nepal.  The  ruler,  Maharajadhiraja 
Tribhuvana  Bir  Bikram  Jung  Bahadur, 
and  his  family  sought  asylum  in  the 
Indian  embassy  in  Kathmandu.  The 
crown  prince's  second  son,  aged  3,  was 
proclaimed  king. 

Soviet  Union.  Celebrations  were  held 
to  mark  the  33rd  anniversary  of  the  1917 
revolution. 

United  States.  Flections  were  held  for 
the  House  of  Representatives  and  36 
seats  in  the  Senate.  The  final  results  were: 
Senate,  Democrats  49,  Republicans  47; 
House  of  Representatives,  Democrats 
227,  Republicans  196,  Independents  1. 

8:  Great  Britain.  The  government  was 
defeated  by  6  votes  in  the  House  of 
Commons  on  a  motion  concerning 
private  members'  bills. 

Eastern  Germany.  Otto  Grotcwohl, 
prime  minister,  announced  that  the 
government  had  resigned.  He  was  asked 
to  form  a  new  cabinet. 

France.  General  Boyer  de  la  Tour  du 
Moulin  was  appointed  to  succeed  General 
Alessandri  as  commander  in  Tongking. 

Japan.  The  Soviet  representative 
attended  the  Allied  Council  for  Japan  for 
the  first  time  since  April  26. 

United  Nations.  The  Security  council 
decided  to  invite  Chinese  Communist 
representatives  to  be  present  for  discus- 
sion on  General  MacArthur's  report  that 
Chinese  troops  were  fighting  in  Korea. 

9:  France.  The  National  Assembly 
defeated  by  466  votes  to  98  a  motion 
calling  on  the  government  to  ameliorate 
the  conditions  of  Marshal  Petain's 
detention. 

Sweden.  King  Gustaf  V  was  buried  in 
Riddarholm  church,  Stockholm.  The 
Duke  of  Gloucester  represented  King 
George  VI. 

10:  Great  Britain.  Lord  Tedder  was  elected 
chancellor  of  Cambridge  university  in 
succession  to  General  Smuts. 

It  was  announced  that  it  had  been 
decided  to  establish  diplomatic  relations 
with  Vietnam,  Laos  and  Cambodia. 

Nobel  Prizes.  The  1950  prize  for  litera- 
ture was  awarded  to  Earl  Russell  (Bert- 
rand  Russell);  the  1949  prize  to  William 
Faulkner  (United  States);  the  prize  for 
physics  was  awarded  to  Professor  Cecil 
Powell  of  Bristol. 

11:  France.  M.  Thorez,  secretary  general 
of  the  French  Communist  party,  left 
Paris  by  air  for  medical  treatment  in  the 
Soviet  Union! 


World      Peace      Congress.       It    was 

announced  that  because  of  the  action  of 
the  British  government  in  refusing  entry 
into  Britain  of  many  delegates  the  con- 
ference due  to  open  at  Sheffield  on  Nov. 
13  would  open  in  Warsaw  on  Nov.  16. 
Yugoslavia.  The  government  ordered 
the  Albanian  legation  in  Belgrade  to  be 
closed. 

12:  Great  Britain.  Remembrance  day  cere- 
monies  were  held  throughout  Britain  and 
the  Commonwealth. 

Tibet.  Chinese  forces  occupied  Lho 
Dzong  and  captured  Chapatsitun,  the 
commander  of  the  7th  Tibetan  regiment. 

13:  Nepal.  The  exiled  king  of  Nepal 
visited  President  Prasad  in  New  Delhi. 

United  Nations.  The  secretary  general 
announced  the  receipt  of  an  appeal 
(dated  Nov.  7)  from  the  government  of 
Tibet  for  aid. 

Venezuela.  Lieut.  Colonel  Carlos 
Delgado  Chalbaud,  president  of  the 
military  junta  since  1948,  was  shot  dead 
in  Caracas. 

14:  Great  Britain.  The  National  Coal 
board  issued  its  national  plan  for  spending 
£635  million  on  capital  development 
before  1965. 

Great  Britain- Yugoslavia.  It  was 
announced  that  Britain  had  agreed  to 
make  available  to  Yugoslavia  a  credit  of 
£3  million  for  tKe  purchase  of  food  and 
consumer  goods. 

India.  In  opening  the  winter  session 
of  parliament  President  Prasad  an- 
nounced the  postponement  of  the  first 
general  elections  from  April-May  1951 
to  Nov.-Dec.  1951. 

Venezuela.  General  Rafael  Urbina, 
who  shot  Lieut.  Colonel  Chalbaud  on 
Nov.  1 3,  was  shot  while  trying  to  escape. 

Boxing.  Jack  Gardner  beat  the  holder 
Bruce  Woodcock  for  the  British  and 
Empire  heavy-weight  titles. 

15:  Eastern  Germany.  Otto  Grotcwohl 
presented  his  new  National  Front  govern- 
ment to  the  Volkskammer.  It  included 
5  deputy  prime  ministers. 

16:  Great  Britain.  Conservatives  retained 
the  seat  in  the  Handsworth,  Birmingham* 
by-election  with  an  increased  majority. 

Egypt.  In  his  speech  to  the  parliament, 
King  Farouk  said  his  government  would 
insist  on  the  evacuation  of  British  troops 
from  Egyptian  soil  and  the  unification  of 
the  Nile  valley  under  the  Egyptian  crown. 

Greece.  The  new  government  received 
a  vote  of  confidence  by  1 64  votes  to  54. 
The  Populist  party,  which  was  excluded 
from  the  government,  voted  for  the 
government. 

India.  The  Madras  government  lifted 
its  ban  on  the  Communist  party. 

World  Peace  Congress.  The  World 
Peace  congress— transferred  from  Shef- 
field—opened in  Warsaw. 

17:  Tibet.  The  Dalai  Lama  was  invested 
with  full  powers  as  the  spiritual  and 
temporal  head  of  the  state. 

United  Nations.  The  general  assembly, 
by  50  votes  to  0,  approved  proposals  for 
the  creation  of  a  unified  and  sovereign 
state  of  Libya. 

18:  Council  of  Europe.  The  second  session 

of  the  consultative  assembly  was  resumed 

in  Strasbourg. 
19:  Indonesia.    All  inhabitants  of  Jakarta 

were  confined  to  their  houses  for  six 

hours  while  troops  and  police  searched 

for  illegal  arms. 
Korea.    U.S.  troops  captured  Kapsan 

and  advanced  to  within  16  mi.  of  the 

Manchurian  border. 


20:  Great  Britain.  Ernest  Bevin  stated  in 
the  House  of  Commons  that  Great 
Britain  had  no  intention  of  withdrawing 
British  forces  and  so  leaving  the  middle 
east  defenceless. 

Philip  Noel-Baker,  minister  of  fuel  and 
power,  announced  that  the  National 
Coal  board  would  be  buying  coal  from 
abroad. 

International  Court  of  Justice.  The 
court  delivered  judgement  in  the  Colom- 
bian-Peruvian asylum  case. 

Netherlands-Indonesia.  The  second 
union  conference  opened  in  The  Hague 
under  the  chairmanship  of  Willem  Drees. 

Scandinavia.  The  foreign  ministers  and 
ministers  for  trade  of  Denmark,  Norway 
and  Sweden  met  in  Copenhagen.  The 
Iceland  minister  in  Copenhagen  was 
present. 

United  Nations.  The  general  assembly 
approved  the  U.S.-sponsored  peace  reso- 
lution by  51  votes  to  5. 
21:  Great  Britain.  Queen  Juliana  and  the 
prince  of  the  Netherlands  arrived  in 
Britain  on  a  state  visit. 

The  government  was  defeated  by  65 
votes  to  32  in  House  of  Lords  on  a 
private  member's  bill  to  amend  the 
Transport  act. 

22:  Great  Britain.  Following  demands 
from  Conservative  and  Labour  members, 
the  government  agreed  to  suspend 
delivery  of  Centurion  tanks  to  Egypt  until 
the  foreign  secretary  had  reported  to  the 
House  of  Commons  on  his  discussions 
with  the  Egyptian  foreign  minister. 

Austria.  The  three  western  govern- 
ments sent  notes  to  the  Soviet  government 
protesting  at  further  Soviet  interference 
with  the  Austrian  police. 

Commonwealth.  C.  R.  Attlee  announced 
in  London  that  a  conference  of  Common- 
wealth prime  ministers  would  be  held  in 
London  in  Jan.  1951. 

Egypt.  A  state  of  emergency  was 
declared  in  Cairo,  Alexandria  and  Port 
Said  when  students  began  a  series  of 
anti-British  demonstrations. 

Railways.  78  persons  were  killed  in  a 
rail  crash  outside  New  York. 
23:  Great  Britain.  It  was  confirmed  that 
Britain  had  sent  a  message  to  the  Chinese 
government  reassuring  it  that  the  presence 
of  U.N.  troops  in  Korea  was  not  a  threat 
to  China. 

Finland.  Urho  Kekkonen,  prime  mini- 
ster, announced  that  he  would  try  to 
broaden  the  government. 

France.  The  government's  policy  on 
Indo-China  was  approved  in  the  National 
Assembly  by  345  votes  to  193. 

Gibraltar.  The  Duke  of  Edinburgh 
opened  the  new  Legislative  Council. 

Korea.    General  MacArthur  launched 
a  new  offensive  in  Korea. 
24:  China.  The  people's  government  in  the 
Tibetan  autonomous  region  in  Sikang  was 
founded. 

United  States.  President  Truman 
announced  the  allocation  of  $16  million 
to  provide  food  for  the  Yugoslav  armed 
forces. 

Council  of  Europe.    The  session  of  the 
consultative  assembly  was  ended. 
25:  Indo-China.   French  troops  retook  the 
frontier  post  of  Tan  May. 

Italy.    Mount  Etna  began  to  erupt. 

Korea.  The  North  Korean  and  Chinese 
troops  began  a  counter  offensive. 

Libya.  The  first  meeting  of  the  Libyan 
Constituent  Assembly  was  held.  The 
Mufti  of  Tripolitania  was  elected  presi- 
dent and  the  assembly  declared  that  the 
Emir  of  Cyrenaica  should  be  king  of  all 
Libya. 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


15 


Malta.  Princess  Elizabeth  arrived  by 
air  from  London. 

26:  Indo-China.  A  conference  presided  over 
by  Bao  Dai  and  attended  by  the  prime 
minister  of  Vietnam,  Tran  Van  Huu,  and 
military  commanders  was  held  in  Tong- 
king. 

Uruguay.  Elections  were  held  for  the 
presidency.  A.  Martinez  Trueba  was 
elected  to  succeed  Luis  Batlle  Berres. 

27:  Commonwealth.  A  conference  of  the 
Commonwealth  Parliamentary  associa- 
tion opened  in  Wellington,  New  Zealand. 

France.  The  economic  conference  at 
Pau  between  representatives  of  France 
and  Indo-China  ended  after  five  months. 

India-Nepal.  Two  representatives  of 
the  government  of  Nepal  arrived  in  New 
Delhi  for  talks  with  Indian  ministers. 

United  Nations.  Delegates  from  the 
Chinese  People's  republic  attended  a 
meeting  of  the  Security  council  for  the 
first  time. 

Venezuela.  G.  Suarez  Flammerich  was 
installed  as  president  of  the  new  civilian- 
military  junta, 

28:  Great  Britain.  By  389  votes  to  134  the 
House  of  Commons,  on  a  free  vote, 
carried  an  amendment  to  prevent  the 
Sunday  opening  of  the  Festival  of  Britain 
fun  fair. 

Commonwealth.  Details  were  published 
of  the  proposals  for  co-operative  econo- 
mic development  in  south  and  southeast 
Asia,  known  as  the  Colombo  plan. 

France.  The  king  and  queen  of  Den- 
mark arrived  in  Paris  on  a  state  visit. 

The  government  was  defeated  in  the 
National  Assembly  on  a  Communist 
motion  to  impeach  Jules  Moch,  minister 
of  defence.  Rene  Pleven  offered  the 
resignation  of  his  government  to  the 
president,  but  it  was  not  accepted. 

India-Pakistan.  Correspondence  was 
published  between  Jawaharlal  Nehru  and 
Liaquat  Ali  Khan  on  the  proposed  "  no 
war  "  declaration. 

Korea.  General  Mac  Arthur  reported 
to  the  United  Nations  that  200,000 
Chinese  troops  were  in  Korea. 

United  Nations.  General  Wu  Hsiu- 
chuan,  leader  of  the  Chinese  Communist 
delegation,  accused  the  United  States  of 
aggression  against  China,  Korea,  Vietnam 
the  Philippines,  Japan  and  other  Asian 
countries,  after  Warren  Austin,  U.S.,  had 
accused  China  of  aggression  in  Korea. 

29:  Great  Britain.  The  House  of  Commons 
opened  a  two-day  debate  on  foreign 
affairs. 

The  Ulster  Unionists  retained  the  seat 
in  a  by-election  at  West  Belfast  but  with  a 
much  reduced  majority. 

Korea.  United  Nations  forces,  after 
being  forced  back  across  the  Chongchon 
river,  were  in  general  retreat  towards 
Sunchon. 

30:  Great  Britain.  At  the  close  of  the 
foreign  affairs  debate,  C.  R.  Attlee 
announced  that  he  was  flying  to  Washing- 
ton for  talks  with  President  Truman. 

Labour  retained  its  seats  in  by-elections 
at  South  East  Bristol  and  Abertillery. 

France,  By  369  votes  to  181  the 
National'  Assembly  adopted  a  bill  for 
constitutional  reform. 

Indo-China.  It  was  announced  that  the 
frontier  post  of  Chuc-Phai-San  had  been 
recaptured  by  French  and  Vietnam 
troops. 

United  States.  President  Truman  stated 
that  the  use  of  the  atomic  bomb  in  Korea 
was  under  consideration. 


DECEMBER 

1:  France.  The  National  Assembly 
approved  a  motion  of  confidence  in  the 
government  by  347  votes  to  184, 

United  States.  President  Truman  sent 
a  message  to  congress  asking  for  a 
further  $17,978  million  for  defence. 

2:  Great  Britain.  Clement  Attlee  and 
Ernest  Bevin  held  consultations  in 
London  with  Rene  Pleven  and  Robert 
Schuman  of  France. 

Bulgaria-Turkey.  The  frontier,  closed 
on  Oct.  7,  was  reopened  by  decision  of 
the  Turkish  government. 

United  Nations.  The  general  assembly 
passed  resolutions  dealing  with  the 
federation  of  Eritrea  with  Ethiopia,  aid 
to  Palestinian  refugees  and  the  treatment 
of  Indians  in  South  Africa. 

3 :  Jordan.  Said  Pasha  el  Mufti  submitted 
the  resignation  of  his  cabinet  and  was 
succeeded  by  Samir  Pasha  el  Rifai. 

Nepal.  Sir  Esler  Dening  of  the  British 
Foreign  Office  arrived  in  New  Delhi  and 
left  for  Kathmandu  accompanied  by 
Frank  Roberts,  deputy  high  commis- 
sioner in  India. 

Western  Germany.  Elections  were  held 
in  the  western  sectors  of  Berlin.  The 
Social  Democrats  remained  the  largest 
party  with  44-7%  of  the  votes. 

4:  Great  Britain.  Sir  Eric  Young  resigned 
from  the  National  Coal  board. 

China.  Chou  En-lai,  in  a  statement  on 
the  peace  treaty  with  Japan,  declared  that 
Communist  China  should  take  part  in 
preparing  the  treaty. 

Netherlands- Indonesia.  The  conference 
on  the  future  of  Dutch  New  Guinea 
opened  at  The  Hague. 

United  States.  Clement  Attlee  met 
President  Truman  in  Washington. 

5:  Greece.  Princess  Elizabeth  and  the 
Duke  of  Edinburgh  arrived  in  Greece 
for  a  week's  visit  to  King  Paul  and  Queen 
Frederika. 

India-Sikkim.  A  new  treaty  was  signed 
in  Gangtok,  providing  that  •  Sikkim 
should  continue  to  be  a  protectorate  of 
India  enjoying  internal  autonomy. 

United  Nations.  Asian  and  Arab  mem-' 
bers  appealed  to  Communist  China  and 
North    Korea    not    to   cross    the    38th 
parallel. 

Cricket.  Australia  beat  England  in 
the  first  test  match  at  Brisbane  by  70  runs. 

6:  Great  Britain.  A  memorial  to  the  first 
Earl  of  Oxford  and  Asquith  was  unveiled 
in  the  Palace  of  Westminster  by  Winston 
Churchill. 

France.  General  de  Lattre  de  Tassigny 
was  appointed  high  commissioner  and 
commander  in  chief  in  Indo-China. 

Haiti.  Paul  E.  Magloire  was  installed 
as  president. 

India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  appealed  to 
the  four  great  powers  to  try  to  solve  the 
far  eastern  crisis  by  peaceful  negotiations. 

Korea.  Chinese  troops  launched  an 
attack  on  a  70-mi.  front.  Pyongyang  was 
taken  by  the  North  Koreans. 

United  Nations.  By  51  votes  to  5  with 
3  abstentions  the  general  assembly 
decided  to  discuss  the  question  of  Chinese 
intervention  in  Korea. 

7:  Great  Britain.  In  a  statement  to  the 
House  of  Commons,  E.  Shinwell,  minister 
of  defence,  said  that  Great  Britain  might 
have  to  prepare  for  still  harder  tidings 
but  that  there  was  no  thought  of  with- 
drawal from  Korea. 


8:  Great  Britain-United  States.      C.   R. 

Attlee  and  President  Truman  ended  their 
talks  in  Washington.  A  joint  statement 
announced  agreement  on  many  matters. 
They  were  ready  to  negotiate  on  Korea 
but  repudiated  appeasement. 

Eastern  Germany.  The  Supreme  Court 
sentenced  Leonhart  Moog,  a  former 
finance  minister  in  Thuringia,  and  three 
others  to  15  years'  imprisonment  for 
inflicting  "  great  damage  on  the  national 
economy  of  the  republic.'* 

Finland.  Jan  Sibelius  celebrated  his 
85th  birthday.  He  was  presented  with 
the  Grand  Cross  with  Brilliants  of  the 
Order  of  the  White  Rose. 

Hungary.  The  National  Assembly 
unanimously  passed  the  Defence  of  Peace 
law. 

9:  Korea.  Half  of  ihe  20,000  U.S.  and 
British  troops  fighting  their  way  out  of 
the  Choshin  area  reached  Hungnam. 

United  States.  General  Marshall  stated 
that  the  president  was  considering  pro- 
claiming a  national  emergency. 

10:  Danube.  The  third  session  of  the 
Danube  commission  opened  in  Galatz, 
Rumania. 

India-Nepal.  The  talks  in  New  Delhi 
ended.  The  communique^  said  that  the 
conversations  were  conducted  in  a 
friendly  atmosphere.  The  two  Nepalese 
representatives  left  New  Delhi  for  Kath- 
mandu. 

Spain.  General  Franco  called  for 
44  fair  play  "  over  Gibraltar  but  said  that 
the  colony  was  "  not  worth  a  war." 

Nobel  Prizes.  Dr.  R.  Bunche  was 
presented  with  the  Peace  prize  in  Oslo. 
The  other  prize  winners  received  their 
awards  from  King  Gustaf  VI  Adolf  in 
Stockholm. 

11:  Great  Britain.  Winston  Churchill  was 
created  a  freeman  of  Portsmouth. 

Singapore.  Rioting  broke  out  following 
the  decision  of  the  high  court  to  adjourn 
hearings  until  Dec.  12,  in  the  case  of  the 
Dutch  girl,  Maria  (Bertha)  Hertogh. 

12:  Great  Britain.  C.  R.  Attlee  returned  to 
London  from  Washington  and  later 
reported  on  his  talks  to  the  House  of 
Commons. 

New  Zealand.  Peter  Fraser,  prime 
minister  from  1940  to  1949,  died  in 
Wellington. 

Suez  Canal.  The  Danish  government 
joined  Great  Britain  and  France  in 
protesting  to  Egypt  against  restrictions 
on  shipping  passing  through  the  canal. 

13:  Great  Britain.  Hugh  Gaitskell  an- 
nounced that  the  British  and  United 
States  governments  had  agreed  to  suspend 
aid  under  the  E.R.P.  to  Great  Britain  on 
Jan.  1,  1951. 

Singapore.  Rioting  continued,  but  by 
dusk  the  situation  was  reported  under 
control. 

Suez  Canal.  Norway  also  protested  to 
Egypt  against  restrictions  on  shipping. 

United  Nations.  The  general  assembly 
called  on  South  Africa  to  place  South- 
West  Africa  under  the  supervision  of  the 
United  Nations.  The  assembly  again 
asked  for  further  discussions  on  the  con- 
trol of  atomic  energy  and  appointed  a 
committee  to  consider  the  question  of 
China's  representation. 

14:  Great  Britain.  In  the  House  of  Com- 
mons Ernest  Bevin  stated  that  Great 
Britain  had  opposed  the  latest  drive  by 
U.N.  forces. 

Indo-China.  French  forces  began  a  new 
drive  against  Communist  positions  north- 
east of  Hanoi. 


16 


DIARY  OF  EVENTS,  1950 


South  Africa.  It  was  announced  that 
South  African  gold  mines  would  supply 
uranium  to  Great  Britain  and  the  U.S. 

Switzerland.  Eduard  von  Steiger  was 
elected  president  of  the  Swiss  confedera- 
tion. 

United  Nations.  The  general  assembly 
appointed  a  committee  of  three  "  to 
determine  the  basis  on  which  a  satisfac- 
tory cease-fire  in  Korea  can  be  arranged/* 
15:  Council  of  Foreign  Ministers.  The 
deputies  again  met  in  London  to  discuss 
the  Austrian  treaty.  No  progress  was 
made. 

Eastern  Germany.  The  parliament 
passed  a  school  law  which  provided  that 
all  children  must  be  educated  in  state 
schools  and  also  a  law  safeguarding 
peace. 

India.  Vallabhbhai  Patel,  deputy  prime 
minister  from  1947,  died  in  Bombay. 

Soviet  Union.  The  government  sent 
notes  to  the  British  and  U.S.  governments 
calling  for  the  trial  as  a  war  criminal  of 
Emperor  Hirohito.  The  government  also 
sent  notes  to  Britain  and  France  again 
protesting  at  the  decisions  to  remilitarize 
Germany. 

Broadcasting.  The  B.B.C.  stated  that 
more  than  60%  of  its  capital  investment 
in  the  next  three  years  would  be  spent  on 
television. 

16;  Indo-China.  J.  Let ourneau  and  General 
de  Lattre  de  Tassigny,  newly  appointed 
high  commissioner,  arrived  in  Saigon. 

United  Nations.  General  Wu,  delegate 
froni  Communist  China,  announced  that 
China  would  call  for  the  withdrawal  of 
volunteers  in  Korea  provided  that  all 
foreign  troops  were  withdrawn  and  that 
Communist  China  was  admitted  to  the 
United  Nations. 

17:  Italy.  P.  Togliatti,  Italian  Communist 
leader,  left  for  recuperation  in  the  Soviet 
Union. 

Korea.     United  Nations  forces  aban- 
doned the  Yonpo  airfield  near  Hungnam. 
1 8 :  Great  Britain.  The  Treasury  announced 
an  increase  in  the  foreign  tourist  allow- 
ance from  £50  to  £100. 

Eastern  Germany.  A  protocol  was 
signed  extending  until  March  1951  the 
Frankfurt  agreement  on  intra-German 
trade. 

Indo-China.  The  garrison  of  the 
frontier  post  of  Dinhlap  withdrew  to  the 
south. 

Libya.  Princess  Elizabeth  visited 
Tripoli  where  she  inspected  units  of  the 
Brigade  of  Guards. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  The  fifth 
meeting  of  the  North  Atlantic  council 
opened  in  Brussels  under  the  chairman- 
ship of  Paul  van  Zeeland  (Belgium). 
Agreement  was  reached  on  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  supreme  commander  and  on 
German  participation  in  a  European 
army. 

Poland-Eastern  Germany.  A  German 
delegation,  headed  by  Wilhelm  Pieck, 
arrived  in  Warsaw. 

19:  Indo-China.  The  retiring  high  com- 
missioner, L£on  Pignon,  left  for  France. 

North  Atlantic  Treaty.  General 
Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  (U.S.)  was 
appointed  supreme  commander.  It  was 
also  suggested  that  a  European  director 
of  production  should  be  appointed  as  a 
counterpart  to  the  military  command. 
The  council  ended  its  meetings.  The 
foreign  ministers  of  Great  Britain, 
France  and  the  United  States  later  met 
together. 

Singapore.  The  governor,  Sir  Franklin 
Gimson,  announced  the  setting  up  of  an 
inquiry  into  the  riots  over  Maria  Hertogh. 


20:  Belgium.  The  House  of  Representa- 
tives passed  by  105  votes  to  76  a  bill 
fixing  the  strength  of  army. 

Chile.  A  naval  expedition  sailed  from 
Valparaiso  to  set  up  a  third  military  base 
in  the  Falkland  Islands  dependencies. 

Soviet  Union.  The  presidium  of  the 
Supreme  Soviet  instituted  Stalin  inter- 
national prizes  "  for  consolidation  of 
peace  among  the  nations.'* 

21:  Czechoslovakia.  The  National  Assem- 
bly passed  a  law  to  safeguard  peace. 

Germany.  Cardinal  von  Preysing, 
bishop  of  Berlin,  died. 

India-Nepal.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  gave 
details  of  the  Indian  proposals  to  Nepal. 
These  included  the  setting  up  of  a 
constituent  assembly.  The  Nepalese 
reply  was  still  awaited. 

Italy.  The  new  central  railway  station 
in  Rome  was  opened  by  President 
Einaudi. 

United  Nations.  The  committee  of 
three  to  arrange  a  cease-fire  in  Korea 
sent  a  further  message  to  Peking. 

United  States.  Charles  E.  Wilson  took 
office  as  director  of  defence  mobilization. 

22:  Great  Britain.  Sir  Eustace  Missenden, 
chairman  of  the  Railway  executive, 
resigned. 

China.  Chou-En-lai,  prime  minister 
and  foreign  minister,  rejected  the  United 
Nations  appeal  f  r  a  cease-fire  in  Korea. 

Germany.  The  western  powers  replied 
to  Soviet  notes  of  Nov.  3  proposing 
four  power  talks  on  Germany.  The 
western  powers  proposed  that  the 
permanent  representatives  at  the  United 
Nations  should  meet  to  prepare  an 
agenda. 

23:  Korea.  Lieut.  General  W.  Walker, 
commander  of  the  United  States  8th 
army,  was  killed  in  a  road  accident  in 
Korea. 

Netherlands-Indonesia.  The  conference 
at  The  Hague  on  New  Guinea  was 
resumed  after  Mohammed  Rum  had 
returned  with  fresh  proposals  from 
Jakarta. 

Roiran  Catholic  Church.  The  Pope  in 
his  Christmas  message  confirmed  that  the 
tomb  of  St.  Peter  had  been  found  under 
the  Basilica  of  St.  Peter,  Rome. 

24:  Indo-China.  An  agreement  was  signed 
in  Saigon  giving  Vietnam  greater  powers 
over  internal  affairs.  The  U.S.  ambassador 
signed  an  agreement  giving  military  aid  to 
France  and  to  Vietnam,  Laos  and  Cam- 
bodia. 

Korea.  Syngman  Rhee  ordered  the 
evacuation  of  civilians  from  Seoul. 

Roman  Catholic  Church.  The  Pope 
declared  the  1950  Holy  Year  ended. 
More  than  4  million  pilgrims  had  visited 
Rome  during  the  year. 

25:  Great  Britain.  The  King  broadcast  his 
Christmas  message  to  the  peoples  of  the 
Commonwealth  from  Sandringham. 

It  was  announced  that  the  Coronation 
stone  had  been  stolen  from  Westminster 
abbey. 

Bulgaria.  The  National  Assembly 
passed  the  Defence  of  the  Peace  act. 

Korea.  The  withdrawal  of  U.N. 
troops  from  Hungnam  was  completed. 

Nepal.  The  two  houses  of  parliament 
approved  proposals  for  convening  within 
three  years  a  constituent  assembly  based 
on  adult  suffrage.  A  new  cabinet  of  nine 
members  was  formed  including  repre- 
sentatives of  the  people. 

26:  India.  Jawaharlal  Nehru  held  talks  in 
New  Delhi  with  R.  G.  Menzies. 


Chakravarti  Rajagopalachari  was  ap- 
pointed minister  of  home  affairs  in 
succession  to  Sardar  Patel. 

Korea.  A  unified  military  command 
was  set  up  under  General  M.  Ridgeway 
who  arrived  in  Korea  to  succeed  General 
Walker. 

The  South  Korean  minister  of  justice 
announced  that  84  Koreans  sentenced  to 
death  had  had  their  sentences  altered  to 
terms  of  imprisonment.  1,200  Koreans 
under  sentence  of  imprisonment  were 
released. 

New  Zealand.  The  Canterbury  cen- 
tenary games  were  opened  by  the  gover- 
nor general. 

27:  Commonwealth.  D.  S.  Senanayake 
(Ceylon)  and  S.  G.  Holland  (New  Zealand 
left  for  the  Commonwealth  conference  in 
London. 

Netherlands-Indonesia.  The  talks  on 
New  Guinea  ended  in  a  deadlock. 

Pakistan.  R.  G.  Menzies  arrived  in 
Karachi  for  talks  with  Liaquat  Ali 
Khan. 

United  States-Spain.  President  Truman 
announced  that  he  had  nominated 
Stanton  Griffis  as  the  first  ambassador  to 
Spain  since  ambassadors  were  withdrawn 
in  Dec.  1946. 

Cricket.  Australia  beat  England  in  the 
second  test  match  at  Melbourne  by  28 
runs. 

28:  Benelux  Countries.  A  conference  of  the 
prime  ministers  of  Belgium,  Luxembourg 
and  the  Netherlands  opened  at  The  Hague. 

Finland.  Urho  Kekkonen,  prime 
minister,  arrived  in  Rome  "  for  health 
reasons." 

Soviet  Union.  The  presidium  of  the 
Supreme  Soviet  decided  to  divide  the 
Ministry  of  the  Metallurgical  Industry 
into  separate  ministries  for  ferrous  and 
non-ferrous  metals. 

Tibet.  It  became  known  that  the  Dalai 
Lama  had  reached  Gyantse  from  Lhasa. 

United  States-India.  An  agreement  was 
signed  in  New  Delhi  under  President 
Truman's  "  point  four "  programme. 

29:  Great  Britain.  A  petition  to  the  King 
by  persons  who  claimed  to  have  stolen 
the  Coronation  stone,  asking  for  the 
stone  to  be  kept  in  Scotland,  was  left  at 
a  Glasgow  newspaper  office. 

France.  The  National  Assembly 
approved  the  expenditure  of  Fr.  740,000 
million  on  armaments  in  1951.  Only  the 
Communist;  voted  against  the  proposal. 

Gold  Coast.  A  new  constitution  for  the 
colony  was  published.  It  was  announced 
that  the  first  general  election  would  be 
held  in  Feb.  8,  1951. 

Poland.  The  Diet  passed  a  law  for  the 
defence  of  peace. 

Southern  Rhodesia.  Sir  Godfrey 
Huggins  left  Salisbury  for  the  Common- 
wealth conference  in  London. 

30:  Pakistan.  Liaquat  Ali  Khan  announced 
the  postponement  of  his  departure  to  the 
Commonwealth  conference  because  it  was 
not  proposed  that  the  problem  of 
Kashmir  should  be  discussed. 

31:  Austria.  The  president,  Karl  Renner, 
died  in  Vienna. 

France.  The  special  rearmament 
budget,  providing  fr.  355,000  million  for 
national  defence  was  adopted  by  the 
National  Assembly. 

India-Nepal.  General  Bijaya  Bahadur 
Rana,  foreign  minister  of  Nepal,  and 
Jawaharlal  Nehru,  held  further  talks  in 
New  Delhi. 

Yugoslavia.  The  government  granted 
an  amnesty  for  11,327  prisoners. 


BOOK   OF  THE  YEAR 


ABYSSINIA:  see  ETHIOPIA. 

ACCIDENTS.  Road  Safety.  The  Ministry  of  Transport 
continued  its  National  Road  Safety  campaign  in  Great 
Britain,  in  which  the  Royal  Society  for  the  Prevention  of 
Accidents  assisted.  The  theme  of  the  ministry's  advertising 
was  "  Mind  how  you  Go." 

The  year  1950  was  dedicated  to  child  safety.  A  campaign 
was  launched  on  Holy  Innocents'  day,  Dec.  28,  1949.  The 
ministries  of  Transport  and  Education  urged  local  authorities 
to  co-operate  in  a  National  Children's  Safety  week  in  March, 
during  which  an  amazing  amount  of  local  ingenuity  was 
shown.  Though  accident  statistics  during  the  week  did  not 
show  a  decrease,  the  following  month  had  the  lowest  April 
total  of  child  pedestrian  fatalities  since  1937.  For  the  whole 
year,  despite  the  increase  in  accidents  which  was  bound  to 
occur  with  the  return  of  unrationed  petrol,  the  increase  in 
child  accidents  was  much  smaller  than  in  the  case  of  adults. 

Millions  of  posters,  leaflets,  bookmarks  and  magazines  were 
distributed,  several  thousand  films  and  exhibitions  hired  and 
many  hundreds  of  lectures  given.  New  films  included 
Mr.  Jones  takes  the  Air  (dealing  with  rural  road  safety), 
Calling  all  Children  and  The  Cockney  Kids'  Adventure. 
The  British  rights  of  an  Australian  film,  Death  on  the  Road, 
were  purchased.  Four  films  were  also  made  by  the  Crown 
Film  unit:  Report  on  Road  Safety;  a  "  flash  "  appealing  to 
parents;  and  two  trailers,  The  Golden  Rule  and  Careless  and 
Carefree.  Five  hundred  thousand  people  visited  static  or 
mobile  exhibitions  of  the  society.  The  Ro.S.P.A.'s  training 
centre  was  visited  by  24,342  children,  learner-drivers  and 
others.  A  nation-wide  poster  competition  was  held  for  art 
students,  designers  and  children. 

A  quarter  of  a  million  commercial  transport  drivers  were 
entered  in  the  society's  annual  safe-driving  competition, 
including  drivers  from  most  of  the  government  and  service 
departments;  121,595  awards  of  silver  and  gold  medals 
and  diplomas  were  presented.  Eight  hundred  London 
Transport  drivers  qualified  for  awards  for  20  years  or  more 
of  safe  driving,  totalling  between  them  16,000  "  safe  "  years 


and  3,111,000,000  miles  in  safety.  The  number  of  young 
cyclists  who  successfully  passed  the  society's  cycling  profi- 
ciency test  was  10,000. 

The  society's  annual  National  Safety  congress  held  in 
October  in  London,  was  opened  by  the  minister  of  transport, 
Alfred  Barnes,  and  was  attended  by  over  1,000  delegates. 
Proposals  from  accident-prevention  federations  all  over  the 
country  were  discussed. 

The  House  of  Lords  held  a  debate  in  July  on  road  safety, 
initiated  by  the  Ro.S.P.A.'s  president,  Lord  Llewellin. 
Lord  Lucas",  parliamentary  secretary  to  the  Ministry  of  Trans- 
port, assured  the  house  that  the  ministry  had  a  firm  policy 
and  that  plans  existed  for  a  complete  road  system. 

The  minister  of  transport  said  that  156,516  persons  were 
killed  in  road  accidents  from  Jan.  1,  1926  to  June  30,  1950; 
even  if  1939-41,  for  which  years  figures  were  not  available, 
were  excluded  3,795,258  persons  were  injured.  Reports  on 
accidents  included  an  analysis  of  the  causes  and  circumstances 
of  road  accidents  in  1949  by  the  commissioner  of  police  for 
the  metropolis,  Sir  Harold  Scott. 

The  Ministry  of  Transport  issued  the  Traffic  Signs  (Size, 
Colour  and  Type)  regulations,  1950,  revoking  previous 
regulations  and  bringing  previous  authorizations  up  to  date. 
The  "  Halt  at  Major  Road  ahead  "  and  "  Slow— Major 
Road  ahead  "  signs  were  now  legally  authorized  with  the 
red  triangle  in  the  red  circle  resting  either  on  its  base  or  its 
apex.  A  select  committee  on  estimates  called  for  a  survey 
into  the  effectiveness  of  road  safety  propaganda. 

Concern  was  expressed  over  the  rise  in  motor-cycling 
accidents.  *"  The  scheme  of  the  R.A.C./A.C.U.  for  training 
motor-cyclists  was  extended. 

The  Road  Research  laboratory,  under  the  heading  of 
traffic  and  safety,  dealt  with  subjects  such  as  the  effect  of 
fog;  traffic  behaviour  on  a  three-lane  road  and  a  dual 
carriageway;  the  effects  of  a  pedestrian  crossing  week  and  of 
zebra-marked  crossings;  and  the  relative  risk  to  pedestrians 
on  crossings  and  elsewhere. 

Toys.  The  National  Home  Safety  committee  recommended 
to  the  Inter-Departmental  Committee  on  Home  Accidents 


xx-^J^t^-- 


Cartoons  from  "  Fire!  Fire/"  a  16-page  booklet  published  in  July  1950  by  H.  M.  Stationery  Office  to  help  the  public  to  avoid  the  dangers 

of  fire  in  the  home. 
B.B.Y.— 3  17 


18 


ACHESON 


TABLE  I.    ACCIDENTAL  DEATHS  IN  AND  ABOUT  THE  HOME,  ENGLAND 


AND  WALES 


Falls  and  Crushing 

Drowning     . 

Burns,  Scalds  and  Conflagration* 

Suffocation   . 

Others 

Total      . 


1947 
4,001 
1,149 
904 
1,054 
1,482 
8,590 


1948 

3,498 

984 

651 

838 

1,315 

7,286 


TABLE  II.      ACCIDENTAL  DEATHS  AND  INJURIES  IN  GREAT  BRITAIN 


Killed 


1947 
447 

4,881 
618 
839 


1948 
367 

4,513 
468 
861 


1949 
321 

4,773 
460 

772 


Injured 
1947 

1948 

1949 

30,113 

30,050 

29,311 

161,318 

148,884 

172,006 

162,544 

2,391* 

2,180* 

202,397 

200,225 

192,210 

Railways 
Roads  . 
Coal  Mines 
Factories 


Railways 
Roads  . 
Coal  Mines  . 
Factories 

*  Serious  injuries  only. 


that  the  manufacture  and  importation  of  highly  inflammable 
celluloid  and  plastic  toys  be  prohibited  or  that,  if  this  were 
not  possible,  such  toys  be  marked  **  highly  inflammable." 

Industrial  Safety.  Two  new  volumes  in  the  series  '*  I.C.J. 
Engineering  Codes  and  Regulations  (Safety  Series) "  were 
issued  by  the  Ro.S.P.A.  entitled  Portable  and  TransportabL 
Plant  and  Equipment  and  Buildings  and  Structures  (Design). 
A  pamphlet  on  Stacking  of  Materials  was  prepared  by  the 
Industrial  Safety  Officers'  section. 

Accident  prevention  and  working  conditions  in  iron 
foundries  were  discussed  in  the  House  of  Commons  in  June. 
New  requirements  for  seating  in  factories  came  into  force 
on  Oct.  1.  Under  these,  all  employees  who  have  reasonable 
opportunities  to  sit  without  detriment  to  their  work  must 
be  given  facilities  to  do  so:  where  they  can  do  a  substantial 
proportion  of  any  work  sitting,  the  employees  must  be  given 
work  seats  and,  where  necessary,  foot-rests. 

A  campaign  to  reduce  accidents  in  the  furniture  trade  was 
initiated  by  the  British  Furniture  Trade  Joint  Industrial 
council  in  conjunction  with  the  Furniture  Development 
council;  the  Ro.S.P.A.  participated  in  a  one-day  conference 
held  in  London  in  April.  The  16th  International  Congress 
of  Ophthalmology  and  an  exhibition  of  industrial  eye- 
protection  were  held  in  London  in  July.  A  trade  exhibition 
of  safety  devices,  equipment  and  protective  clothing  was 
incorporated  with  the  National  Industrial  Safety  conference 
at  Scarborough. 

In  his  annual  report  for  1948,  published  in  1950,  the  chief 
inspector  of  factories,  G.  P.  Barnett,  reported  an  increase 
in  fatalities  but  a  decrease  in  the  total  number  of  accidents. 
The  number  of  accidents  per  1,000  workers  had  also  steadily 
declined,  from  40  in  1944  to  28  in  1948. 

The  British  Electricity  authority  in  its  first  report  outlined 
the  steps  taken  to  develop  a  high  standard  of  safety  through- 
out the  whole  industry.  (H.  Su.) 

United  States.  Accidents  caused  91,000  deaths  in  the 
United  States  in  1949.  This  total  was  exceeded  only  by 
deaths  from  heart  disease,  cancer  and  cerebral  haemorrhage. 
Information  available  at  the  end  of  Oct.  1950  indicated  that 
the  1950  accidental  death  total  would  probably  drop  slightly 
below  that  of  1949.  In  addition  to  the  deaths,  accidents  in 
1950  also  caused  about  9  million  non-fatal  injuries. 

An  industrial  safety  highlight  of  1950  was  the  President's 
Conference  on  Industrial  Safety,  when  1,500  representatives 
of  management,  labour,  government  and  the  public  met  in 
Washington  in  June  to  consider  committee  reports  and 
develop  plans0  for  the  reduction  of  industrial  accidents. 


It  appeared,  late  in  1950,  that  the  year's  toll  of  occupational 
accident  fatalities  would  be  a  little  greater  than  the  1949 
toll  of  15,000. 

As  1950  drew  to  a  close,  it  appeared  that  the  number  of 
traffic  accident  deaths  would  be  nearly  35,000— the  largest 
annual  total  since  1941.  This  increase  in  deaths  was  appar- 
ently matched  by  the  increase  in  miles  travelled  by  motor 
vehicles.  Key  committee  members  of  the  President's  Highway 
Safety  Conference  met  in  Chicago  in  May  1950  to  appraise 
progress  and  plan  goals  for  further  achievement. 

Recognition  of  the  seriousness  of  the  farm  accident  prob- 
lem was  indicated  by  the  fact  that  24  states  had  State  Farm 
Safety  committees  in  1950,  and  12  states  had  a  full-time  farm 
safety  specialist,  working  through  many  public  and  private 
agencies  to  spread  information  on  the  ways  and  means  of 
meeting  the  problem.  The  president  of  the  United  States, 
for  the  seventh  successive  year,  proclaimed  a  National  Farm 
Safety  week  in  July  1950.  More  than  a  million  pieces  of 
educational  material  were  distributed,  and  radio,  newspaper 
and  magazine  support  were  outstanding. 

The  1949  toll  of  deaths  in  home  accidents  was  31,000, 
about  the  same  as  that  for  motor  vehicles.  Reports  for  the 
first  ten  months  of  1950  indicated  that  home  fatalities  were 
less  numerous  than  in  1949.  It  appeared  that  the  year's 
total  might  be  less  than  30,000. 

During  1950  about  85  out  of  the  several  hundred  local  and 
state  safety  organizations  throughout  the  country  qualified 
for  acceptance  as  chapters  of  the  National  Safety  council, 
this  relationship  signifying  that  these  organizations  fully 
represented  the  National  Safety  council  in  the  communities 
in  which  they  operated,  although  at  the  same  time  retaining 
their  own  autonomy.  The  38th  National  Safety  congress 
was  held  in  Chicago  in  Oct.  1950,  with  an  attendance  of 
approximately  12,000.  In  addition,  about  30  regional  safety 
conferences  were  held  during  the  year.  (R.  L.  Fo.) 

ACHESON,  DEAN  GOODERHAM,  US  states- 
man (b.  Middletown,  Connecticut,  April  11,  1893),  the  son 
of  an  Englishman  who  became  bishop  of  Connecticut,  was 
educated  at  the  Groton  school,  Connecticut,  at  Yale  univer- 
sity and  at  the  Harvard  Law  school.  After  serving  in  the 
navy  in  World  War  I  he  took  up  a  legal  career  and  in  1933 
was  under  secretary  of  the  treasury.  In  1941  he  became 
assistant  secretary  of  state  and  was  under  secretary  of  state 
from  Aug.  16,  1945,  to  June  30,  1947.  On  Jan.  7,  1949, 
President  Harry  S.  Truman  appointed  him  secretary  of  state. 

During  1950  Acheson  was  perhaps  the  most  controversial 
figure  in  U.S.  public  life  and  was  the  target  of  repeated  attacks 
in  congress,  particularly  by  Senator  Joseph  McCarthy  (</.v.), 
on  the  grounds  that  his  far  eastern  policy  had  failed;  President 
Truman  repeatedly  affirmed,  however,  that  Acheson  would 
not,  as  his  critics  were  demanding,  be  asked  to  resign.  On 
May  7  the  secretary  of  state  flew  to  Paris  where  he  had 
discussions  with  the  French  foreign  minister;  two  days  later 
he  went  on  to  London  for  a  ten-day  visit  during  which  he 
had  extensive  discussions  with  the  British  foreign  minister 
and  other  Commonwealth  and  western  European  statesmen 
and  was  received  by  the  King.  He  also  presided  over  meetings 
of  the  Atlantic  Treaty  council.  Among  his  social  engage- 
ments during  the  stay  were  the  Middle  Temple  Grand  Day 
dinner  on  May  9  and  a  dinner  given  in  his  honour  by  the 
Pilgrims  on  May  10.  In  September  he  had  further  talks  in 
New  York  with  the  British  and  French  foreign  ministers  and 
attended  further  meetings  of  the  Atlantic  Treaty  council. 
After  the  conferences  between  President  Truman  and  Clement 
Attlee  in  Washington  in  December,  the  attacks  on  Acheson's 
foreign  policy  eased  a  little,  when  Thomas  E.  Dewey  and 
other  Republican  leaders  urged  that  the  nation  should  unify 
in  its  stand  against  Communism. 

t 


ADEN— ADULT  EDUCATION 


19 


King  Phumiphon  Adundet  of  Thailand  (left}  in  Aden  in  March  1950. 
On  right  is  the  governor,  Sir  Reginald  Champion. 

ADEN.  A  British  colony  and  protectorates  and  a  free 
port  on  the  southern  coast  of  Arabia. 

Colony.  Area:  80  sq.mi.  (incl.  Perim  island  [5  sq.mi.], 
the  strait  of  Bab  el  Mandeb  and  the  five  Kuria  Muria  islands 
off  the  Dhufar  coast  of  Oman).  Pop.  (1946  census):  80,876 
(Perim  360).  Language:  Arabic;  Indian  languages  and  Somali 
also  spoken.  Religion  (1946):  Moslem  c.  90%,  Jewish  5%. 
Administration:  governor;  executive  council,  ex  officlo 
members  (3)  and  nominated  members  (in  1948,  3); 
Legislative  Council,  established  1947,  4  ex  officio  members 
and  up  to  12  nominated  members  (up  to  4  official  and 
8  unofficial). 

Protectorates.  Western  and  eastern,  the  latter  including  the 
Hadhramaut  and  Socotra  island  (150  mi.  E.  from  Cape 
Guardafui,  pop.  c.  5,000).  Total  protectorate  area,  112,000 
sq.mi.;  total  pop.  (1947  est.)  650,000,  almost  entirely  Moslem 
Arabs.  Administration:  indirect,  by  sultans  with  advice  of 
political  officers  under  the  British  agent.  Premier  chieftain 
(western),  Fadl  Abdul  Karim,  Sultan  of  Lahej;  premier 
chieftain  (eastern),  Sir  Salih  bin  Ghalib  al  Qu'aiti,  Sultan  of 
Shihr  and  Mukalla.  Governor  and  c.  in  c.  of  the  colony 
and  governor  of  the  protectorates,  Sir  Reginald  S.  Champion. 

History.  Since  the  end  of  World  War  II  there  had  been  a 
steady  increase  in  shipping  using  the  port  and  in  1950  an 
average  of  360  vessels  a  month  called;  the  demand  for  oil 
bunkering  rose  to  about  3  million  tons  a  year.  This  led  to 
considerable  improvement  in  the  port  and  pilotage  services 
and  to  the  construction  of  more  oil  tanks  ashore. 

After  recurrent  border  difficulties  with  the  Yemeni  a 
conference  was  held  in  London  in  September  with  Yemeni 
representatives.  Agreed  proposals  were  submitted  by  the 
delegates  to  their  respective  governments. 

Development  plans  made  for  the  colony  covered  the 
extension  of  medical  and  educational  services,  including 
female  education,  an  Aden  college  and  a  technical  institute: 
the  institute  was  opened  towards  the  end  of  the  year.  Two- 
thirds  of  a  scheme  costing  £250,000  to  irrigate  60,000  ac. 
for  rice  growing  in  the  Abyan  district  of  the  protectorates 
was  completed. 


Trade.  The  principal  local  product  exported  is  salt.  The  bulk  of 
the  trade  is  entrepdt  with  the  interior  of  Arabia  and  neighbouring 
territories.  Imports  (1949)  Rs.  328,953,002;  exports  (1949),  incl. 
re-exports,  Rs.  203,961,079. 

Finance.  Budget  estimates  1950-51 :  revenue  Rs.  128,036,859;  expendi- 
ture Rs.  173,028,572.  Currency:  Indian  rupee  (Re.  \- Is.  6d.). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Doreen  Ingrams,  A  Survey  of  Social  and  Economic 
Conditions  in  the  Aden  Protectorate  (Asmara,  1950);  The  master  of 
Belhaven,  The  Kingdom  of  Melchior  (London,  1950).  (K.  G.  B.) 


ADULT  EDUCATION.  In  1950  good  progress  in 
mass  education  campaigns  was  reported  from  many  British 
colonies  and  dependencies,  such  as  the  Anglo-Egyptian 
Sudan,  the  Gold  Coast,  Nigeria,  Togoland,  Uganda,  Fiji  and 
Sarawak,  and  from  countries  in  eastern  Europe. 

Following  up  its  1949  international  conference  on  adult 
education,  held  at  Elsinore,  Denmark,  U.N.E.S.C.O. 
organized  in  July-August,  at  Mondsee,  near  Salzburg, 
Austria,  a  six  weeks'  international  seminar  which  was 
attended  by  some  70  representatives  of  22  nations.  Four 
working  groups  studied  respectively  the  organization  and 
administration  of  adult  education,  the  question  of  how  the 
adult  could  be  helped  to  think  most  effectively  in  today's 
complex  world  (with  special  reference  to  scientific  develop- 
ments), the  relation  of  adult  education  to  social,  economic 
and  political  problems,  and  the  educational  use  of  leisure, 
with  special  reference  to  the  arts. 

In  England,  Birmingham's  centre  for  continued  studies, 
believed  to  be  unique,  reported  a  successful  first  year's  work. 
The  centre  offered  two  types  of  short  course :  a  general  course 
at  a  higher  intellectual  level  than  most  adult  education;  and 
specialist  courses  for  university  graduates.  The  courses 
attracted  many  oversea  graduates  studying  in  Britain.  In 
October  Ernest  Green,  a  pioneer  of  the  adult  education 
movement,  retired  from  the  post  of  general  secretary  of  the 
English  Workers'  Educational  association. 

In  August-September  a  committee  appointed  by  the  High 
Commission  for  the  Federation  of  Malaya  investigated  the 
possibilities  of  extending  adult  education  throughout  the 
federated  states. 

The  first  annual  report  of  the  New  Zealand  National 
Council  of  Adult  Education,  set  up  under  the  Adult  Education 
act,  1947,  stated  that  the  four  regional  councils  established 
by  the  act  had  already  become  the  chief  adult  educational 
agencies  in  tho  country. 

The  annual  report  of  the  Transvaal  Workers'  Educational 
association  reported  successful  Afrikaans  classes  for  immi- 
grants and  graded  courses  of  general  education  in  native 
townships. 

In  August  it  was  reported  from  Poland  that  in  85  towns 
and  5,000  villages  illiteracy  had  been  eliminated,  and  from 
Rumania  that  700,000  persons  had  learned  to  write  during 
the  previous  12  months.  Yugoslavia  reported  "impressive 
progress  "  in  its  anti-illiteracy  campaign  among  its  national 
minorities.  For  its  Turkish  minority  Yugoslavia  opened  in 
July  at  Bitolj  a  "  People's  university."  (A  Yugoslav  People's 
university  aimed  to  give  the  general  public  information  about 
the  latest  achievements  in  science  and  the  arts).  In  the  same 
month  Poland  launched  a  scheme  of  residential  People's 
universities  designed  to  teach  fundamental  knowledge  about 
Poland  and  to  train  young  persons  for  professional  and 
social  work.  Conditions  of  entry  were  that  candidates  must 
be  children  of  landworkers  or  small  peasants,  at  least  18yr. 
old,  and  have  completed  seven  years'  elementary  education. 

In  September  Poland  reorganized  its  general  education 
schools  for  adult  workers  on  two  levels,  elementary  and 
secondary,  to  give  to  all  the  opportunity  of  secondary 
education.  Over  50  correspondence  schools,  to  serve  30,000 
students,  were  established.  In  August,  Yugoslavia  reported 
that  during  the  previous  year  over  7,000  shock  workers  and 


20 


ADVERTISING 


SOME  OF  GOAHS  3000  BY  PRODUCTS 


other  experts  had  attended  its  general  education  schools. 
These  schools  ranked  as  junior  secondary  schools;  from 
them  workers  could  progress  to  workers'  training  or  profes- 
sional schools,  and  ultimately  to  universities.  (H.  C.  D.) 

ADVERTISING.  Although  the  two-year-old  voluntary 
scheme  for  limiting  advertising  expenditure,  agreed  between 
the  government  and  the  Federation  of  British  Industries, 
was  allowed  to  lapse  at  the  end  of  Feb.  1950,  the  year  was 
one  of  disappointment  and  difficulty  for  British  advertising. 
As  paper  became  progressively  dearer  and,  in  the  case  of 
newspapers,  more  difficult  to  buy,  publishers  tried  to  recoup 
themselves  by  calling  on  advertisers  to  pay  more  for  their 
space. 

The  Statistical  Review  calculated  that  the  sum  of 
£30,522,199  was  spent  on  advertising  in  British  newspapers, 
periodicals  and  magazines  of  all  kinds  during  1949,  which 
was  40-15%  above  1948.  For  the  first  six  months  of  1950 
the  figure  was  given  as  £18,441,862,  which  suggests  that  the 
1950  total  would  exceed  the  1949  peak.  The  Statistical 
Review  estimated  that  the  limit  had  been  reached,  however, 
and  forecast  that  as  newspapers  were  going  back  to  a  six- 
page  basis  in  July,  for  a  short  period  having  produced  alternate 
eight-page  issues,  "  we  shall  no  doubt  encounter  a  sizeable 
fall  in  aggregate  expenditure."  The  second  half  of  1950  was 
marked  by  a  prolonged  dispute  in  the  London  printing  trade 
which  interfered  with  the  production  of  more  than  100 
newspapers  and  periodicals. 

The  advertising  business  continued  to  try  to  build  up 
British  sales  abroad,  particularly  in  the  dollar  areas.  At  the 
close  of  1949  the  government,  through  the  Board  of  Trade's 
export  guarantee  department,  had  told  exporters  that  where 
necessary  they  would  be  guaranteed  against  losses  on  market 
research  and  "  extraordinary  advertising  and  promotional 
expenses  "  incurred  in  the  North  American  markets.  Con- 
siderable changes  were  carried  out  within  the  British  Export 
Trade  Research  organization,  a  non-profit-making  body 
with  predominately  advertising  connections  set  up  by  the 
industry  in  1945  to  assist  British  trade  overseas.  Roger  Falk 
became  B.E.T.R.O.'s  first  director  general.  One  of  his 
initial  moves  was  to  effect  a  strong  link  between  B.E.T.R.O. 
and  the  Federation  of  British  Industries  whereby  the  former 
concentrated  upon  market  research  and  at  the  same  time 
shared  F.B.I,  facilities  abroad.  The  arrangements  resulted 
in  savings  for  both  bodies. 

The  British  code  of  standards  in  relation  to  the  advertising 
of  medicines  and  treatments  was  strengthened,  in  a  second 
edition,  issued  in  1950,  to  the  extent  that  advertisers  of 
medicines  and  treatments  could  no  longer  claim  that  their 
products  possessed  power  to  slim  the  human  body,  or  even 
to  keep  it  slim.  In  October  the  Joint  Advertisement  com- 
mittee of  the  Newspaper  Proprietors  association  and  the 
Newspaper  society  issued  a  warning  that  no  advertising 
would  be  accepted  which  claimed  that  a  hair  treatment  was 
capable  of  preventing  or  eliminating  baldness.  Outdoor 
advertising  continued  to  pass  through  a  period  of  re-adjust- 
ment due  to  the  operation  of  the  Town  and  Country  Planning 
acts.  The  trade's  outdoor  advertising  committee  contested 
an  application  by  Winchester  corporation,  to  have  the  whole 
of  the  Winchester  area  put  under  "  special  control."  This 
would  have  empowered  the  Winchester  authorities  to  ban 
advertising  and  signs  from  the  streets  at  will.  Following  a 
public  inquiry  in  Dec.  1949,  the  Ministry  of  Town  and 
Country  Planning  issued  a  compromise  ruling  in  June  1950 
which  allowed  "  special  control "  to  be  applied  only  in 
certain  parts  of  Winchester. 

A  growing  number  of  municipal  transport  undertakings 

Two  posters  issued  in  1950  by  the  British  Electricity  authority  and 
the  National  Coal  board. 


ADVERTISING 


21 


took  steps  to  permit  the  sale  of  advertising  space  on  their 
vehicles,  and  several  large  contracts,  notably  in  Glasgow, 
Aberdeen  and  Liverpool,  were  signed  between  the  local 
authorities  and  advertisement  contractors.  Contemplating 
the  large  revenues  (£2,969,536  in  1949)  earned  by  the  British 
Transport  commission  through  the  letting  of  advertisement 
position  on  its  vehicles  and  properties,  some  municipalities 
saw  in  advertising  a  means  of  offsetting  mounting  costs 
which  might  otherwise  have  to  be  met  through  increased 
fares  or  out  of  the  rates. 

The  Advertising  association  pressed  on  with  its  plans  for 
staging  the  International  Advertising  conference  (Britain) 
1951  to  which  it  hoped  to  attract  a  large  number  of  U.S., 
Commonwealth  and  European  advertising  representatives. 

Civil  estimates  published  in  March  1950  gave  details  of  cuts 
in  Central  Office  of  Information  expenditure  to  be  carried  out 
during  the  year  ending  March  31, 195 1 .  The  press  advertising 
appropriation,  which  totalled  £867,000  in  1949-50,  was  reduced 
to  £763,000;  some  £253,000  was  allocated  for  poster  adver- 
tising, as  against  £574,000  in  the  previous  1 2  months.  All  told, 
the  estimate  of  the  total  amount  of  money  required  for  C.O.I. 
advertising  and  promotional  activities  in  1950-51  was  put  at 
£3,038,310  compared  with  £3,934,739  in  1949-50 

Commonwealth.  In  the  third  quarter  of  1950  an  historic 
advertising  campaign,  that  for  the  Festival  of  Britain  1951, 
was  launched,  making  its  first  appearance  in  the  Australian 
press.  It  was  followed  by  a  similar  drive  in  South  African 
newspapers  and  magazines.  The  campaign  was  afterwards 
extended  elsewhere  in  the  Commonwealth. 

In  South  Africa  the  government-operated  South  African 
Broadcasting  corporation  opened  the  first  station  in  its 
"  Springbok  Radio  "  chain  or  "  C  "  service.  Like  the 
British  Broadcasting  corporation  the  S.A.B.C.  had  not 
previously  allowed  air  time  on  its  two  existing  networks  to 
be  sold,  but  this  new  group  of  transmitters  carried  pro- 
grammes sponsored  and  paid  for  by  advertisers. 

In  Australia  a  plan  to  develop  public  goodwill  towards 
advertising  was  initiated  by  the  advertising  agencies,  adver- 
tisement media  and  advertisers  working  together.  Purpose 
of  the  project  was  stated  to  be  "  to  portray  in  simple  terms 
what  advertising  does  for  the  community  and  its  benefits 
to  the  national  economy." 

Europe.  Advertising  artists  from  all  the  European  countries 
in  receipt  of  Marshall  aid,  including  Great  Britain,  took 
part  in  a  contest  sponsored  by  the  Economic  Co-operation 
administration  for  posters  illustrating  4t  inter-European 
co-operation."  There  were  2,584  entrants  and  the  first 
prize  went  to  Reijn  Dirksen,  a  25-year-old  Dutch  commercial 
artist.  Two  of  the  16  finalists  were  British.  An  exhibition  of 
posters  from  Switzerland,  where  the  standard  of  outdoor 
advertising  was  highly  rated,  was  arranged  by  the  Advertising 
Creative  circle  and  opened  by  the  Swiss  Minister  in  London 
on  March  6.  In  Paris,  on  Dec.  3,  1949,  an  International 
Federation  of  Advertising  Clubs  was  established,  founder 
members  being  the  Club  de  la  Publicite,  Paris;  Club  de  la 
Publicite,  Brussels;  and  the  Club  van  Veertig,  Amsterdam. 

Representatives  of  advertisers  organizations  from  Belgium, 
Denmark,  France  and  Sweden  visited  London  in  Oct.  1950, 
to  attend  the  golden  jubilee  celebrations  of  the  Incorporated 
Society  of  British  Advertisers.  The  International  Chamber 
of  Commerce  commission  on  advertising  met  in  Paris  on 
Oct.  20  when  it  was  announced  that  1 1  countries  had  adopted 
the  I.C.C.'s  code  of  standards  governing  advertising  practise 
and  that  others  were  contemplating  doing  so.  (A.  J.  HY.) 

United  States.  The  .year's  advertising  in  the  U.S.  was 
marked  by  higher  total  expenditures  than  in  1949,  by  the 

Two  further  examples  of  state  advertising  by  the  North  Thames 
Gas  board  and  the  National  Savings  movement. 


22 


AFGHANISTAN 


spectacular  growth  of  television  as  a  medium  and  by  the 
effects  of  the  mobilization  economy  into  which  the  country 
was  entering. 

Total  expenditure  was  approximately  $5,700  million,  an 
increase  of  $500  million  over  that  of  1949,  distributed  among 
the  various  media  as  shown  in  the  table. 


U.S.  ADVERTISING  EXPENDITURE*  (millions  of  dollars) 
1950 
Newspapers  .......      2,059-0       1 

1949 
,905-0 
633-8 

Radio  .                                                              .658-0 

Television 

161-6 

63-0 

Magazines 
Direct  mail    . 

517-0 
838-7 

492-5 
755-6 

Trade  and  business 
Outdoor 

papc 

rs 

248-0 
140-7 

248-1 
131-0 

Farm  papers 
Miscellaneous 

22-1 
1  039-6 

20-5 
952-7 

Total 5,684-7       5,202-2 

*  Mstimate  by  Robert  Cohen,  McCann  Erickson,  Inc. 

Television.  In  1950  manufacturers  made  about  7-5  million 
television  sets  (as  against  3  million  in  1949),  and  at  the  end 
of  the  year  there  were  nearly  10  million  sets  in  operation  in  the 
U.S.  (as  against  3 '95  million  at  the  end  of  1949)  and  107 
television  stations  operating  in  65  markets.  There  were  about 
2  million  sets  in  metropolitan  New  York  City  alone,  viewed 
by  approximately  8  million  persons.  Advertisers  in  1950  spent 
approximately  $100  million  on  television  time  (about  four 
times  their  expenditure  in  1949)  but  were  beset  by  soaring 
time  and  talent  costs:  television  network  charges  were 
running  well  above  radio  network  charges  (e.g.,  $20,630  a 
half-hour  as  against  $16,600),  though  their  total  available 
audience  was  only  one-quarter  of  radio's;  a  major  effort 
would  cost  about  $1  -25  million. 

Radio.  Total  gross  revenue  of  radio  advertising  in  1950  was 
approximately  $448  million,  an  increase  of  5  -4%  over  that  of 

1949.  Network  time-sales  declined  3-3%,  but  this  loss  was 
offset  by  gains  in  spot  and  local  radio  advertising.    Radio 
manufacturers  produced  14  million  sets,  the  gross  dollar 
volume  of  $1,700  million  being  the  highest  in  peacetime 
history.    There  were  2,230  stations  on  the  air  at  the  end  of 

1950,  as  against  2,087  at  the  end  of  1949. 

The  Korean  war  stimulated  radio  listening  ajid  led  to 
determined  efforts  to  improve  programmes;  and  aggressive 
selling  helped  to  improve  the  industry's  position.  The  Asso- 
ciation of  National  Advertisers  made  a  report  on  radio  and 
television  costs  and  called  for  substantial  reductions  in  night 
radio  rates  because  of  the  losses  of  that  audience  to  television. 
Late  in  the  year  the  National  Broadcasting  company  asked 
its  stations  in  television  areas  to  make  cuts  of  some  10%  in 
their  rates  in  view  of  the  altered  values. 

Newspapers.  Newspapers  in  1950  enjoyed  record  adver- 
tising volume  and  circulation.  The  Bureau  of  Advertising 
of  the  American  Newspaper  Publishers'  association  estimated 
that  national  advertising  in  1950  would  be  larger  than  the 
$445  million  of  1949  and  would  constitute  the  third  successive 
record-breaking  year  in  this  respect.  Media  Records  estimates 
for  the  first  ten  months  of  the  year  showed  that  national 
advertising  (general  and  automotive)  was  9  •  9  %  greater  than 
during  the  corresponding  period  of  1949.  Circulation  was 
stimulated  by  the  Korean  war  news.  Representative  papers 
in  large  cities  showed  gains  of  from  6%  to  15%. 

The  line  rate  for  advertising  in  daily  newspapers  increased 
50%  in  the  period  1940-50,  but  the  milline  rate,  or  cost  of 
reaching  a  reader,  rose  only  slightly,  according  to  a  study  by 
Kelly-Smith  company:  the  average  milline  rate  for  all  news- 
papers, Sunday  papers  excepted,  was  given  as  $3-32  in  1940 
and  $3 '41  in  1950.  There  were  general  advertising-rate 
increases  among  newspapers,  as  among  other  printed  media. 
The  volume  of  rate  increases  by  media  was  characterized  by 
the  Standard  Rate  and  Data  service  as  the  heaviest  in  25  years. 


Magazines.  The  Magazine  Advertising  bureau  predicted  a 
national  advertising  volume  of  between  $470  million  and 
$475  million  for  1950,  as  against  $445  million  in  1949.  The 
first  half  of  1950  showed  a  total  circulation  of  146,579,475  for 
all  general  and  farm  magazines  reporting  to  the  A.B.C., 
3  million  more  than  the  second  half  of  1949. 

The  Committee  on  Advertising  of  the  United  States 
Chamber  of  Commerce,  in  a  survey  among  advertising 
managers  of  46  national  publications,  found  that  67  %  had 
raised  advertising  rates  during  the  first  three-quarters  of  the 
year  by  an  average  of  11  %;  that  advertising  linage  was  up 
an  average  of  15%  for  61%  of  the  respondents,  down  an 
average  of  8%  for  39%;  and  that  no  inroads  from  television 
were  observed  by  60%,  but  that  40%  had  noted  the  effects  of 
television  competition  in  securing  new  advertising  accounts. 
Practically  all  reported  increased  circulation. 

Other  Media.  A  circulation  of  18,000  million  passengers 
was  estimated  for  advertising  in  the  90,000  vehicles  carrying 
car-cards.  There  were  80  transportation  companies,  about 
75  %  of  the  business  being  done  by  a  dozen  of  them.  Greater 
use  of  fluorescent  inks  was  noted  in  travelling  displays  on  the 
outside  of  buses  and  trolley  cars. 

The  volume  of  national  outdoor  advertising  was  somewhat 
more  than  $80  million,  according  to  Outdoor  Advertising, 
Inc. ;  that  of  local  advertising  was  estimated  at  approximately 
a  third  of  this  figure.  It  was  estimated  that  national  adver- 
tising was  divided  as  follows:  automotive  (automobiles, 
gasoline  and  oil,  tyres  and  accessories)  38%  of  dollar  volume; 
beverages  (soft  drinks,  beer,  wine,  spirits)  29%;  food  19%; 
other  products  (cigarettes,  appliances,  etc.)  14%.  The  dollar 
volume  of  direct  mail  advertising,  according  to  estimates 
from  the  Direct  Mail  Advertising  association,  was  $80,223,785 
in  October,  an  increase  of  9  %  over  September's  volume  and 
0-5%  above  March's,  the  previous  record.  For  the  first  ten 
months  of  1950  the  dollar  volume  was  $726,357,050. 

Industrial  advertisers  and  agencies  were  thrown  into  some 
confusion  by  the  Korean  war.  Many  of  them  had  just  become 
organized  for  extensive  advertising  and  selling  campaigns 
following  the  mid-year  recession  in  1949,  when  the  Korean 
crisis  developed  and  with  it  a  rush  of  orders  for  industrial 
goods.  The  National  Industrial  Advertisers  association  set  in 
motion  a  project  to  evaluate  inquiries  and  their  proper 
follow-up  and  to  make  a  thorough  study  of  industrial  cata- 
logues. The  National  Machine  Tool  Builders  association  set 
up  an  advertising  committee  to  promote  the  desirability  of 
machine  replacements. 

Business  publications  raised  advertising  rates  generally. 
A  study  of  a  group  of  75  such  increases  showed  that  12  were 
based  upon  gains  in  circulation,  31  upon  higher  publishing 
costs.  (D.  ST.;  R.  A.  BN.) 

AFGHANISTAN.  Independent  kingdom  in  the  centre 
of  Asia  bounded  N.  by  the  U.S.S.R.,  W.  by  Iran,  S.  and  S.E. 
by  Pakistan  and  E.  by  China  (Sinkiang).  Area:  c.  270,000 
sq.mi.  Pop.  (no  census  ever  taken,  1947  est.):  12  million. 
Races:  Afghans  or  Pathans  or  Pashtuns  53%,  Tajiks  36%, 
Uzbeks  6%,  Hazarah  3%,  others  2%.  Language:  Pashtu 
or  Pakhtu,  but  Tajiks  and  Hazarah  speak  Persian.  Religion: 
Moslem  (Afghans  are  Sunni,  others  mainly  Shia).  Chief 
towns  (pop.  1946  est.):  Kabul  (cap.,  206,200);  Kandahar 
(77,200);  Herat  (75,600);  Mazar-i-Sharif  (41,900).  King, 
Mohammed  Zahir  Shah;  prime  minister  (from  May  1946), 
Shah  Mahmud  Khan,  the  king's  uncle. 

History.  The  year  1950  began  auspiciously  by  the  signature 
on  Jan.  4  at  New  Delhi  of  a  treaty  of  friendship  with  India. 
The  treaty  provided  that  each  signatory  should  be  able  to 
establish  trade  agencies  in  the  other's  territory.  It  would  last 
for  five  years  in  the  first  instance,  and  at  the  end  of  that  period 
it  would  be  terminable  at  six  months*  notice. 


AGRICULTURE 


23 


Jawaharlal  Nehru,  prime  minister  of  India  (centre),  and  Sardar  Najibullah  Khan,  Afghan  a 

of  friendship  in  New  Delhi  on  Jan.  4,  1950. 


in  New  Delhi  (right),  signing  a  treaty 


Unhappily  this  friendship  with  India  did  not  find  reflection 
in  Afghanistan's  relations  with  the  closer  neighbour  Pakistan. 
This,  to  some  extent,  may  have  been  due  to  the  acuteness  of 
Indo-Pakistani  tension  over  Kashmir  and  the  devaluation 
issue.  However  that  might  be,  both  in  Karachi  and  in  Kabul 
there  were  at  times  sharp  expressions  of  suspicion.  Pakistan 
felt  that  Afghanistan  was  too  tolerant  of  the  so-called 
independent  "  Pashtunistan  "  movement,  which  had  for  its 
aim  the  creation  of  a  Pashtu-speaking  enclave  and  therefore 
a  new  state  to  be  carved  out  of  what  was  now  Pakistani 
territory.  As  this  movement  was  in  a  sense  a  legacy  of  the 
former  political  dominance  in  the  North- West  Frontier 
Province  of  the  Congress  supporters  known  as  Red  Shirts 
in  the  days  of  British  rule,  it  had  its  dangers  as  a  source  of 
controversy  between  Afghanistan  and  Pakistan.  Both 
countries  had  reason  to  be  chary  of  pushing  differences  to 
extremes.  On  each  side  of  the  Durand  line,  which  was  the 
border  between  them,  were  turbulent  tribesmen  of  first-class 
fighting  qualities,  whose  economic  condition  made  raiding  an 
occupation  secondary  only  to  agriculture.  If  their  overlords 
were  not  on  good  terms  opportunities  for  mischief  were 
obvious.  The  result  was  charges  on  one  side  or  the  other  of 
violations  of  the  frontier.  A  special  example  arose  in  Septem- 
ber, when  disturbances  were  caused  by  an  apparent  invasion 
of  Pakistan  near  the  Bogra  pass.  The  Afghan  government 
promptly  denied  that  the  invaders  had  comprised  Afghan 
troops.  The  prime  minister  of  Pakistan,  Liaquat  AH  Khan,  in 
disclosing  that  a  protest  had  been  sent  to  Kabul  on  what  he 
described  as  the  culminating  incident  in  a  number  of  minor 
frontier  violations,  declared  that  Pakistan  was  willing  to 
discuss  economic  and  cultural  questions  of  common  concern 
to  the  two  countries.  He  nevertheless  deprecated  any  action 
which  might  disturb  the  peace  of  the  strategic  frontier  area. 

With  Egypt,  Saudi  Arabia  and  Persia,  Afghanistan 
developed  closer  relations  during  the  year,  as  was  symbolized 
by  state  visits  of  King  Zahir  to  Cairo,  Riyadh  and  Tehran 
in  March.  Relations  with  the  U.S.S.R.  were  naturally  of 
much  importance  to  Afghanistan.  The  conclusion  in  Moscow 
in  July  of  a  four-year  trade  agreement  was  taken  as  a 
favourable  sign  in  that  regard.  As  the  guardians  of  the  Hindu 
Kush  and  a  potential  Switzerland  of  Asia,  Afghanistan  might 
have  to  live  dangerously,  but  its  king  and  government 
appeared  to  preserve  their  equilibrium  successfully.  (E.  HD.) 


Education.  (1948)  Schools:  primary  400,  secondary  25,  higher 
(lyctes)  7;  teachers'  training  colleges  2.  University  at  Kabul  with  four 
faculties. 

Agriculture.  Main  food  crops  are  wheat,  barley,  rice,  maize  and  fruit. 
Production  ('000  metric  tons,  1949):  cotton  13-6;  sugar  beet  (1949-50) 
32;  wool  8.  Livestock  ('000  head,  Jan.  1948):  cattle  3,000;  sheep 
14,000;  goats  6,000;  camels  350;  horses  700. 

Industry.  Fuel  and  power:  coal  ('000  metric  tons,  1949)  5-5.  Raw 
materials  (1949):  chrome  ore  (metric  tons)  907;  salt  (metric  tons) 
5,443;  skins  and  hides  (number)  7,250,000. 

Foreign  Trade.  Principal  imports  (1949):  textiles,  china,  petrol 
(4-5  million  gal.)  cement  (18,100  metric  tons),  machinery,  tea,  coffee 
and  cocoa.  Principal  exports  (1949):  opium,  karakul  skins  ($22-6 
million  in  1948-49;  $8-7  million  in  1949-50)  and  carpets. 

Communications.  Roads  (1949)  2,265  mi.  Licensed  motor  vehicles 
(Dec.  1949):  cars  630,  commercial  3,650.  Telephone  subscribers 
(Jan.  1949)  3,899. 

Finance  and  Banking.  Revenue  est.  at  220  million  afghani.  Note 
circulation  (April  1950)  800  million  afghanis.  Monetary  unit:  afghani 
with  an  exchange  rate  (Nov.  1950)  £l=Af.  47-65. 

See  Sir  Kerr  Fraser-Tytler,  Afghanistan  (London,  1950). 
* 

AGRICULTURE.  In  western  Europe  during  1950, 
agricultural  policies  continued  to  be  determined  largely  by 
difficulties  in  balancing  international  payments.  Devaluation 
of  sterling  and  other  currencies  in  Sept.  1949  helped  to  expand 
the  market  for  western  European  manufactures  in  North 
America  and  in  other  ways  to  prevent  further  reduction  of 
gold  and  dollar  reserves,  but  the  fundamental  need  to  raise 
the  productivity  of  western  Europe  remained.  All  countries 
planned  that  their  farms  as  well  as  their  mines  and  factories 
should  continue  to  increase  production.  There  were  few 
changes  in  the  agricultural  programmes  submitted  to  the 
Organization  for  European  Economic  Co-operation  for  the 
period  to  1952-53. 

In  North  America  during  1950,  European  balance-of- 
payment  problems  were  more  clearly  recognized  as  limiting 
export  outlets  for  farm  produce,  and  fears  of  surpluses  after 
the  end  of  Marshall  aid  tended  to  grow.  Producers  of  wheat, 
cotton,  tobacco,  fruit,  tinned  and  dried  milk  and  dried  eggs 
were  particularly  liable  to  suffer.  But  the  continuation  of 
Marshall  aid,  the  revival  of  industrial  production  during 
the  first  part  of  the  year  to  the  high  levels  of  1948,  and  later 
the  Korean  fighting  and  the  rearmament  programme  to- 
gether allayed  fears  of  serious  price  reductions.  There 
remained,  however,  a  strong  underlying  desire  to  free  export 
outlets  to  Europe  and  elsewhere  of  the  currency,  quota 


24 


AGRICULTURE 


and  tariff  arrangements  which  restricted  them.  In  the 
U.S.  some  farming  groups  had  an  even  stronger  desire  to 
ensure  that  federal  price  policies  and  storage  arrangements 
should  maintain  high  prices  and  high  incomes  from  farm- 
ing. Such  arrangements  for  potatoes,  dried  eggs,  dried  milk 
and  butter  proved  to  be  costly  but  general  economic  con- 
ditions were  such  that  existing  price  supports  were  not  fully 
tested.  Thus,  though  there  were  many  discussions  of  post- 
war agricultural  trends  in  western  Europe  and  North  America, 
and  some  growing  doubts  and  fears  amongst  certain  farming 
groups,  no  important  changes  were  made  to  basic  policies. 

The  year  was  more  memorable  for  the  changes  it  witnessed 
in  attitudes  to  the  agricultural  development  of  Africa  and 
Asia.  The  enthusiastic  launching  of  the  United  Nations' 
Food  and  Agriculture  organization,  the  east  African  ground- 
nut scheme,  and  plans  for  India  and  southeast  Asia  had  given 
way  during  1948  and  1949  to  many  doubts  and  substantial 
criticisms.  In  Asia,  these  were  largely  removed  during  1950 
in  consequence  of  the  expansion  of  Communist-controlled 
areas  and  the  growing  menace  to  Indo-China,  Siam  and 
Burma,  the  major  rice-exporting  countries  of  the  world. 

A  Commonwealth  conference  at  Colombo  resulted  in  a 
realistic  study  of  six-year  development  programmes  for  the 
countries  of  southern  Asia — but  not  including  Burma  or 
Indonesia.  The  conference  arranged  priorities  within  a 
programme  that  up  to  1957  would  cost  some  £1,900  million, 
of  which  the  major  portion  would  directly  benefit  agriculture. 
Part  of  this  would  be  contributed  from  within  Asian  countries 
themselves  by  loans  and  tax  revenues  and  part  would ,  be 
loans  from  the  World  bank,  the  Export-Import  Bank  of 


Washington  and  the  United  States  technical  assistance  pro- 
gramme originally  known  as  President  Truman's  "  Point 
Four  "  programme.  In  addition,  loans,  interest-free  credits, 
and  gifts  from  western  governments,  particularly  from  the 
U.S.,  would  be  sought.  The  general  aim  was  to  prevent  the 
continuing  upsurge  of  human  populations  from  further 
undermining  living  standards  and  curtailing  economic 
progress. 

In  some  parts  of  British  tropical  African  territories  the 
need  for  the  rapid  expansion  of  agricultural  production  was 
re-emphasized.  Growing  human  populations,  changing 
political  ideas  and  demands  for  higher  standards  of  living 
despite  financial  difficulties  were  the  basic  reasons.  The  costs 
and  failures  of  the  east  African  groundnut  scheme  also  drew 
public  attention  to  African  problems.  The  postwar  shortage 
of  vegetable  oils  and  the  balance-of-payment  problems  of 
the  sterling  area  were  the  initial  reasons  for  this  scheme, 
and  at  first  it  gained  wide  support.  But  the  large  capital 
investment  required  and  the  high  overhead  costs  of  producing 
in  sparsely  populated  areas  of  Tanganyika  with  unreliable 
rainfall  and  many  unsolved  scientific  problems  soon  became 
apparent.  By  Sept.  1950,  a  drastic  curtailment  and  alteration 
of  production  plans  had  to  be  decided  on.  In  place  of  the 
450,000  ac.  of  crops  first  projected  at  Kongwa,  only  12,000  ac. 
were  to  be  cropped  in  1951,  1952  and  1953.  The  remaining 
80,000  ac.  of  the  cleared  area  were  to  be  used  for  cattle 
ranching.  These  changes  and  the  public  criticism  that 
preceded  them  did  not,  however,  prevent  development  in 
African  agriculture  elsewhere.  Small  trials  of  tractors  and 
farm  implements  were  begun  in  many  areas.  High  prices  for 


Stocked  corn  under  water  In  afield  in  Perthshire  following  the  flooding  of  the  river  Isla  in  Sept.  1950. 


AGRICULTURE 


25 


farm  produce  and  shortages  of  labour  due  to  mining  and 
industrial  developments  encouraged  innovations  by  those 
responsible  for  native  agricultural  progress.  The  Colonial 
advisory  council  on  agriculture,  animal  health  and  forestry 
published  a  survey  of  the  problems  involved. 

In  eastern  Europe  the  principal  development  in  agricultural 
policy  was  an  acceleration  of  the  collectivization  of  holdings 
in  Poland  and  Czechoslovakia.  Ambitious  five-year  plans 
were  announced  to  increase  livestock  production  by  66% 
in  Poland  and  86%  in  Czechoslovakia,  the  increase  in  Poland 
to  make  possible  considerable  exports.  In  the  U.S.S.R. 
increases  in  the  size  of  collective  farms  and  further  attempts 
to  increase  labour  and  machine  efficiencies  were  planned. 
But  in  Yugoslavia,  the  resistance  of  peasant  farmers  brought 
a  promise  from  Marshal  Tito  that  they  would  no  longer  be 
placed  under  duress  to  join  collective  farms  and  that  their 
needs  would  be  as  well  attended  to  as  were  those  of  the 
existing  collectives. 

In  the  southern  dominions  the  most  noteworthy  develop- 
ment was  towards  substantial  further  expansion  of  meat 
production.  In  Australia  meat  production  would  have  to 
increase  34%  by  1970  to  keep  pace  with  the  expected  increase 
in  the  population  and  to  maintain  exports.  Transport  facilities 
costing  £5-5  million  were  projected  to  help  the  flow  of 
cattle  from  northern  Australia  and  further  trials  were  made 
of  the  air  transport  of  fresh  carcases  from  outlying  areas. 
In  New  Zealand  a  rapid  expansion  of  pork  production, 
partly  at  the  expense  of  bacon,  was  proposed  and  won  the 
general  support  of  the  dairy  and  meat  boards.  South  African 
plans  were  curtailed  by  a  sharp  reduction  of  the  maize  crop 
there  from  32  million  bags  in  1949  to  25  million  in  1950, 
owing  to  drought. 

Northern  Hemisphere  Harvests  of  1949.  Despite  some 
reduction  of  wheat  and  rye  acreages  in  favour  of  crops  for 
feeding  to  livestock  and  despite  severe  drought  in  some 
areas,  European  production  of  wheat  and  rye  was  some  4  •  4 
million  metric  tons  greater  in  1949  than  in  1948  (Table  I). 
North  American  production  of  these  grains  was  finally 
estimated  as  5-7  million  metric  tons  less  than  in  1949. 
Most  of  this  reduction  was  in  the  U.S.  The  reduction  in 
the  world  total  exports  of  wheat  and  flour  was  equal  to  4  •  1 
million  metric  tons  but,  taking  into  account  the  increase  in 
domestic  harvests,  the  net  reduction  in  the  total  supplies  of 
Europe  was  only  some  1  -3  million  metric  tons  (2%).  This 
caused  no  difficulty,  because  stocks  were  adequate  and 
because,  with  increasing  supplies  of  milk,  meat  and  eggs,  the 
consumption  of  bread  grains  tended  to  decline.  Thus  flour 
consumption  which  averaged  so  much  as  100,800  tons  a 
week  in  the  United  Kingdom  during  1948,  fell  to  92,000  tons 
a  week  by  spring  1950  and  was  88,200  tons  a  week  during 
the  month  of  October.  The  minister  of  food  was  able, 
on  Aug.  27,  1950,  to  lower  the  rate  of  flour  extraction  from 
wheat  from  85%  to  80%. 

The  1949  European  crop  of  coarse  grains  was  also  generally 
satisfactory  as  compared  to  the  1948  crop,  though  still 
5  million  metric  tons  (9%)  less  than  the  prewar  average. 
Some  countries,  notably  France  and  Spain,  had  shortages 
of  hay  and  roots  caused  by  severe  droughts  in  the  spring 
and  summer  of  1949.  But  net  imports  of  coarse  grains  into 
Europe  were  some  0-6  million  metric  tons  greater  during 
1949-50  than  during  1948-49  (Table  II).  Total  imports  of 
feedingstuffs  to  the  United  Kingdom  were  greater  during 
1948-49  by  some  0-6  million  metric  tons  of  grain  equivalent, 
which  more  than  compensated  for  a  reduction  in  supplies 
of  home-grown  feedingstuffs  for  livestock,  largely  owing  to 
smaller  crops  of  roots  and  potatoes. 

The  North  American  coarse  grain  crop  was,  in  all,  some 
13  million  metric  tons  (10%)  lighter  than  the  exceptionally 
heavy  crop  of  1948,  most  of  the  decline  occurring  in  the  U.S. 


TABLE  I.    PRODUCTION  OF  BREAD  GRAINS  AND  COARSE  GRAINS 

(million  metric  tons) 


Wheat  and  rye 

Europe    . 

North  America 

South  America 

Asia 

Near  East 

Africa 

Australasia 

Total* 

Barley,  oats  and  mai/e 

Europe    . 

North  America 

South  America 

Asia 

Near  East 

Africa 

Australasia  .    . 
Total* 


Prewar 

61-4 

27-8 
8-9 

34-8 
8-5 
2-5 
4.4 

148-3 


1948 

53-7 
47-6 

8-3 
35-1 

9.4 

2-5 

5-4 

162  0 


1949 


58-1 

41-9 

8-4 

34-4 

6-8 

2-8 

6-0 

158-4 


54-8  48-5  49-7 

78-5  131-3  118-1 

19-8  18-5  15-8 

28-8  30-5  28-8 

7-0  7-3  6-5 

6-8  79  8-6 

0-8  1-1  1-3 

196-5  245-1  228-8 

•Excluding  U.S.S.R. 

SOURCE:   F.A.O.  Monthly  Built  tin  of  Statist  lex,  Aug.   1950. 

In  Canada,  the  end-of-July  stocks  of  barley  and  oats  were 
reduced  by  only  0-5  million  metric  tons  to  2- 1  million. 

Thus  both  in  Europe  as  a  whole,  and  in  North  America, 
supplies  of  cereals  for  livestock  feeding  during  the  winter  of 
1949-50  were  generally  as  adequate  as  those  available  during 
winter  1948-49,  and  despite  difficulties  in  some  countries 
owing  to  shortage  of  roughage  feedingstuffs  following  1949 
droughts,  livestock  production  continued  to  expand. 

Livestock  Production,  1949-50.  Pig  production  responded 
rapidly.  During  the  year  ended  in  early  summer  1950  the 
number  of  breeding  sows  and  gilts  was  increased  by  11% 
both  in  the  United  Kingdom  and  in  Denmark,  and  by  10% 
in  the  Netherlands.  These  changes  brought  the  numbers  in 
the  United  Kingdom  to  71  %  of  their  prewar  average,  but  the 
comparable  percentage  for  Denmark  was  203,  and  for  the 
Netherlands  125.  Competition  in  the  United  Kingdom 
market  for  bacon  was  therefore  growing,  and  greater  attention 
was  devoted  to  improving  quality. 

Egg  production  in  Europe  also  increased,  but  only  in  the 
United  Kingdom  and  Denmark  was  it  estimated  to  be 
appreciably  greater  in  1950  than  in  prewar  years.  In  North 
America  and  Australia  by  contrast  egg  production  remained 
much  greater  than  before  the  war,  being  48%  greater  and 
still  increasing  slightly  in  Canada  and  97%  greater  but 
declining  in  Australia. 

The  yields  of  winter  milk  during  1949-50  were  raised 
substantially  in  western  Europe.  Sales  of  milk  in  the  United 
Kingdom  during  the  first  four  months  of  the  year  were  13% 
larger  in  1950  than  in  1949.  In  the  Netherlands  the  com- 
parable percentage  was  15;  in  Denmark,  about  19.  The 
summer  output  of  milk  was  greater  in  1950  than  in  1949  by 
some  5%  in  the  United  Kingdom,  9%  in  the  Netherlands 
and  8%  in  Denmark.  In  Canada  on  the  other  hand,  winter 
milk  production  was  only  slightly  larger  in  1949-50  than  in 
1948-49  and  summer  production  was  slightly  smaller  in  1950 
than  in  1949.  In  New  Zealand,  butter  production  in  factories 
during  the  later  part  of  the  1949-50  summer  was  reduced  by 
12%  below  the  previous  summer's  production,  but  in 
Australia  production  was  sustained. 

Cattle  numbers  continued  to  increase  in  western  Europe. 
In  the  United  Kingdom,  the  number  under  one  year  old  on 
June  4  was  4%  greater  in  1950  than  in  1949  and  23%  greater 
in  1950  than  in  1939.  Most  of  the  increase  since  1939  had 
been  in  cattle  for  milk  production,  but  the  output  of  fat 
cattle  was  rapidly  increasing.  During  the  year  ended  Nov. 
1950,  it  was  (by  weight  of  carcases)  22%  greater  than  during 
the  previous  year,  and  2%  greater  than  the  annual  output 
of  the  late  1930s.  The  total  world  production  of  all  meats 
in  1950  was  estimated  as  somewhat  greater  than  the  1949 
production,  which  had  been  slightly  more  than  prewar 
production.  But  total  supplies  of  meat  per  head  of  population 


26 


AGRICULTURE 


Cattle  being  paraded  in  the  main  ring  at  the  Great  Yorkshire  show  at  Malt  on,  July  1950. 


were  still  about  5%  below  prewar  supplies,  with  greater 
reductions  in  the  United  Kingdom  and  most  European 
countries  as  against  substantial  increases  in  North  America 
and  the  Argentine,  and  slight  increases  in  Australia  and 
New  Zealand. 

Harvests  in  1950.  The  area  sown  to  bread  grains  in  Europe 
was  some  3%  greater  in  1950  than  in  1949,  but  still  some  7% 
smaller  in  1950  than  in  the  late  1930s.  Yields  were,  on  the 
whole,  satisfactory  and  total  production  was  3%  greater 
than  in  1949;  but  it  was  also  3%  smaller  than  in  prewar 
years.  France  and  Yugoslavia  suffered  substantial  reductions 
as  a  result  of  weather  conditions.  The  United  Kingdom  had 
a  wheat  crop  estimated  as  15%  greater  than  that  of  1949, 
and  48  %  greater  than  the  average  prewar  crop.  But  harvesting 
conditions  were  exceptionally  difficult.  In  the  republic  of 
Ireland  bread  rationing  had  to  be  re-imposed. 

In  Canada,  the  acreage  was  only  slightly  reduced  and  with 
favourable  weather  during  most  of  the  growing  season, 
production  was  34%  greater  than  in  1949.  At  harvest  the 
weather  deteriorated  badly,  making  the  proportion  of  low 
quality  grain  exceptionally  high.  In  Australia,  the  wheat 
crop  was  approximately  equal  to  that  of  the  late  1930s, 
but  19  %  less  than  the  large  crop  of  1949.  The  South  American 
crop  of  wheat  was  some  4%  larger  than  that  of  1949  and 
some  3  %  larger  than  the  prewar  average. 

The  harvest  of  coarse  grains  in  Europe  as  a  whole  was 
only  slightly  less  than  in  1949,  but  the  United  Kingdom 

TABLE  II.   NET  EXPORTS  (•—)  AND  IMPORTS  (4-)  OF  BREAD  GRAINS  AND 
COARSE  GRAINS 

(million  metric  tons) 


Prewar 


Wheat  and  rye 

Europe    . 

North  America 

Latin  America 

Far  East  . 

Near  East 

Africa 

Australasia 
Barley,  oats  and  maize 

Europe    . 

North  America 

Latin  America 

Far  East  . 

Near  East 

Africa 

Australasia 
SOURCE:  F.A.U  Monthly  Bull  ft  in  of  Statistics.  Aug.  1950. 


1948-49        1949-50 


4-9-5 

4-17-1 

-HI  -4 

—5-4 

—19-8 

—14-5 

—1-8 

4-0-4 

0 

-H-o 

•4-5-1 

4-4-6 

0 

4-M 

4-1-1 

-0-1 

4-0-7 

4-0-3 

—2-7 

—3-1 

—2-9 

4-9-5 

4-5-9 

-1-6  -5 

—0.2 

—3-3 

—3-1 

—7-4 

—2-2 

—1-5 

—0-7 

4-0-8 

4-0-8 

4-0-4 

-0-2 

+0-4 

-0-7 

—0-6 

—0-8 

—0-1 

—  0-6 

—0-4 

harvest  was  much  damaged  by  continuous  rain  and  official 
estimates  suggested  a  reduction  in  out-turn  by  some  0-9 
million  metric  tons  (19%).  Shortages  of  feedingstuffs 
became  serious  in  the  west  and  southwest  of  the  country. 
Hay  was  imported  from  Norway.  Unfavourable  weather 
reduced  the  coarse  grain  harvest  of  Danubian  countries  by 
fully  7%,  including  a  very  serious  reduction  in  the  Yugoslav 
maize  crop,  threatening  famine  conditions  in  some  localities. 
Denmark  and  the  Netherlands  also  had  smaller  coarse  grain 
crops. 

The  effects  of  these  changes  were  aggravated  by  the  shortage 
of  Argentine  maize  as  a  result  of  the  partial  failure  of  the 
crop  harvested  in  March  and  April  1950.  Exports  of  maize 
from  Argentina  fell  to  a  very  low  level.  Fortunately,  North 
American  harvests  of  coarse  grain  were  favourable  and 
exportable  supplies  were  adequate  to  meet,  during  the  period 
to  autumn  1951,  any  demand  likely  to  be  backed  by  the 
necessary  dollars.  Fortunately  also,  the  effects  of  the  wet 
summer  on  the  grain  harvest  of  the  British  Isles  was  in  part 
offset  by  good  yields  from  pastures,  and  root  and  green  fodder 
crops. 

Agricultural  Production  and  Marketing  Plans.  Some  note- 
worthy alterations  were  made  in  administrative  arrange- 
ments in  prices  and  in  supplies  of  requisites.  In  the  United 
Kingdom  the  slogan  for  the  last  half  of  the  five-year 
programme  was  "  Plough  for  Plenty/'  The  tillage  area, 
which  was  8-8  million  ac.  in  1939  and  14-5  million  ac.  in 
1945,  had  fallen  to  12-9  million  ac.  in  1947  and  12-6  million 
ac.  in  1949.  It  was  expanded  to  only  12-7  million  ac.  in 
1950  but  the  announced  objective  was  14-6  million  ac.  by 
1952.  The  annual  review  of  agricultural  prices  in  the  United 
Kingdom  was  complicated  by  the  withdrawal  of  the  subsidies 
(£43  million  a  year)  on  feedingstuffs  and  fertilizers,  by  the 
government's  intention  to  reduce  subsidies  on  foodstuffs 
from  £440  million  in  the  financial  year  to  April  1950  to 
£410  million,  despite  the  underlying  tendency  of  prices  to 
rise,  and  by  the  high  level  of  the  net  farm  income  during 
1949  (£283  million  against  £258  million  in  1948  and  £60 
million  in  1938).  The  agreed  settlement  was  expected  to 
reduce  the  net  farm  income  to  very  nearly  the  minimum 
that  the  leaders  of  the  farmers*  unions  stipulated  was  essential 
for  achievement  of  the  production  programme.  But  this 
level  was  not  published.  Retail  prices  of  food  were  raised 
3-4%  between  February  and  November. 


AGRICULTURE 


27 


In  Ireland  progress  was  made  in  the  land  reclamation 
project,  the  biggest  of  its  kind  in  Europe. 

Steps  needed  to  secure  adequate  feedingstuffs  for  livestock 
expansion  programmes  were  much  discussed  in  western 
Europe.  In  Denmark,  the  Agricultural  Organization  society 
published  a  comprehensive  plan,  entailing  more  capital  for 
buildings  and  equipment  and  aiming  at  larger  acreages  of 
high  yielding  root  crops,  more  silage,  pasture  improvement, 
better  alfalfa,  greater  use  of  artificial  fertilizers,  fuller  control 
of  weeds  and  higher  conversion  efficiency  in  individual  live- 
stock enterprises.  If  these  changes  were  fully  carried  out, 
imports  of  feedingstuffs  by  1952-53  would  not  need  to  be 
much  more  than  one-fifth  of  what  they  were  before  World 
War  II,  despite  a  projected  increase  in  livestock  production 
by  10% 

Nitrogenous,  phosphatic  and  potassic  fertilizers  were  all 
available  in  greater  quantity  for  1950  crops,  both  in  the 
British  Isles  and  in  continental  Europe  (Table  III).  India, 
Japan  and  Egypt  markedly  increased  their  use  of  nitrogenous 
types,  and  Japan  had  more  phosphates.  The  progress  of 
agricultural  mechanization  continued  in  most  western 
countries  under  the  stimulus  of  high  prices  for  farm  products 
and  difficulties  in  securing  sufficient  labour,  but  international 
trade  in  tractors  and  farm  machinery  tended  to  decline. 
This  was  partly  because  of  further  revival  of  domestic 
production  in  western  Europe.  In  France,  17,100  tractors 
were  produced  during  1949,  against  only  1,700  during  1938. 

Marketing  of  farm  produce  received  greater  attention  in 
many  countries.  In  the  United  Kingdom,  under  the  agricul- 
tural marketing  acts,  schemes  for  wool  and  tomatoes  and 
cucumbers  were  approved;  and  others  for  apples  and  pears, 
dried  peas  and  horticultural  seeds  were  in  various  stages  of 
preparation.  The  Milk  Marketing  board  urged  restoration 
of  its  prewar  powers  of  control  over  the  utilization  of  milk 
but  the  Ministry  of  Food,  with  an  eye  to  international 
balance-of-payment  problems  and  food  rations,  continued  to 
determine  the  proportions  of  supplies  used  for  each  type  of 
manufactured  product. 

The  first  year's  operations  under  the  International  Wheat 
agreement  ended  in  July.  Prices  in  the  free  markets  remained 
above  the  maximum  agreed  export  prices  throughout  the 
period,  because  of  the  prevailing  need  of  the  importing 
countries  to  buy  as  much  as  possible  in  the  soft  currency 
areas  and  because  the  U.S.  decided  to  sell  only  at  the  maxi- 
mum prices,  though  this  resulted  in  less  than  the  full  U.S. 
quota  being  exported.  Total  transactions  under  the  agree- 
ment were  equivalent  to  90%  of  the  minimum  agreed  exports 
and  imports  and  to  53  %  of  the  total  world  trade  in  wheat  and 
flour. 

Wool,  rubber  and  coffee  prices  rose  to  new  high  levels, 
but  no  multilateral  agreements  for  their  control  could  be 
achieved.  The  International  Federation  of  Agricultural 
Producers  began  to  explore  the  possibilities  of  agreements  to 
sustain  prices  of  dairy  products. 

In  the  field  of  agricultural  education  the  Asian  training 
centre  for  agricultural  and  allied  development  projects 
deserves  mention.  It  was  sponsored  jointly  by  the  govern- 
ment of  Pakistan,  the  United  Nations*  Food  and  Agriculture 
organization,  the  International  bank  and  the  Economic 
Commission  for  Asia  and  the  Far  East.  Men  from  many 
countries  received  four  months'  practical  training. 

Research  and  Technical  Development.  Among  the  multitude 
of  research  studies  being  carried  on  in  the  natural  sciences 
affecting  agriculture,  special  interest  attached  to  the  follow- 
ing: the  indirect  and  delayed  effects  of  the  herbicides  and 
insecticides  developed  during  and  after  the  war,  and  their 
toxicity  for  man;  the  physiology  of  artificially  induced 
polyploid  plants;  the  conditioning  of  seeds  and  tubers  for 
early  maturity;  responses  of  crops  and  stock  to  the  correction 


TABLE  III. 

[June-July] 
Year 

CONSUMPTION  OF  ARTIFICIAL  FERTILIZERS 
(thousand  metric  tons) 
British                 Canada  and 
Isles     Europe*      U.S.f       India    Japan 

OtherJ 

Nitrogen 

1948-49     . 

195 

,299 

947 

49 

300 

333 

1949-50     . 

204 

,421 

968 

114 

411 

428 

1950-51H   . 

214 

,658 

994 

113 

406 

502 

Phosphoric  acid§ 

1948-49      . 

420 

.855 

1,872 

5 

165 

736 

1949-50     . 

461 

,923 

1,845 

11 

221 

802 

1950-51      . 

486        2,114 

1,881 

16 

250 

901 

Potash 

1948-49      . 

210        1,813 

986 

1 

164 

107 

1949-50      . 

219        2,289 

958 

1 

116 

119 

1950-51H    . 

231         2,421 

1,003 

1 

120 

135 

*  Excluding  British  Isles,  t  Including  U.S.  possessions,  J  Excluding  U.S.S.R. 
and  China.  §  Excluding  rock  phosphates.  ||  Forecast. 

SOURCE:  F.A.O.  Commodity  report:  Fertiliztrs,  No.  1.  Aug.  1950. 

of  deficiencies  of  "trace"  elements;  the  possibilities  of 
artificial  pollination  of  fruit  trees;  control  of  the  biennial 
bearing  of  fruit  trees;  the  physiology  of  "letting  down" 
milk.  In  agricultural  economics  the  most  interesting  develop- 
ments were  in  studies  of  mechanization,  and  of  the  relations 
between  agriculture  and  industry  under  conditions  of  full 
employment.  (J.  R.  RA.) 

United  States.  Crop  Production.  The  crops  of  the  eight 
principal  grains  in  1949  produced  a  total  tonnage  of  158-4 
million.  The  record  was  180-5  million  short  tons  in  1948. 
Food  grains  constituted  33  •  5  million  tons  of  the  total,  the 
smallest  in  seven  years  but  larger  than  any  total  before  1944. 
The  1950  tonnage  included  the  smallest  buckwheat  crop  on 
record.  The  feed  grain  total  of  125  million  tons,  which 
included  the  largest  grain  sorghum  crop  on  record,  was 
slightly  less  than  in  1949  and  showed  a  significant  decline 
from  the  138  million  tons  of  1948.  A  large  hay  crop,  together 
with  an  average  carry-over,  provided  the  most  abundant  hay 
supply  per  animal  on  record. 

The  oilseed  crop  of  1950,  amounting  to  14-7  million  tons, 
was  only  6%  below  the  record  of  1949.  Soya  beans,  a  record 
crop,  made  up  well  over  half  the  total.  There  was  a  record 
sugar-beet  tonnage. 

Corn  was  planted  later  than  usual,  as  a  result  of  a  late  cool 
wet  spring  in  the  main  commercial  area;  largely  because  of 
official  acreage  allocation,  the  harvested  acreage  was  the  low- 
est since  1894.  The  late  start,  a  cool  summer,  considerable 
but  not  extraordinary  cornborer  damage  and  local  frosts  as 
early  as  August  resulted  in  a  yield  of  37-6  bu.  per  acre 
(38  •  8  in  1949)  and  in  more  being  used  for  ensilage  than  usual. 

In  accordance  with  official  acreage  allocations,  the  planted 
acreage  of  wheat  was  reduced  by  about  16%  compared  with 
1949;  seeding  conditions  were  generally  favourable  in  the 
southern  plains  but  later  drought  and  green-bug  damage  led 
to  the  abandonment  of  more  than  nine  million  ac. — in  Texas 
53  %  of  the  seeded  acreage  was  not  harvested.  The  cold  wet 
spring  of  the  northern  plains  was  followed  by  nearly  ideal 
conditions  except  for  some  early  frost.  As  a  result,  storage 
was  abundantly  available  for  the  crop.  It  was  indicated  that 
total  domestic  consumption  of  the  crop  and  large  carry-over 
would  not  be  much  more  than  225  million  bu.  Exports, 
which  in  1948-49  reached  the  unprecedented  level  of  503 
million  bu.,  were  expected  to  be  about  265  million  bu.  Thus, 
the  carry-over  at  the  end  of  the  crop  year,  July  1,  1951,  was 
expected  to  be  about  450  million  bu.  The  preliminary  survey 
in  December  of  the  1951  winter  wheat  crop  suggested  that 
sown  acreage  was  about  6%  more  than  had  been  requested, 
and  that  the  crop  was  in  good  condition  except  for  need  of 
surface  moisture  and  snow  cover,  especially  in  the  southern 
plains. 

The  cotton  crop  of  9,884,000  bales  was  one  of  the  smallest 
for  50  years  grown  on  the  smallest  harvested  acreage  since 
1884.  Allocation  of  about  21  million  ac.,  as  u>mpared  with 


28 


AIRCRAFT    MANUFACTURE 


27-23  million  ac.  harvested  in  1949,  together  with  unfavour- 
able weather  and  heavy  boll- weevil  damage,  combined  to 
relieve  the  Commodity  Credit  corporation  of  its  large  surplus 
stocks,  push  prices  to  new  high  levels  and  institute  export 
controls  and  caused  the  government  to  remove  all  restrictions 
on  cotton  acreage  in  1951. 

A  crop  of  439  -  5  million  bu.  of  white  or  Irish  potatoes  was 
produced,  compared  with  the  record  454-7  million  bu.  in 
1948,  even  though  the  harvested  acreage  was  the  smallest 
since  1874  and  the  subsidized  price  was  set  at  60%  of  parity 
instead  of  90%  as  in  1949.  Nevertheless,  the  crop  was  about 
100  million  bu.  more  than  national  requirements.  The  average 
yield  of  237  9  bu.  per  acre  was  a  new  record,  and  Maine 
again  had  a  new  record  yield  of  475  bu.  per  ac.  (see  Table  IV). 

Livestock  Production.  All  cattle  at  the  beginning  of  the  year 
totalled  80,277,000  head,  compared  with  78,298,000  head  a 
year  earlier  and  85-6  million  head  at  the  peak  in  1945,  but 
approximately  12  million  head  more  than  before  World  War 
II.  Of  that  total,  24,625,000  head  were  milch  cows,  against 
24,416,000  a  year  before.  Slaughter  of  a  slightly  larger 
number  of  beef  animals  at  heavier  weights  than  in  1949 
provided  an  estimated  10,873  million  Ib.  of  beef  and  veal, 
compared  with  10,770  million  Ib.  in  1949  and  about  8,000 
million  Ib.  prewar.  It  was  anticipated  that  the  number  of  beef 
cattle  slaughtered  in  1951  would  be  somewhat  larger  even 
though  fewer  feeder  cattle  were  placed  in  corn  beef  feed  lots 
in  the  autumn  of  1950  than  in  1949. 

There  were  60,424,000  pigs  on  U.S.  farms  at  the  beginning 
of  the  year,  an  increase  from  57, 1 28,000  head  in  1949  but  much 
less  than  the  83-7  million  head  at  the  peak  in  1944.  The 
major  spring  pig  crop  was  59,997,000  head,  much  more  than 
the  55,191 ,000  head  of  a  year  earlier,  and  the  autumn  pig  crop 
was  estimated  at  40,657,000  head,  as  compared  with 
37,175,000  head  a  year  before.  Slaughter  during  the  year 
produced  10,939  million  Ib.  of  pork,  against  10,333  million 
Ib.  in  the  previous  year.  At  the  end  of  the  year  it  was 
estimated  that  pork  production  in  1951  might  be  about 
1 1 ,700  million  Ib.,  a  result  of  the  increased  autumn  pig  crop  of 
1950  and  an  estimated  expansion  to  63-5  million  head  in  the 
spring  crop  of  1951. 

Livestock  prices  in  1950  followed  divergent  trends.  Pig 
prices  were  at  least  $2  or  $3  per  cwt.  higher  than  In  1949  and 
ended  the  year  at  more  than  $20  per  cwt.  Fat  beef  cattle  were 
generally  lower  in  price  than  in  1949,  whbreas  feeder  animals 
were  considerably  higher,  thus  narrowing  'the  spread  and 
increasing  the  risk  to  those  farmers  engaged  in  finishing  high- 
grade  beef.  Late  in  the  year  the  price  of  best  grade  of  fat  beef 
cattle  was  nearing  $40  per  cwt.  Grain-fed  lambs,  late  in  the 
year,  rose  to  a  record  price  of  just  under  $33  per  cwt.  Pig 
prices  were  not  subsidized  by  the  government  after  March. 
The  1950  chicken  and  turkey  crop  was  not  subsidized. 

Sheep  on  U.S.  farms  at  the  beginning  of  the  year,  30,797,000 
head,  were  the  smallest  number  in  the  period  during  which 
records  had  been  kept,  having  declined  from  31,654,000  head 
at  the  beginning  of  1949  and  more  than  50  million  head  pre- 
war. Consequently,  the  lamb  crop  of  1950  was  a  record 
small  one  of  18,431,000  head;  slaughter  during  1950  provided 
only  an  estimated  608  million  Ib.  of  lamb  and  mutton,  about 
the  same  as  in  the  previous  year.  It  was  anticipated  that  the 
decline  in  sheep  numbers  would  probably  halt  in  1950. 

The  24,625,000  milch  cows  on  U.S.  farms  at  the  beginning 
of  1950  represented  an  increase  from  24,416,000  head  in  1949 
and  a  further  increase  took  place  during  1950,  although  the 
total  remained  far  short  of  the  previous  peak  of  27,770,000 
head  in  Jan.  1945.  As  a  result  of  very  heavy  feeding  and  the 
uncommonly  fine  pastures  of  1950,  milk  production  per  cow 
reached  record  levels,  and  total  production  for  the  year  was 
about  120,500  million  Ib.,  as  compared  with  119,136  million 
Ib.  in  1949.  " 


TABLE  IV.   U.S.  CROP  PRODUCTION 

1950  1949 

Yield       Production       Yield     Production 
per  ac.         ('000)         per  ac.         ('000) 


Field  Crops 

Corn,  bu. 

37-6 

3,131,009 

38-8 

3,379,436 

Wheat,  bu. 

16-6 

1,026,755 

14-9 

1,141,188 

Oats,  bu.. 

34  9 

1,465,134 

32-9 

1,329,473 

Barley,  bu. 

26-9 

301,009 

24-0 

236,737 

Rye,  bu.  . 

12-6 

22,977 

12-0 

18,739 

Flaxseed,  bu.    . 

10  1 

39,263 

18-6 

43,946 

Rice,  bags  (yield  in  Ib.) 

2,361-0 

37,971 

2,215-0 

40,747 

Hay,  all,  tons  . 

1-41 

106,819 

1-36 

99,536 

Beans,  bags  (yield  in  Ib.) 

1,128-0 

16,843 

1,163-0 

21,377 

Soya  beans,  bu. 

21-6 

287,010 

22-7 

230,897 

Peanuts,  Ib. 

881-0 

2,038,425 

804-0 

1,875,825 

Potatoes,  bu.    . 

237-9 

439,500 

215-2 

411,565 

Sweet  potatoes,  bu.  . 

104  4 

58,729 

100-5 

55,368 

Tobacco,  Ib.     . 

1,277-0 

2,035,915 

1,209-0 

1,972,359 

Sugar  beets,  tons 

14-3 

13,383 

14-8 

10,197 

Cotton,  bales  (yield  in 

Ib.)       . 

265-4 

9,884 

284-0 

16,128 

Fruit  Crops 

Apples,  bu. 

120,499 

133,742 

Peaches,  bu.     . 

52,573 

74,818 

Pears,  bu. 

31,263 

36,404 

Grapes,  tons     . 

2,641 

2,662 

Oranges,  boxes 

1  1  1  ,290 

108,535 

Grapefruit,  boxes 

48,520 

36,500 

Poultry  output  during  1950  was  180%  of  1935-39,  whereas 
1949  had  been  169  %.  At  the  beginning  of  the  year  there  were 
481,190,000  hens,  compared  with  448,676,000  head  a  year 
before.  Chickens  raised  in  1950  amounted  to  only  670 
million  head,  as  compared  with  744  million  in  the  previous 
year.  Commercial  broilers  (540  million  head)  were  10%  more 
numerous  than  in  1949.  Turkey  production  was  at  a  record 
high  level. 

The  number  of  horses  continued  to  decline.  There  were 
5,310,000  head  on  farms,  against  5,898,000  head  in  1949. 
Mules  totalled  2,153,000  head,  as  compared  with  2,348,000 
head  in  the  previous  year. 

Food  Stocks  and  Exports.  Food  exports  by  the  U.S.  in 
1949-50,  mostly  to  Economic  Co-operation  administration 
countries  or  occupied  areas,  amounted  to  only  34,863  million 
Ib.,  as  compared  with  49,072  million  Ib.  in  1948-49.  This 
export  accounted  for  11-7%  of  the  total  U.S.  food  supply 
in  1949-50.  Wheat  in  some  form  made  up  more  than  half  the 
total.  Other  grains  accounted  for  about  a  quarter. 

Farm  Labour.  There  was  an  average  of  10,676,000  workers 
in  the  period  Jan.-Nov.  1950,  as  compared  with  11,084,000 
in  the  previous  year.  The  average  farm  worker  received 
$102  a  month  with  board  and  room  or,  if  employed  by  the 
day,  $4  50.  (See  also  BEEKEEPING;  COCOA;  COFFEE;  DAIRY 
FARMING;  FERTILIZERS;  FOOD  SUPPLY  OF  THE  WORLD; 
FORAGE  CROPS;  FRUIT;  GRAIN  CROPS;  HOPS;  LIVESTOCK; 
NUTS;  POULTRY;  ROOT  CROPS;  SOIL  CONSERVATION;  SPICES; 
SUGAR;  TEA;  VEGETABLE  OILS  AND  ANIMAL  FATS;  VEGETABLES; 
WHEAT;  WOOL.)  (J.  K.  R.) 

AIRCRAFT  MANUFACTURE.  During  1950  Great 
Britain  retained  its  lead  in  the  field  of  jet  propulsion,  and  a 
number  of  interesting  new  types  made  their  appearance. 
Overseas  sales  were  maintained  at  a  satisfactory  level: 
exports  of  aircraft  and  aviation  material  averaged  slightly 
less  than  £3  million  a  month. 

At  the  annual  display  of  the  Society  of  British  Aircraft 
Constructors  in  September,  28  of  a  total  of  58  aircraft  were 
powered  by  turbo-jet  or  turbo-prop  engines;  35  were  military 
types;  and  30  aircraft  were  shown  for  the  first  time.  Never- 
theless the  keynote  of  the  year  was  one  of  consolidation  after 
the  sensational  strides  of  1949. 

On  the  military  side  a  new  Hawker  fighter,  the  P.1081, 
showed  improved  performance  over  the  P.  1052  of  1949, 
which  it  resembled.  It  seemed  probable  that  the  Ncne  with 


AIRCRAFT  MANUFACTURE 


29 


Havilland  112  Venom  fighter,  powered  by  a  D.H.  Ghost  jet  engine. 


which  it  was  powered  would  be  only  interim  equipment 
during  trial  and  that  it  would  go  into  production  with  the 
Rolls-Royce  Tay  or  Avon.  Another  experimental  fighter, 
the  Supermarine  type  535,  also  powered  by  a  Rolls-Royce 
Nene,  made  its  first  flight  in  August  and  was  subsequently 
demonstrated  at  Farnborough  in  early  September.  Fitted 
with  an  after-burner,  the  535  probably  exceeded  the  speed 
of  sound  in  level  flight  at  altitude. 

The  English  Electric  company's  Canberra,  the  United 
Kingdom's  first  jet-engined  bomber,  demonstrated  in  1949, 
was  slightly  modified  and  put  into  production  for  the  R.A.F. 
in  1950.  Though  it  was  capable  of  carrying  a  satisfactory 
bomb-load,  its  speed  and  manoeuvrability  fitted  it  potentially 
for  a  number  of  other  roles,  in  much  the  same  way  as  the 
Do  Havilland  Mosquito  became  the  maid-of-all-work  in 
the  later  stages  of  World  War  II. 

Another  interesting  development  during  the  year  was  the 
appearance  of  no  less  than  three  anti-submarine  aircraft, 
designed  by  different  constructors  but  all  powered  by 
means  of  Armstrong-Siddeley  Mamba  turbo-prop  engines. 
The  two  co-axial  airscrews  allowed  the  pilot  to  stop  one 
for  economical  cruising  and  to  start  it  up  again  immediately 
when  full  power  was  required. 

The  Brabazon  I  continued  experimental  flying  with  its 
eight  Bristol  Centaurus  engines:  at  London  airport  and  at 
Farnborough,  where  it  took  off  in  1,400yd.  and  landed  in 
1,200yd.,  it  demonstrated  that  it  could  be  used  much  more 
widely  c.uin  had  been  originally  supposed.  The  construction 
of  the  Brabazon  II,  powered  by  eight  Bristol  Proteus  turbo- 
prop engines  coupled  in  pairs,  made  good  progress;  and  the 
aircraft  was  expected  to  fly  in  1952.  The  Proteus  engines 
were  extensively  flight-tested,  using  a  Lincoln  bomber  as  a 
flying  test-bed. 

The  De  Havilland  Comet  demonstrated  its  capabilities 
during  its  first  year  by  making  record  flights  in  Europe  and 
Africa  and  by  completing  over  300  hr.  of  flying.  The  second 
prototype  was  flying  by  the  middle  of  1950;  and  it  was  hoped 
that  the  first  of  a  production-order  for  British  Overseas 
Airways  corporation  would  be  ready  for  flying  in  early  1951. 
The  Vickers  Viscount,  which  was  to  go  into  service  with 
British  European  Airways,  gained  the  distinction  of  being 
the  first  jet  aircraft  to  operate  on  a  regular  airline:  the 
prototype,  with  four  Rolls-Royce  Dart  turbo-prop  engines, 
flew  during  the  summer  on  B.E.A.'s  normal  London-Paris 
and  London-Edinburgh  routes. 

The  Armstrong-Siddeley  Sapphire  engine,  believed  to 
be  the  most  powerful  aero-engine  in  the  world  (giving  7,200 
Ib.  static  thrust),  was  demonstrated  for  the  first  time  in 
September,  two  being  mounted  in  a  Gloster  Meteor  as  a 
flying  test-bed. 

The  Korean  war  and  the  consequent  decision  on  rearma- 
ment by  the  western  nations  emphasized  the  need  for  increased 
production  of  military  types  of  aircraft.  However,  within  the 
existing  constructional  caoacitv  of  the  British  aircraft 


industry,  there  was  already  a  preponderance  on  the  military 
side;  and  up  to  the  end  of  1950  there  was  no  sign  of  any 
official  restriction  on  the  carrying-out  of  contracts  for  the 
supply  of  civil  aircraft. 

United  States.  The  value  of  a  strong  merchant  air  fleet  as 
a  military  asset  was  emphasized  by  the  action  of  the  United 
States  government  early  in  the  Korean  war  in  requisitioning 
civil  aircraft  for  use  as  transports.  This  was  followed  up  by 
considerable  military  orders  for  transport  aircraft  (including 
a  number  of  the  lengthened  Super-Constellations  from  the 
Lockheed  Aircraft  corporation,  for  naval  use). 

The  year  1950  saw  some  interesting  developments  in  the 
field  of  military  aircraft.  The  Thunderjet's  successor,  the 
YF-96  with  swept-back  wings,  was  powered  by  a  new  edition 
of  the  Allison  J-35  turbo-jet  engine  which  showed  a  38  •  5  % 
improvement  on  the  original  J-35  which  appeared  in  1947. 
Another  swept-back  wing  experimental  aircraft,  the  Martin 
XB-51  ground-support  bomber,  had  also  great  possibilities 
with  its  three  General  Electric  J-47  jet  engines.  Westing- 
house's  J-34,  an  11-stage  axial-flow  turbo-jet,  developing 
3,200  Ib.  thrust  at  take-off,  was  certified  for  commercial 
use;  and  the  Northrop  Turbodyne  XT-47,  claimed  to  be  the 
most  powerful  turbo-prop  aero-engine  in  existence,  was 
developed  especially  to  power  future  military  types  of  air- 
craft. Pratt  and  Whitney  continued  work  on  their  new  PT-2 
turbo-prop  engine,  which  was  installed  in  a  Boeing  B-17 
for  air  test;  it  was  said  that  the  PT-2  developed  about 
6,000  h.p.  In  October  it  was  announced  that  the  Curtiss 
Wright  corporation  had  purchased  the  licence  to  build  the 
Armstrong-Siddeley  Sapphire  as  well  as  the  same  firm's 
Python  and  Double  Mamba  airscrew  turbine  engines. 

The  trend  in  civil  aircraft  construction  was  towards  a 
stopgap  programme  to  convert  existing  airline  power  plants 
from  piston  engines  to  jets,  though  some  airlines  took  a 
conservative  view  and  ordered  some  of  the  new  Super- 
Constellations  similar  to  those  being  turned  out  for  the  navy. 

Boeings  announced  provisional  plans  to  replace  the  existing 
engines  in  the  B-377  Stratocruiser  and  its  military  counter- 
part with  turbo-prop  engines.  They  were  also  said  to  be 
considering  the  addition  of  two  auxiliary  turbo-jets  to  the 
Pratt  and  Whitney  R-4360s  to  increase  the  speed  and  take- 
off weight  of  the  Stratocruiser. 

In  the  Super-Constellations,  Eastern  Airlines  proposed  in 
1950  to  replace  the  piston  engines,  with  which  th;y  would 
be  originally  equipped,  with  improved  Allison  T-38  turbo- 
prop engines  after  a  year  or  two's  operation.  This  was 
expected  to  increase  the  speed  of  the  aircraft  to  403  m.p.h. 

A  similar  re-equipment  with  Allison  T-38  engines  was 
being  considered  by  the  Douglas  Aircraft  company  and 
Martin's  for  the  DC-6  and  the  4-0-4  respectively. 

Meanwhile  Congress  authorized  the  expenditure  of  $12-5 
million  on  the  development  of  gas-turbine  transport  aircraft, 
including  the  testing  of  prototypes  and  the  conduct  of 
experimental  transport  operations.  Most  of  the  bie 


30 


AIR   FORCES  OF  THE  WORLD 


constructors  were  working  on  projects  for  jet  airliners, 
but  none  appeared  during  1950. 

Canada  and  Australia  Late  in  the  year  the  Canadian 
defence  minister  announced  the  increase  of  the  order  for 
North  American  F-86  sabre  fighters  to  "  several  hundreds," 
to  be  built  under  licence  in  Montreal  by  Canadair.  Mean- 
while, A.  V.  Roe  (Canada)  continued  the  tests  of  its  Orenda 
direct-entry  axial-flow  turbine  with  good  results;  it  was 
intended  to  power  the  Avro  CF.100  fighter  aircraft  with  it. 
Canadian  Pacific  Airlines  ordered  two  De  Havilland  Comets 
for  delivery  in  1952-53  for  their  north  Pacific  route.  Mean- 
while development  of  the  Avro  Jetliner  went  on  satisfactorily. 

Teams  of  technicians  from  the  Australian  government 
factory  and  the  Commonwealth  Aircraft  corporation  visited 
the  United  Kingdom  to  draw  up  plans  for  the  production 
of  the  Canberra  jet  bomber  and  the  Hawker  P.  1081  four- 
cannon  fighter.  In  Australia  the  Commonwealth  Aircraft 
corporation  prepared  to  build  the  Rolls-Royce  Avon  axial- 
flow  jet  engine.  The  first  production-models  of  the  feeder- 
line  three-engined  D.H.A.  Drover  were  delivered  to  the  air 
lines  during  the  autumn. 

Western  Europe.  In  France  the  year  1950  did  not  see  very 
much  new  progress,  though  development  continued  on  the 
S.N.C.A.S.E.  Armagnac  four-engined  transport  and  the 
S.N.C.A.S.O.  twin-engined  Bretagne.  On  the  military  side, 
the  Dessault  450  Ouragan  went  into  production,  powered 
by  Nene  engines  built  under  licence  by  Hispano-Suizr . 
But  perhaps  the  most  interesting  French  contribution  was 
the  O.10  Leduc  aircraft  powered  by  an  "  athodyd  "  or  ram- 
jet engine. 

Both  Fokker  in  the  Netherlands  and  Fiat  in  Italy  were 
working  on  designs  for  jet-engined  trainers;  and  in  France, 
Switzerland,  Belgium,  the  Netherlands  and  Italy  arrangements 
were  made  for  the  production  of  British  jet  fighter  airframes 
and  engines  under  licence.  (See  also  JET  PROPULSION  AND 
GAS  TURBINES.)  (D.  CR.) 

AIR  FORCES  OF  THE  WORLD.  In  1950  the 
world's  air  forces,  both  eastern  and  western,  continued  with 
the  intensive  development  of  advanced  types  of  aircraft.  The 
events  of  the  summer,  however,  tended  to  shift  the  emphasis 
in  all  countries  toward  production.  The  rate  of  expansion 
came  under  security  restrictions  on  both  sides  of  the  "  iron 
curtain.*'  Little  was  made  known  by  governments  about 
quantities  of  aircraft  or  the  results  of  advanced  research,  but 
aircraft  with  and  without  pilots  were  undoubtedly  improving 
in  performance,  and  guided  missiles  could  be  assumed  to  be  a 
major  field  for  research  in  the  larger  nations.  There  was  a 
strong  trend  toward  the  modification  of  existing  types  of 
military  aircraft  for  tactical  uses.  Standardization  of  types  of 
aircraft  for  a  United  Nations  air  force,  while  by  no  means 
fully  achieved,  appeared  to  be  on  the  way. 

Great  Britain.  Aircraft  and  engine  production  became  a 
problem  of  first  importance  during  1950  as  plans  for  the 
defence  of  the  Commonwealth  and  the  North  Atlantic  treaty 
nations  took  form.  Production  began  to  increase  in  July,  and 
in  November  Clement  Attlee,  the  prime  minister,  announced 
that  orders  for  aircraft  for  the  first  two  years  of  a  three-year 
defence  plan  had  been  placed. 

Farnborough  Display.  The  display  at  Farn borough  of  the 
Society  of  British  Aircraft  Constructors,  held  in  Sept.  1950, 
again  showed  excellent  results  of  intensive  research  and 
development  on  gas  turbine-powered  tactical,  defence  and 
transport  aircraft.  New  bombers  in  the  medium  and  heavy 
classes  were  again  lacking,  and  heavy  bombers  above  150,000- 
Ib.  loaded  weight  were  not  planned,  though  some  projects  in 
the  150,000-lb.  medium  class  and  lighter  were  reported  to  be 
progressing  tqward  the  prototype  stage.  Vickers-Armstrongs, 
Ltd.,  were  said  to  be  leading  in  the  medium  jet  bomber  field, 


Three  helicopters  taking  part  in  demonstration  flights  at  the  Royal 
Air  Force  display  at  Farnborough,  Hampshire,  June  1950. 

and  others  reported  in  progress  were  the  Handley  Page 
tail-less  jet  bomber  and  a  Bristol  light  jet  bomber.  Delivery 
of  new  jet  bombers  by  the  middle  of  1951  was  expected  at 
the  end  of  1950. 

Night  fighters  shown  included  the  Gloster  Meteor  N.F.2, 
the  English  Electric  Canberra  2  and  the  de  Havilland  Venom 
N.F.2,  all  of  which  had  been  ordered  in  quantity.  The  Venom 
N.F.2  was  a  carrier-borne  fighter  having  a  crew  of  two, 
designed  for  both  all-weather  and  night-fighter  duties.  The 
Canberra  2,  with  its  two  Rolls-Royce  Avon  turbo-jets, 
impressed  observers  with  its  performance  as  its  predecessor 
had  in  1949,  and  was  scheduled  for  light  bombing  and  ground 
attack  as  well  as  night-fighter  duty.  In  addition  to  English 
Electric,  Handley  Page,  Short  and  Harland,  and  A.  V.  Roe 
were  manufacturing  this  aeroplane. 

Transition  of  the  Royal  Navy  to  jet-powered  equipment  was 
well  begun  in  1950  with  quantity  orders  for  the  Vickers 
Supermarine  Attacker  and  the  Hawker  Sea  Hawk  jet  fighters, 
and  the  Westland  Wyvern  turbine-propeller  fighter.  New 
anti-submarine  types  shown  at  Farnborough  included  the 
Blackburn  and  General  Y.B.I  and  the  Fairey  17,  both 
powered  by  coupled  Armstrong  Siddeley  Mamba  turbine- 
propeller  engines,  and  the  Short  and  Harland  SB. 3,  powered 
by  two  Mambas.  The  SB. 3  was  a  version  of  the  Sturgeon 
reconnaissance  bomber  and  naval  target  tower,  with  an 
underslung  nose  for  radar  equipment. 

Experimental  Aircraft.  Experimental  types  at  Farnborough 
included  the  Avro  707B  delta-wing  research  plane,  a  second 
version  of  the  707  shown  in  1949.  Six  707Bs  were  reported 
to  have  been  ordered.  This  was  the  first  of  a  planned  research 
series  intended  to  investigate  the  delta  wing  at  all  speeds  for 
its  suitability  as  a  bomber  wing.  The  Nene-powered  Boulton 
Paul  P. Ill,  not  shown  at  Farnborough,  was  first  flown  in 
October.  It  was  designed  for  transonic  speeds.  The  third  in 
this  planned  series  would  be  the  high-speed  Fairey  delta  wing, 
possibly  with  a  rocket  engine. 

Other  British  experimental  aircraft  in  various  design  stages, 


AIR    FORCES   OF   THE   WORLD 


31 


besides  the  jet  bombers  already  mentioned,  were  Fairey  and 
Gloster  jets,  a  de  Havilland  twin-jet  and  the  de  Havilland 
Comet  with  axial  jets.  (See  also  AIRCRAFT  MANUFACTURE; 
JET  PROPULSION  AND  GAS  TURBINES;  ROYAL  AIR  FORCE.) 

Canada.  The  Canadian-designed  front-line  fighter,  the  all- 
weather  Avro  CF.100,  was  first  flown  in  Jan.  1950,  powered 
by  two  Rolls-Royce  Avon  turbo-jets.  The  Royal  Canadian 
Air  Force  ordered  ten  of  these  in  1950,  which  would  probably 
be  powered  with  the  successful  Canadian  Avro  Orenda  axial 
turbo-jet.  Negotiations  were  reported  under  way  for  the 
manufacture  of  the  Orenda  in  several  European  countries. 
The  Avro  C.I 02  jet  liner  attracted  wide  attention  in  its  flights 
in  1950. 

Australia.  A  small  jet  research  plane,  designed  and  built 
entirely  in  Australia,  was  reported  late  in  1950.  It  was 
described  as  an  ultimate  guided  missile  for  fighter  and  anti- 
aircraft training,  capable  of  very  high  speed  and  rapid  rate  of 
climb  to  high  altitudes.  The  Armstrong  Siddeley  Adder,  the 
turbo-jet  version  of  the  Mamba,  was  used  in  the  prototype, 
which  was  flown  by  a  pilot.  The  pilotless  radio-controlled 
version  would  be  powered  by  the  Viper,  an  expendable  version 
of  the  Adder,  delivering  1,500  Ib.  thrust.  The  twin-jet  long- 
range  Australian  fighter  reported  in  1949  to  be  under  develop- 
ment was  expected  to  reach  the  prototype  stage  late  in  1950. 
It  would  have  all  swept-back  surfaces.  The  Rolls-Royce  Tay 
turbo-jet,  which  would  be  manufactured  in  Australia,  was 
expected  to  furnish  its  power.  Production  was  begun  on  the 
de  Havilland  Drover,  designed  as  a  light  civil  transport  for 
Australian  flying,  but  capable  of  use  as  a  military  freighter  or 
an  ambulance. 

United  States.  United  States  Air  Force.  Participation  in 
the  Korean  war  as  a  member  of  the  United  Nations  air-land- 
sea  team  took  precedence  over  other  U.S.  air  force  activities 
during  1950.  During  the  first  half  of  1950  budgetary  limita- 
tions had  necessitated  a  downward  readjustment  from 
previously  planned  strength.  In  spite  of  loss  of  personnel,  the 
closing  of  installations  and  the  curtailment  of  numerous 
plans,  the  air  force  sought  to  increase  its  fighting  capacity, 
and  to  this  end  advanced  a  programme  of  joint  training  with 
the  other  military  services.  When  war  broke  out  in  Korea  on 
June  25,  the  U.S.A.F.  accomplished  the  evacuation  of  U.S. 
nationals  from  the  area  of  conflict  with  troop  carrier  aircraft. 
F-80s  and  F-82s,  based  in  Japan,  protected  the  evacuation 
area  and  escorted  the  transport  planes.  As  a  result  of 
President  Truman's  decision  on  June  27  to  use  U.S.  air  and 
naval  forces  to  carry  out  the  mandate  of  the  United  Nations 
Security  council,  the  far  east  air  force  began  active  combat 
operations. 

F-51  (propeller-driven)  and  F-80  (jet)  fighters  helped  to 
stop  the  mechanized  advance  of  the  Korean  Communist 
army,  while  B-26  and  B-29  bombers  flew  far  behind  the  enemy 
ground  force  fighting  lines  to  attack  the  invader's  production, 
supply  and  distribution  plants,  and  depots.  After  initial 
resistance  by  North  Korean  aircraft  of  Soviet  manufacture, 
U.N.  forces  gradually  achieved  mastery  of  the  air. 

Construction  funds  were  made  available  during  Dec.  1949 
for  an  Aircraft  Control  and  Warning  system,  earlier  autho- 
rized by  congress,  and  in  Oct.  1950  the  air  force  announced  a 
speed-up  in  the  production  of  equipment  and  training  of  men 
to  put  the  system  into  operation  well  before  July  1951.  The 
Lockheed  F-94  (an  adaptation  from  the  F-80  day  interceptor) 
was  introduced  into  the  continental  air  defence  system  as  the 
first  jet  all-weather  interceptor.  The  strategic  air  command 
was  reorganized  to  give  each  of  its  three  air  forces  its  own 
reconnaissance  and  bombing  capabilities,  enabling  each  to 
work  as  a  separate  organization  in  launching  an  immediate 
counterstroke.  The  continental  air  command  (Con.A.C.) 
was  divided  into  three  major  commands,  Con.A.C.  retaining 
responsibility  for  the  administration  and  training  of  the 


U.S.A.F.  civilian  components.  The  tactical  air  command  had 
as  its  primary  mission  the  development  and  training  of  tactical 
support  aviation  in  conjunction  with  army  field  forces.  The 
air  defence  command  was  to  be  responsible  for  air  defence  of 
the  U.S.  The  air  force  special  weapons  command  was  estab- 
lished for  the  field  development  and  testing  of  equipment  and 
technique  relating  to  atomic  energy.  The  air  research  and 
development  command  was  established  to  provide  increased 
emphasis  on  the  qualitative  improvement  of  the  air  force. 
Largely  as  the  result  of  the  spring  exercise  in  the  supply  of 
large-scale  operations  entirely  by  strategic  air  lift,  the  mission 
of  the  military  air  transport  service  was  revised. 

As  an  immediate  result  of  the  Korean  conflict,  congress 
passed  legislation  authorizing  a  70-group  air  force,  suspended 
the  personnel  ceiling  and  made  supplementary  appropriations 
increasing  the  military  budget  for  fiscal  year  1951  from 
$13,000  million  to  $24,000  million.  By  the  end  of  Sept.  1950, 
approximately  1,100  of  the  2,800  rated  officers  previously 
removed  from  flying  status  were  restored.  Construction  was 
expedited.  There  was  a  general  acceleration  of  the  programme 
to  meet  increased  defence  needs,  but  the  air  force,  in  the 
second  half  of  1950,  continued  to  emphasize  the  long-range 
programme  especially  in  the  field  of  research  and  development. 

The  XF-91  interceptor  underwent  performance  tests 
during  the  year.  The  F-89  was  the  first  jet  aircraft  accepted  by 
the  air  force  specifically  designed  as  an  all-weather  interceptor. 
The  F-86D  was  an  all-weather  interceptor  version  of  the 
earlier  F-86  day  fighter.  The  jet  YF-93,  the  XF-88  and  the 
XF-90,  three  new  penetration  fighters,  were  evaluated. 
The  F-84F  was  an  improved  version  of  previous  F-84  models. 
The  XB-51,  a  light  bomber  with  crew  of  two,  was  the  first 
postwar  bomber  specifically  designed  for  ground  support 
work.  The  XG-20  was  a  medium  cargo  assault  glider,  capable 
of  being  towed  at  a  much  higher  speed  than  any  operational 
gliders  used  in  World  War  II.  The  XC-120  medium  transport 
was  a  detachable  compartment  version  of  the  C-119,  unique 
in  its  possibilities.  It  was  designed  to  test  the  feasibility  of 
preloaded  detachable  cargo  compartments. 

The  C-124  heavy  cargo  transport  represented  a  milestone 
in  air  transportation  because  of  its  capacity  and  adaptability. 
An  operational  flight  of  the  year  was  especially  significant. 
On  Sept.  22,  two  U.S.A.F.  pilots,  each  flying  an  F-84  Thunder- 
jet,  took  off  from  Manston,  England,  in  a  flight  that  made  use 


The  Avro  Canada  CF-100  jet  fighter,  first  flown  in  Jan.  1950. 


32 


AIR    FORCES   OF   THE   WORLD 


of  the  drogue-probe  refuelling  system.  Lieut.  Colonel 
William  D.  Ritchie  was  forced  to  bail  out  over  Labrador,  but 
Colonel  David  C.  Schilling  completed  the  first  non-stop 
transoceanic  flight  in  a  jet  aircraft  in  10  hr.  1  min.  On  Sept.  29 
Capt.  Richard  V.  Wheeler  established  a  new  (but  unofficial) 
high-altitude  bail-out  record  in  an  experimental  jump  from 
an  altitude  of  more  than  eight  miles  (42,449  ft.)  in  an  auto- 
matic opening  parachute. 

The  air  engineering  development  centre  authorized  by  the 
congress  in  Oct.  1949  to  provide  the  military  service,  private 
institutions  and  industry  with  facilities  for  exploring  the 
aeronautical  field  beyond  the  sonic  barrier,  which  was  under 
construction  at  Tullahoma,  Tennessee,  was  named  the 
Arnold  Air  Engineering  Development  centre  in  honour  of 
General  Henry  H.  Arnold,  who  died  on  Jan.  15,  1950. 

By  May  31,1 950,  the  total  number  of  officers  and  airmen  on 
duty  in  the  U.S.A.F.  had  declined  to  408,844.  By  the  end  of 
August,  command  strength  had  been  rebuilt  to  approximately 
450,000  officers  and  airmen,  with  almost  one-third  of  the 
total  deployed  overseas.  At  the  same  date,  there  were  approxi- 
mately 12,000  U.S.A.F  planes  in  active  status  (H.  S.  Vo.) 

United  States  Navy.  For  naval  aviation,  as  for  other  U.S. 
forces,  the  year  1950  was  clearly  divided.  The  first  six  months 
emphasized  the  continued  effort  to  reach  what  was  expected 
to  be  a  permanent  peacetime  establishment.  Then  late  in 
June  a  rapidly  deteriorating  international  situation  and  the 
necessity  for  supporting  United  Nations  forces  in  Korea 
caused  an  abrupt  reversal.  By  the  end  of  the  year  a  total  ot 
four  fleet  carriers  and  two  escort  carriers  had  engaged  in 
active  operations  in  Korean  waters.  Naval  pairol  aircraft 
flying  from  land  bases  or  supported  by  aircraft  tenders, 
conducted  daily  reconnaissance  flights  and  anti-submarine 
patrols.  The  first  marine  air  wing  also  operated  from  shore 
bases  in  Korea  and  Japan.  Transport  squadrons  of  the  navy 
and  marine  corps  joined  similar  units  of  the  air  force  in 
rushing  men  and  equipment  across  the  Pacific. 

New  equipment  and  aircraft  types,  notably  jets  and  new 
attack  planes,  received  thorough  test  under  combat  conditions. 
Helicopters  made  their  first  appearance  in  combat  with  the 
marines  carrying  supplies  to  forward  units  and  evacuating 
casualties.  The  navy  continued  to  press  the  design  qtf  improved 
jet-propelled  fighter  aircraft  for  carrier  use.  The  AJ-1,  a 
high-speed  attack  plane,  went  into  service  \yith  fleet  squadrons. 
Test-flying  was  begun  on  a  patrol  plane  (XP5Y)  and  a  carrier 
plane  (XA2D),  both  powered  by  turbo-propeller  engines. 
Equipment  was  devised  for  refuelling  airships  at  sea  and  thus 
extending  their  usefulness  in  anti-submarine  operations. 
Experiments  with  guided  missiles  aboard  submarines  and  on 
the  specially  equipped  U.S.S.  "  Norton  Sound "  were 
continued,  and  congress  authorized  the  conversion  of  a 
cruiser  to  a  guided  missiles  ship. 

There  were  three  large  Midway-class  carriers  and  six  fleet 
carriers  in  the  active  fleet  at  the  end  of  the  year.  About  3,400 
officers  and  24,000  enlisted  men  were  added  to  the  aero- 
nautical organization  of  the  navy  and  proportional  increases 
occurred  in  marine  corps  aviation.  Training  of  pilots  was 
increased  to  produce  about  1,500  yearly.  At  the  end  of  the 
year,  the  navy  had  about  13,700  aircraft  in  its  inventory,  of 
which  7,200  were  in  operating  status.  (J.  H.  C.) 

U.S.S.R.  Attention  in  the  west  was  centred  on  the  U.S.S. R. 
as  the  source  of  the  war  potential  in  the  east.  Aircraft  and 
armament  used  by  the  Chinese  Communists  and  the  North 
Koreans  were  manufactured  in  the  Soviet  Union.  The  Soviet 
air  force  was  placed  under  the  army  in  the  reorganization 
announced  in  Feb.  1950.  The  army  air  organization  consisted 
of  a  large  force  for  the  support  of  ground  troops,  an  air  defence 
force,  principally  of  fighters,  and  a  long-range  air  arm.  The 
navy  was  equal  to  the  army,  under  the  reorganization,  and  its 
aircraft  were  administered  as  integral  parts  of  the  navy. 


4  fy  W&  v  f-         ^  W  ^  „  f"  tF^  '^ 


;  *j<  '         *.'*» 


The   United  States  AD-3W  Skyr aider  powered  by  a   2,400  h.p. 
Wright  R-3350  engine. 

The  U.S.S.R.  undoubtedly  had  more  troops,  aeroplanes 
and  submarines  in  service  than  any  other  nation.  Western 
estimates  placed  the  number  of  Soviet  first-line  military 
aircraft  in  service  at  about  15,000.  Aeroplane  production  was 
estimated  to  be  7,000  planes  per  year  early  in  1950,  and  the 
country's  capacity  to  produce  planes  was  variously  estimated 
at  40,000  to  50,000  planes  per  year.  The  U.S.S.R.  was 
believed  to  have  continued  production  after  1945  without 
the  drastic  reductions  made  in  the  west,  at  the  same  time 
emphasizing  research  on  jet  types,  guided  missiles  and  the 
atomic  bomb.  At  the  annual  parades  in  May  each  year  new 
jet  types  were  flown  over  Red  square,  Moscow,  and  the 
Korean  war 'brought  the  MIG-15  fighter  into  action  for 
Communist  China.  These  fighters  were  also  reported  late  in 
1950  in  numbers  over  Berlin  and  other  Soviet  bases  in  Ger- 
many. 

The  Mikoyan  and  Gurevich  MIG-15  was  a  swept-wing 
fighter  powered  by  a  centrifugal  turbo-jet.  Its  speed  was 
reported  by  U.S.  pilots  in  Korea  to  be  very  high,  particularly 
during  bursts  when  power  boost  was  used.  The  two  standard 
advanced  fighters  in  production  in  1950  were  the  MIG-15  and 
the  Lavochkin  LA- 17,  both  rated  in  the  685-m.p.h.  class. 
With  afterburning  or  other  power  boost,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
MIG-15  in  Korea,  they  probably  could  travel  at  near-sonic 
speeds  for  short  intervals.  The  Yakovlev  YAK- 17  fighter, 
also  reported  to  be  in  production,  was  a  third  fighter  using  a 
centrifugal  jet  engine.  It  was  first  flown  in  1947,  and  resembled 
the  U.S.  F-84  Thunderjet.  Earlier  piston  fighters  such  as  the 
YAK-7  and  YAK-9,  used  in  Korea,  the  LA-7,  LA-9  and 
LA- 11  and  the  twin-jet  MIG-9,  were  still  in  service  in  large 
numbers  in  1950. 

Bomber  development  in  the  U.S.S.R.  was  not  emphasized 
up  to  about  1947.  In  World  War  II  Soviet  bombers  were 
typified  by  such  twin-engined  models  as  the  Tupolev  TU-2, 
llyushin  1L-4  and  the  Petlyakov  PE-2.  Twin-jet  prototypes 
were  observed  over  Moscow  in  May  1950.  The  twin-jet  TU-10 
was  an  axial  turbine-powered  light  bomber  of  70-ft.  wing 
span,  estimated  to  be  in  the  525-m.p.h.  class.  The  IL-16  four- 
jet  bomber,  first  seen  in  1947,  was  of  conventional  design. 
The  principal  Soviet  bomber  in  service  was  the  TU-4,  gener- 
ally considered  to  be  a  copy  of  the  U.S.  B-29.  The  IL-10 
piston-engined  Shturmovik  was  the  standard  ground-support 
aircraft  in  all  Soviet-controlled  air  forces.  Its  maximum 
speed  was  280  m.p.h.  It  was  seen  in  numbers  in  Germany. 

Rocket  fighter  development  in  the  U.S.S.R.  was  based  on 
the  YAK-21  derived  from  the  Messerschmitt  Me- 163  of 
World  War  II.  It  was  reported  capable  of  a  climbing  rate  of 
12,000  ft.  a  minute,  and  a  top  speed  of  670  m.p.h.,  for  a 
15-20  minute  duration. 


AIRPORTS 


33 


Soviet  Jet  Engines.  Soviet  engine  design  showed  in  1950  a 
trend  toward  more  powerful  axial-flow  types,  corresponding 
to  the  trend  in  the  west.  The  axial-flow  turbo-jet  designs 
taken  over  by  the  U.S.S.R.  from  Germany  in  1945  were 
developed  slowly  by  Soviet  and  German  engineers,  without 
conspicuous  success  for  the  first  several  years  after  World 
War  II.  The  best  of  the  Soviet  production  fighters  in  1950 
were  using  centrifugal  turbo-jets  based  on  the  Rolls-Royce 
Nene  and  Denvent  engines  sold  to  the  U.S.S.R.  in  1947. 
Later  aircraft  going  into  production  were  reported  to  be 
equipped  with  axial-flow  types.  The  German  BMW-003  and 
BMW-018  and  the  Jumo-004  were  the  basic  designs  for  the 
later  Soviet  turbo-jets. 

France.  The  best  military  aircraft  made  in  France  in  1950 
were  the  de  Havilland  Vampire  and  the  Dassault  M.D.  450 
Ouragan  (Hurricane).  One  was  a  British  fighter  being  built 
under  licence,  and  the  other  was  developed  by  a  private 
aircraft  company.  The  emphasis  was  upon  defensive  inter- 
ceptors. There  was  no  large  production  of  bombers,  no 
flying  delta-wing  research  planes  and  little  activity  in  missiles. 
The  Rolls-Royce  Nene,  built  under  licence,  was  the  only 
production  turbo-jet.  Production  on  the  more  powerful 
Rolls-Royce  Tay  was  scheduled  for  1951.  Apart  from  the 
Vampire,  the  French  air  forces  and  navy  were  equipped 
mostly  with  aircraft  from  World  War  II  surplus,  to  which 
U.S.  jet  aircraft  were  added  late  in  1950. 


The  British  Cluster  Meteor  m>/  /          /  //. 

Italy.  The  importation  of  de  Havilland  Vampire  fighters 
indicated  how  the  Italian  air  force  would  replace  some  of  its 
World  War  II  surplus  British  and  U.S.  planes  with  new 
jet-powered  equipment.  Tooling  was  reported  progressing 
late  in  1 950  for  the  production  under  licence  of  Vampire  and 
Venom  aeroplanes  and  Ghost  and  Goblin  turbo-jets.  The 
Italian  aircraft  industry's  activity  in  arranging  for  the  licensed 
manufacture  of  aircraft  and  engines  was  accompanied  by 
design  and  development  work  on  transports,  light  planes, 
trainers  and  fighters.  Breda  and  Savoia-Marchetti  transports, 
Fiat  and  Abrosini  trainers  and  ventures  into  jet  propulsion 
by  Caproni  and  Fiat  were  the  principal  developments  up  to 
the  end  of  1950.  The  Caproni  Ca.195  attracted  most  attention 
in  the  west.  It  was  described  as  a  conventional  modern 
fighter,  having  a  slightly  swept-back  leading  edge,  powered 
by  two  axial-flow  turbo-jets  producing  2,000  Ib.  thrust  for  a 
maximum  speed  of  565  m,p.h.  at  20,000  ft.  The  Fiat  G.80 
two-seat  jet  trainer  would  be  powered  by  a  de  Havilland 
Ghost  turbo-jet. 

Other  Countries.  According  to  the  trend  of  1950,  air  forces 
of  the  Atlantic  pact  nations  and  nations  friendly  to  the  west 
would  be  equipped  largely  with  U.S.  and  British  military 
aircraft,  by  purchase  or  by  licensed  manufacture.  Soviet 
satellites  would  be  largely  supplied  from  the  U.S.S.R.  Con- 
struction of  successful  jet  aircraft  and  engines  was,  however, 
in  progress  outside  the  U.S.  and  the  United  Kingdom.  The 


Saab  Aircraft  company,  supplier  of  numerous  aircraft  to  the 
Swedish  air  force,  was  reported  developing  a  successor  to  its 
J29  jet  fighter  of  1948.  In  the  Netherlands,  the  Fokker 
Derwent-powered  S.I 4  advanced  trainer  was  reported  nearing 
completion,  and  the  S.I 3  twin-engined  advanced  trainer 
prototype  was  flown  early  in  the  year.  This  company  was 
also  manufacturing  Gloster  Meteor  fighters  for  both  the 
Netherlands  and  the  Belgian  air  forces,  and  Hawker  Sea  Fury 
fighters  for  the  Dutch  navy.  From  the  Argentine  development 
was  reported  of  the  I.Ae.33  Fulqui  II  fighter,  a  swept-wing 
version  of  the  first  Argentine  jet  aeroplane  of  1947.  (See  also 
AIRCRAFT  MANUFACTURE;  JET  PROPULSION  AND  GAS  TUR- 
BINES; ROYAL  AIR  FORCE.)  (M.  H.  SM.;  S.  P.  J.) 

AIRPORTS.  Sir  Robert  Watson-Watt,  the  British 
radar  scientist,  commented  during  1950  on  the  backward 
state  of  air  traffic-control  equipment  as  established  at  air- 
ports and  on  airways  throughout  the  world:  much  of  the 
existing  radio  and  radar  used  in  civil  aviation  was  out-of- 
date  as  applied  to  conditions  at  that  moment;  and  most 
of  the  control  sets  had  been  adapted  from  former  military 
stock. 

This  opinion  was  shared  by  those  in  official  administration 
of  airports  and  was  particularly  significant  in  view  of  the 
approaching  era  of  jet  airliners  with  operational  speeds  of 
500  m.p.h.  Jet  aircraft  came  into  the  civil  picture  in  1950, 
but  for  operating-economy  had  to  fly  at  great  heights. 
Any  time  spent  in  the  air  at  low  altitudes,  such  as  was  the 
practice  for  piston-cngined  types  in  approach-procedures  to 
airports,  would  have  introduced  costly  and  sometimes 
impractical  conditions  for  the  new  class  of  high-speed  air- 
liners. Consequently  much  of  the  progress  in  airport  design 
and  construction  in  1950  was  rather  towards  improving  air 
traffic-control  equipment,  passenger-  and  freight-handling 
facilities  and  buildings  than  in  the  way  of  establishing  new 
airports.  In  a  number  of  instances  this  policy  of  improvement 
extended  to  the  lengthening  and  strengthening  of  runways 
and  other  hard  pavings  so  as  to  bring  existing  airports  up  to 
current  international  standards.  This  trend  was  especially 
noticeable  in  Europe,  where  for  example  a  rejuvenated 
Ciampino  airport  near  Rome  carried  the  greatly  increased 
air  traffic  for  the  Holy  Year  celebrations. 

Great  Britain.  Probably  of  great  importance  to  the  air- 
traffic-control  systems  of  the  future  was  the  installation  of 
long-range  radar  search -equipment  at  London  airport. 
By  this  means  controllers  were  able  to  direct  approaching 
and  departing  aircraft  on  scheduled  flights  within  their  area 
by  reference  to  a  radar  picture  showing  the  whole  sky  in 
azimuth  up  to  a  maximum  of  150  mi. 

A  decision  moreover  was  reached  on  Stage  3  development 
of  London  airport.  The  original  duplicate  "  triangular  " 
runway  scheme  north  of  the  Bath  road  was  abandoned  in 
favour  of  a  new  plan  on  that  site  to  construct  two  runways 
placed  end  to  end  and  running  east-west  but  slightly  divergent 
from  one  another.  The  object  of  this  off-set  arrangement  was 
to  provide  lateral  separation  for  aircraft  making  simultaneous 
landing  and  take-off. 

Africa.  A  new  airport  of  considerable  potentiality  was 
opened  to  traffic  on  Aug.  12  by  Lord  Pakenham,  British 
minister  of  civil  aviation,  at  Livingstone,  Northern  Rhodesia. 
This  airport,  classed  as  C.2  under  the  specifications  of  the 
International  Civil  Aviation  organization,  was  thought  to 
have  possibilities  as  a  cross-roads  of  air  routes  in  central 
and  southern  Africa;  and  its  proximity  to  the  Victoria  falls 
on  the  Zambezi  river  was  judged  to  be  a  great  tourist 
attraction. 

Similarly  the  new  main  Egyptian  air  terminal  established 
at  Farouk  airport  near  Cairo  was  said  to  ha\c  possibilities 
as  the  cross-roads  for  north  Africa  and  the  middle  east. 


34 


AIRPORTS 


The  largest  airport  in  Northern  Rhodesia  at  Livingstone,  c/s  seen  from  the  air.  The  airport  was  opened  in  Aug.  1950  by  the  British  minister 

of  civil  aviation,  Lord  Pakenham. 


India,  Pakistan  and  Australia.  Little  progress  was  reported 
towards  the  implementing  of  plans  to  extend  and  improve 
the  international  airports  in  these  countries.  Admittedly  the 
physical  problems  were  great:  notably  the  surrounding 
foothills  at  Santa  Cruz  (Bombay),  the  swampy  site  of  Dum 
Dum  (Calcutta),  the  need  for  the  reclamation  of  part  of 
Botany  bay  for  runway  extension  at  Kingsford  Smith 
(Mascot,  Sydney)  and  constructional  difficulties  for  a  dupli- 
cate main  runway  at  Drigh  Road  (Karachi). 

Argentina.  The  new  airport  near  Buenos  Aires  at  Ezeiza 
became  fully  operational  during  1950,  with  three  runways 
capable  of  taking  the  largest  and  heaviest  airliners  and  with 
adequate  means  for  passenger-  and  freight-handling. 

United  States.  With  initial  operational  problems  settled,  the 
new  international  airport  of  Idlewild,  Jamaica  bay,  controlled 
by  the  Port  of  New  York  authority,  was  handling  greatly 
increased  traffic  in  1950.  On  the  constructional  side,  some 
alleviation  of  the  %k  dust  bowl  "  nuisance  was  gained  by 
the  planting  of  sea-grass  and  more  hangars  of  the  unobstruc- 
ted arch  type  were  erected. 

As  regards  New  York's  "  internal  "  services,  La  Guardia 
airport  reached  almost  saturation-point  in  aircraft  move- 
ments: on  one  day  alone  some  630  were  logged  in  and  out. 
Newark  airport,  New  Jersey  was  being  developed,  obviously 
to  take  much  of  that  congested  traffic;  accordingly  a  very 
advanced  design  of  terminal  building  was  planned,  and 
"  pre-positioned  "  services  for  fuelling,  lubricating,  electrical 
charging  etc.  were  being  laid  **  on  tap  "  to  supersede  the 
almost  universal  practice  at  airports  of  servicing  aircraft 
by  mobile  tender.  (C.  F.  As.) 

The  1947  National  Airport  plan  and  the  1948  and  1949 
revisions  were  based  on  a  three-year  forecast  of  the  needs  of 
civil  aviation  in  the  United  States.  The  1950  National  Airport 
plan,  accordingly,  was  assembled  as  revision  and  refinement 
of  the  preceding  plans  and  showed  a  projected  three-year 
forecast  of  aviation  needs.  It  reflected  an  up-to-date  appraisal 


of  the  way  airports  were  serving  the  nation  and  what  was 
required  to  round  out  safely  and  effectively  the  National 
Airport  system. 

The  fiscal  summary  of  the  1947-50  federal  airport  pro- 
gramme indicated  that  the  federal  government  had  expended 
or  committed  the  sum  of  $130,731,802  for  airport  develop- 
ment and  that  the  sponsors'  contribution  (state  or  territory) 
amounted  to  $140,741,656  for  a  total  programme  of 
$271,473,458. 

Civil  airports  in  Jan.  1950  numbered  6,484  and  were 
classified  as  follows:  class  1  and  below  (length  from  less  than 
1,800  ft.  to  2,700  ft.)  4,100;  class  2  (from  2,700  ft.  to  3,700  ft.) 
1,027;  class  3  (from  3,700ft.  to  4,700ft.)  576;  class  4  (from 
4,500  ft.  to  5,500  ft.)  445;  class  5  (from  5,500  ft.  to  6,500  ft.) 
1 85 ;  classes  6,  7,  8  and  (from  6,500  ft.  by  thousands  to  9,500  ft. 
and  more)  149.  (Lengths  were  increased  for  elevations 
above  sea  level;  classes  1,  2  and  3  had  lengths  decreased  by 
200ft.  if  paved;  classes  4-9  had  to  have  at  least  one  paved 
runway  of  a  specified  length.)  Of  these  airports  2,585  were 
commercial,  2,200  municipal,  139  Civil  Aeronautics  adminis- 
tration landing  fields  and  350  military,  with  1,210  of  other 
types. 

Airports  for  scheduled  air  service  were  assigned  service 
types  as  defined  in  the  Civil  Aeronautics  administration's 
technical  standard  order  N6a  as  follows:  feeder  type  (up 
to  3,500ft.),  for  feeder-type  service;  trunk  type  (3,500  to 
4,200ft.),  to  serve  on  air-line  trunk  routes;  express  type 
(4,200  to  5,000  ft.),  at  large  cities  or  important  junctions  on 
trunk  routes;  continental  type  (5,000  to  5,900ft.),  serving 
long  non-stop  continental  flights;  intercontinental  type 
(5,900  to  7,000  ft.),  serving  long  intercontinental  or  trans- 
oceanic flights;  intercontinental  express  type  (7,000  to 
8,400ft.),  serving  transoceanic  flights  of  largest  types  of 
aircraft.  Lengths  were  increased  for  elevation,  temperature 
and  gradient. 

A  three-year  study  of  what  was  required  to  develop  a 


AIR    RACES   AND   RECORDS— ALASKA 


35 


high-efficiency  air  freight  terminal  had  reached  a  stage 
late  in  1950  where  specifications  for  the  terminal  and  related 
components  were  nearly  complete.  In  devising  a  terminal 
for  efficient  freight  flow,  a  basic  functioning  part  of  the  plan 
for  an  air  freight  depot  was  found  to  be  a  flexible,  portable 
ramp  device  designed  to  eliminate,  by  bridging  the  aeroplane 
door  to  a  terminal  dock,  the  high  hoist  that  makes  aeroplane 
cargo  loading  a  time-consuming  and  expensive  operation. 
(See  also  AVIATION,  CIVIL.)  (E.  M.  E.) 

AIR   RACES   AND   RECORDS.  The  classic  events 

of  British  air  racing  in  1950  were  again  dispersed  to  a  number 
of  provincial  centres.  Although  the  circuits  necessarily  varied, 
each  race  was  flown  as  a  handicap  over  a  number  of  short 
laps  based  on  the  home  aerodrome  thus  enabling  some 
competitors  to  attempt  speed  records  over  the  100-km. 
closed  circuit  within  weight  categories  laid  down  by  the 
Federation  Ae>onautique  Internationale. 

The  King's  cup,  flown  on  June  17  over  a  three-lap  course 
centred  on  Wolverhampton,  was  won  by  E.  Day,  flying  a 
Miles  Hawk  trainer.  F.  Dunkerley,  in  his  Miles  Gemini 
(representing  the  Lancashire  Aero  club),  was  again  successful 
in  the  Siddeley  trophy,  held  on  Sept.  2,  and  in  the  Kemsley 
trophy  contest.  Five  world  class  records  over  the  100-km. 
closed  circuit  were  set  up  during  the  King's  cup  race,  among 
them  Miss  R.  M.  Sharpens  322 -5  m.p.h.  in  a  wartime  Spit- 
fire; this  was  also  a  British  women's  record. 

The  two-lap  Air  League  Challenge  cup  race  (won  by 
W.  I.  Lashbrook,  Percival  Proctor)  and  the  Society  of  British 
Aircraft  Constructors*  Challenge  cup  contest  for  jet-powered 
aircraft  were  flown  over  the  same  course  at  Sherburn-in- 
Elmet,  Leeds,  on  July  22.  The  S.B.A.C.  race  was  won  at  an 
average  speed  of  533  m.p.h.  by  M.  J.  Lithgow,  piloting  a 
Vickers-Supermarine  Attacker.  Another  100-km.  world 


Two  light  aircraft  taking  part  in  the  Bournemouth  to  Herne  Bay 
air  race  in  Sept.  1950 


record  was  achieved — L.  R.  Colquhoun's  209-46  m.p.h.  with 
a  Vickers-Supermarine  Seagull — a  new  record  for  amphibians. 

An  entirely  new  race  was  organized  by  the  Daily  Express 
along  the  south  coast  of  England  from  Hum,  Hampshire, 
to  Herne  Bay,  Kent,  on  Sept.  16.  This  attracted  an  entry  of 
67  aircraft  and  was  won  in  a  Proctor  by  N.  W.  Charlton, 
who  had  started  48th. 

An  important  world  record  was  captured  for  Great  Britain 
on  May  12  by  J.  R.  Cooksey,  flying  a  Gloster  Meteor  8, 
This  was  the  1,000-km.  closed  circuit  at  511  m.p.h.  (822  25 
km.p.h.). 

From  July  1,  aircraft  using  rocket-assisted  take-off  were 
eligible  for  F.A.I,  speed  record  attempts.  Other  important 
changes  in  the  rules  were  provision  for  speed  records  over  a 
15-25  km.  course  at  unlimited  altitudes  (instead  of  over  3  km. 
at  a  height  of  below  200  m.),  and  the  introduction  of  rate-of- 
climb  records.  In  addition,  the  F.A.h  divided  certain  world 
records  into  two  main  categories:  piston-powered  and  jet* 
propelled. 

A  number  of  international  course  records  (hitherto  known 
as  point-to-point  records)  were  set  up  during  the  year,  notably 
seven  by  the  prototype  de  Havilland  Comet,  piloted  by  J. 
Cunningham;  three  of  these  were  later  exceeded.  (G.  D.  H.  L.) 

ALASKA,  including  the  Aleutian  Islands,  the  northern- 
most territory  of  the  United  States  is  separated  from  Siberian 
U.S.S.R.  by  the  Bering  strait.  The  boundary  line  runs 
between  the  Big  Diomede  Island  (Soviet)  and  the  Little  Dio- 
mede  Island  (U.S.).  Area:  586,400  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1940 
census)  72,524;  (1950  census)  128,643,  excluding  U.S.  mili- 
tary, naval  or  coastguard  personnel.  Chief  towns  (pop. 
1950):  Juneau  (cap.,  5,818);  Anchorage  (11,060);  Fairbanks 
(5,625);  Ketchikan  (5,202);  Petersburg  (2,291).  Governor 
since  1939,  Ernest  Grueninc. 

History.  An  epidemic  of  infantile  paralysis  broke  out  in 
Alaska  during  1950  and  at  the  end  of  the  year  70  cases  were 
reported  in  the  territory,  the  majority  of  them  in  the  interior 
area  around  Fairbanks.  Advances  were  made  in  improving 
the  hospital  system.  A  new  400-bcd  sanatorium  was  com- 
pleted at  Anchorage ;  a  40-bed  wing  was  added  to  St.  Joseph's 
hospital;  a  new  34-bed  hospital  was  finished  at  Nome  and 
125  beds  Were  added  at  Mt.  Edgecumbe  sanatorium  near 
Sitka.  The  latter  institution  previously  had  200  beds. 

Millions  of  dollars  went  into  the  building  up  of  the  defences 
in  Alaska  in  1950.  The  army  and  navy  were  spending  more 
than  $120  million  for  construction,  and  more  than  $4  million 
more  was  earmarked  for  improving  the  Alaska  communica- 
tion system,  a  branch  of  the  army.  Another  $1,500,000  was 
being  spent  to  repair  the  Alaska  railroad,  a  government- 
owned  line  which  operates  through  interior  Alaska  from 
Seward  to  Fairbanks  and  to  Whitticr,  a  port,  like  Seward, 
on  the  southwest  coast. 

Education.  Alaska  in  1950  had  32  high  schools  with  2,169  pupils 
and  182  teachers;  94  elementary  schools  with  10,727  pupils  and  471 
teachers.  For  native  children,  the  Alaska  native  service,  a  division 
of  the  U.S.  Department  of  the  Interior,  maintained  85  day  schools  and 

3  boarding  schools,  with  5,000  pupils. 

Fisheries.  Alaska's  salmon  pack,  considered  the  largest  in  the  world, 
totalled  3,177,003  cases  in  1950  with  a  value  of  $85  million.  The 
halibut,  shrimp,  crab  and  cod  fishery  brought  the  total  value  of  the 
sea-food  pack  of  the  territory  up  to  more  than  $100  million  for  the 
year. 

Mining.  Total  value  of  mineral  production  for  1950  was  slightly 
more  than  $15  million,  gold  accounting  for  $8  million  while  the  balance 
represented  coal,  silver,  copper,  lead,  zinc  and  platinum.  The  gold 
strike  of  1949  in  the  Yukon  river  area  northeast  of  Fairbanks  failed  to 
develop  in  1950.  The  few  claims  which  revealed  possible  bonanza 
production  could  show  no  colour  worthy  of  production  on  large-scale 
operation. 

Banking  and  Finance.  Net  cash  balance  (end  of  1950):  $2,728,117. 
Alaska  has  no  bonded  indebtedness  and  operates  on  a  cash  basis. 
Funds  of  the  territory  were  deposited  in  the  17  territorial  banks  and 

4  national  banks  situated  in  Alaska.  >    (L.  M.  W.) 


36 


ALBANIA— ALGERIA 


ALBANIA.  People's  republic  in  the  western  part  of  the 
Balkan  peninsula  bounded  N.  and  E.  by  Yugoslavia  and  S. 
by  Greece,  with  an  Adriatic  coastline  of  200 mi.  Area: 
10,629  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1930  census)  1,003,097;  (mid-1950 
est.)  1,300,000.  Language:  literary  Albanian  and  two 
spoken  dialects,  the  Gheg  north  of  the  river  Shkumbi  and  the 
Task  in  the  south.  Religion  (1949  est.):  Moslem  820,000; 
Greek  Orthodox  250,000;  Roman  Catholic  115,000.  Chief 
towns  (1949  est.):  Tirana  (cap.,  40,000);  Scutari  or  Shkoder 
(30,000);  Koritsa  or  Korce  (28,000);  Elbasan  (18,000). 
Chairman  of  the  presidium  of  the  People's  Assembly,  Dr. 
Omer  Nishani;  prime  minister,  minister  of  foreign  affairs  and 
of  national  defence,  General  Enver  Hoxha. 

History.  The  Communist  government  remained  subservient 
to  Soviet  policy  and  there  was  no  change  in  the  hostile 
attitude  towards  Greece  and  Yugoslavia.  Hunger,  approaching 
famine  in  winter,  and  widespread  disease  were  the  results  of  a 
year  of  political  and  economic  isolation.  This  situation  was 
only  partially  relieved  at  the  end  of  the  year  by  shipments  of 
consumer  goods  and  light  industrial  equipment  from  the 
Soviet  Union  and  its  satellites.  Repeated  government  claims 
of  success  in  industry  through  the  employment  of  "  stakhano- 
vi te  "  methods  and  in  agriculture  by  the  development  of  the 
Soviet  collective  system,  were  exaggerated.  A  realistic 
picture  of  the  situation  was  given  on  March  9  when  four 
senior  government  officials,  including  the  minister  of  industry, 
Abedin  Shehu,  were  expelled  from  the  central  committee  of 
the  Communist  party  for  what  was  termed  **  serious  errors 
and  mistakes  in  state  and  party  work."  One  month  later, 
on  April  10,  Enver  Hoxha,  addressing  tho  second  national 
conference  of  the  party  at  Tirana,  stated  that  more  than  5,000 
"  enemies  of  the  people  "  had  been  chased  by  the  defence 
corps  over  the  border  into  Yugoslavia.  The  prime  minister 
also  condemned  the  minister  of  industry  for  the  failure  of 
the  economic  plan. 

Two  espionage  trials,  at  which  six  Albanians  were  accused 
of  spying  on  behalf  of  the  western  powers,  preceded  the 
general  election  on  May  28.  Full  publicity  given  to  the  death 
sentences  provided  a  resentful  electorate  with  a  timely 
reminder  of  their  expected  loyalty  to  the  regime.  There  were 
the  usual  single  lists  of  Communist  candidates  in  121  constitu- 
encies, each  with  an  electorate  of  about  lO.CKXt.  Official 
results  claimed  an  outstanding  victory.  Out  of  99-43%  of 
the  electorate  who  voted  98  •  99  %  votes  *  were  cast  for  the 
[Democratic  front  (Communist)  candidates. 

On  May  30  Yugoslavia  closed  its  legation  in  Tirana  after 
protesting  against  numerous  frontier  incidents  and  mal- 
treatment of  its  diplomatic  officials.  During  the  year  western 
diplomatic  representation  remained  restricted  to  the  French 
and  Italian  legations.  Great  Britain's  attempts  to  obtain 
compensation,  awarded  by  the  International  Court  of 
Justice,  for  the  damage  caused  to  its  two  destroyers  by  mines 
in  the  Corfu  channel  in  1947  were  unsuccessful. 

The  United  Nations  Special  Committee  on  the  Balkans 
established  that  the  government  had  actively  interfered  in 
Greek  affairs  by  providing  both  the  arms  and  the  means  for 
Greek  Communists  to  return  to  Greece  after  they  had  received 
a  period  of  political  and  sabotage  training  in  Poland  under 
Soviet  instruction.  It  was  learned  that  the  majority  of  Greek 
guerrillas  who  had  escaped  to  Albania  in  1948  had  been 
removed  by  ship  to  Rumania  and  Poland. 

In  September  there  was  a  Soviet  month  of  culture  and  a 
Korean  friendship  week,  during  which  funds  were  collected 
for  the  North  Koreans.  Delegations  of  technicians,  workers, 
Orthodox  and  Moslem  clergy  and  peasants  visited  the 
U.S.S.R.  to  learn  Soviet  methods.  A  Soviet  mission,  com- 
posed of  more  than  3,000  technicians,  directed  the  construc- 
tion of  a  railway  line  from  Durazzo  (Durres)  to  Tirana  and 
the  erection  of  port  installations  at  Valona  (Vlore).  Despite  the 


faithful  allegiance  of  the  government  to  Moscow,  Albania 
was  not  granted  membership  of  the  Cominform  nor  was 
she  brought  into  the  network  of  mutual  aid  treaties,  which 
bind  all  the  other  satellites  to  the  Soviet  Union. 

The  Free  Albania  committee,  composed  of  anti-Communist 
leaders  in  exile,  continued  its  activity  in  Rome.  Hasan 
Dosti  was  appointed  chairman  and  Ihsan  Toptani  became 
the  Albanian  representative  on  the  eastern  section  of  the 
European  movement.  (S.  E.  Ws.) 

Education.  Schools  (1949):  elementary  It910,  pupils  162,000;  higher 
elementary  145,  secondary  20,  total  pupils  19,140.  A  teachers'  college 
was  opened  at  Tirana  in  1946. 

Agriculture.  Main  crops  ('000  metric  tons):  maize  (1947)  140;  wheat 
(1947)  54;  tobacco  (1945)  1  -5;  olives  (prewar)  17;  grapes  (prewar)  14. 
Livestock  ('000  head):  cattle  and  buffaloes  (1945-46)  371;  sheep  (1946) 
1,700;  horses  (1946  est.)  50;  pigs  (1946  est.)  35;  goats  (1946  est.)  854; 
asses  (1946  est.)  40;  mules  (1946  est.)  10;  chickens  (1938)  2,000. 

Industry.  Crude  oil  production  ('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950,  six 
months,  in  brackets):  325  (165). 

Foreign  Trade.  Before  1939,  main  imports  were  cotton  yarns  and 
manufactures,  petrol,  wheat  and  maize.  Main  exports  were  crude 
petroleum,  skins  and  hides,  foodstuffs. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Roads  (1949):  1,766  mi.  Licensed 
motor  vehicles  (Dec.  1949):  cars  500;  commercial  1,200.  Railways 
(1949):  26  mi.  Shipping  (1949):  number  of  merchant  vessels  6.  Post 
and  telegraph  offices  53.  Radio  receiving  sets  (1949)  40,000. 

Finance.  Monetary  unit:  lek,  until  mid- 1948  at  par  with  the  Yugoslav 
dinar,  with  an  official  exchange  rate  139  lek  to  the  pound  and  49-6 
lek  to  the  U.S.  dollar. 

See  "  Isolation  of  Albania,"  The  Times,  London,  Feb.  1,  1950; 
Vandeleur  Robinson,  **  Albania :  a  Balkan  Bridgehead,"  The  World 
Today,  London,  Feb.,  1950. 

ALDER,  KURT,  German  chemist  (b.  July  10,  1902), 
obtained  the  degree  of  doctor  of  philosophy  from  the  Uni- 
versity of  Kiel,  where  he  was  a  pupil  of  Otto  Diels  (^.v.).  He 
was  appointed  extraordinary  professor  of  chemistry  at  Kiel 
in  1934  but  later  went  to  occupy  the  chair  of  chemistry  and 
chemical  technology  at  Cologne.  In  1950  the  Nobel  prize  for 
chemistry  was  awarded  jointly  to  Diels  and  Alder  for  their 
work  on  dienc  synthesis  (the  Diels-Aldcr  reaction).  Diene 
synthesis  is  concerned  with  the  formation  of  complex  organic 
compounds  such  as  plastics  and  is  of  great  practical  as  well  as 
theoretical  importance.  The  discovery  was  an  outstanding 
achievement  of  organic  chemistry,  such  as  would  establish  the 
names  of  Diels  and  Alder  permanently  in  the  annals  of  their 
science.  Their  first  paper  on  the  reaction  was  published  in 
1928.  Alder,  who  was  still  working  on  the  diene  synthesis  in 
1950,  made  important  contributions  to  the  stereochemistry 
and  the  energetics  of  the  process.  (W.  J.  BP.) 

ALGERIA.  French  territory  of  north  Africa,  situated 
between  Morocco  (west)  and  Tunisia  (east),  with  a  status 
of  government  general  of  the  French  Union.  Total  area: 
851,078  sq.mi.,  administered  in  two  parts:  Northern  Algeria 
(80,919  sq.mi.),  comprising  the  overseas  departements  of 
Algiers,  Oran  and  Constantine,  and  the  four  territories  of 
Southern  Algeria  (770,159  sq.mi.).  Pop.:  (1936  census) 
7,234,684;  (1948  census)  8,676,016  including  816,993  (9-4%) 
in  the  southern  territories.  Arabs  and  Berbers  constitute 
86-7%  of  the  population;  they  are  Moslem  and  speak 
Arabic,  though  the  countryfolk  of  Kabylia  still  use  the  Berber 
tongue.  In  1936  there  were  987,252  Europeans  in  Algeria 
(predominantly  Roman  Catholic),  including  853,209  French 
citizens  (many  of  Spanish  or  Italian  descent).  There  was  a 
flourishing  Jewish  community  estimated  in  1949  at  130,000. 
The  Algerian  Assembly,  which  has  the  representative  nature 
of  a  parliament,  consists  of  120  members  elected  by  two 
colleges.  In  the  first  college  there  are  all  citizens  of  French 
status  and  Moslems  distinguished  by  military,  university, 
administrative  or  judicial  qualifications;  in  the  second  college 
are  grouped  all  other  Moslem  citizens.  It  is  the  task  of  the 
Assembly  to  manage  Algerian  affairs  in  agreement  with  the 


ALIENS 


37 


governor  general.  It  passes  the  budget  and  possesses  statutory 
powers  in  fields  which  in  metropolitan  France  are  objects  of 
legislation.  It  may  propose  to  the  French  parliament  the 
extension  of  a  law  to  Algeria;  or  it  is,  at  the  least,  called  upon 
for  advice.  The  governor  general  has  wide  powers.  Chief 
towns  (1948  census):  Algiers  (cap.,  315,210);  Gran  (256,661); 
Constantine  (118,774);  Bone  (102,823);  Tlemcen  (69,668). 
Governor  general  (appointed  in  1948),  Marcel-Edmond 
Naegelen. 

History.  Despite  constant  bitter  attacks  by  the  Nationalist 
Democratic  Union  of  the  Algerian  Manifesto  (U.D.M.A.  or 
Union  D6mocratique  du  Manifeste  Algerien,  led  by  Ferhat 
Abbas)  in  its  organ  La  Rtpublique  Algerienne,  and  notwith- 
standing violent  pan-Arab  opposition  by  the  Movement  for 
the  Triumph  of  Democratic  Liberties  (M.T.L.D.  or  Mouve- 
ment  pour  le  Triomphe  des  Libertes  Democratiques,  led  by 
Messali  Haj),  conditions  remained  calm.  Public  opinion 
appeared  little  disturbed  by  the  plot  engineered  by  the 
paramilitary  organization  of  the  M.T.L.D.,  which  in  May  led 
to  many  arrests.  Of  greater  importance  was  the  action  taken 
by  the  ulemas  to  ensure  the  independence  of  the  Moslem 
faith  in  relation  to  the  state  and  to  develop  the  teaching  of 
Arabic.  The  president  and  vice  president  of  their  association 
in  December  visited  Paris  to  petition  the  government  for  full 
religious  liberty.  Under  the  education  scheme  500  new 
classes  with  capacity  of  25,000  pupils  were  opened  for 
instruction  in  French.  The  extension  by  special  enactment  of 
the  term  of  office  of  the  governor  general  Naegelen,  which 
by  the  statute  of  the  National  Assembly  (of  which  he  is  a 
member)  was  due  to  expire  in  August,  gave  rise  to  discussion. 

The  country  depends  mainly  on  agriculture  the  total 
production  in  which  amounted  in  1949  to  Fr.  128,200  million. 
Wine,  figs  and  dates  failed  to  reach  the  estimated  export 
targets.  The  index  number  of  mining  production  rose  from 
100  in  1945  to  223  in  1949.  Prospects  for  the  development  of 
the  manufacture  of  paper  from  alfalfa  grass,  and  of  cement 
seemed  promising.  During  the  first  half  of  1950  the  adverse 
balance  of  trade  showed  no  signs  of  improvement. 

Agriculture.  Main  crops  (1949,  '000  metric  tons):  wheat  946-4; 
barley  890-4;  oats  142-3;  citrus  fruits  223;  olives  125;  figs  80;  dates 
105;  tobacco  20;  vegetables  544;  wine  ('000  hi.)  14,467.  Livestock 
(1949,  *000  head):  cattle  747;  sheep  3,839;  goats  2,596;  pigs  160;  horses 
204;  asses  255;  mules  230;  camels  138. 

Industry.  Mineral  production  (1949,  '000  metric  tons);  phosphate 
rock  644-8;  coal  258;  iron  ore  2,536-9;  zinc  ore  17-4.  Industrial 
production  (1949,  metric  tons):  pig  iron  6,418;  steel  893;  copper  3,721  ; 
cement  128,000;  superphosphates  87,888;  telephonic  cables  4,193; 
matches  128  million  boxes. 

Foreign  Trade.  (Million  francs,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets) 
imports  127,521  (72,492);  exports  88,709  (50,636). 

Transport  and  Communications.  Railways  (1947):  4,338  km.  Metalled 
roads  (1947):  northern  Algeria  52,519  km.,  southern  Algeria  282  km.; 
non-metalled  roads  15,046km.;  tracks  20,575km.  Motor  vehicles 
licensed  (Jan.  1948):  cars  26,165,  coaches  1,003,  taxis  1,387,  lorries 
19,895.  Ships  entered  (1949):  Algiers  3,041,  Oran  2,437;  cargo  unloaded 
(in  all  ports,  '000  metric  tons):  2,910-2,  loaded  5,811-8.  Air  transport 
(1949):  aircraft  landed  10,916;  passengers  flown:  arrivals  118,700, 
departures  147,000;  freight  carried  (metric  tons)  19,324,  mail  860. 
Telephone  subscribers  (1949):  56,000. 

Finance.  Budget  (1950-51  est.,  the  fiscal  year  beginning  April  1): 
revenue  Fr.  72,530  •  1  million,  expenditure  Fr.  72,508  -9  million.  Algerian 
franc=metropolitanfranc;£l-Fr.980;  U.S.  $  =  Fr.350.  (C.  A.  J.) 


ALIENS.  Great  Britain.  The  number  of  aliens  over  16 
years  of  age  registered  in  the  United  Kingdom  on  Oct.  1, 
1950,  was  426,437  (males  261,915;  females  164,522),  of  whom 
139,994  were  living  in  the  metropolitan  police  district  (Lon- 
don). The  figure  on  Jan.  1  was  430,058.  The  principal 
nationalities  represented  and  the  numbers  of  each  compared 
with  similar  figures  at  the  same  date  in  1949  were:  Austrian 
10,037  (11,034);  Belgian  5,520  (6,467);  Chinese  9,725  (9,367); 
Czechoslovak  6,017  (7,207);  Dutch  9,117  (9,158);  Estonian 
5,599  (5,816);  French  14,901  (14,087);  German  47,762 


(44,249);  Hungarian  4,996  (5,536);  Italian  21,672  (18,667); 
Latvian  13,794(13,855);  Lithuanian  6,860  (7, 165);  Norwegian 
5,966  (5,868);  Polish  145,524  (150,378);  Russian  38,172 
(40,785);  Swiss  12,878  (13,107);  U.S.  18,283  (16,656).  The 
figures  included  11,000  aliens  to  whom  no  nationality  could 
be  attributed. 

Among  aliens  not  required  to  register  and  therefore  not 
included  in  these  figures  were  members  of  the  diplomatic 
and  consular  services  of  foreign  governments,  certain  officials 
of  international  organizations,  members  of  Allied  forces  on 
duty,  British  protected  persons  and  tourists  and  other 
visitors  who  spent  less  than  two  months  in  the  U.K. 

The  flow  of  foreign  passenger  traffic  through  United  King- 
dom ports  continued  to  be  heavy,  and  the  number  of  incoming 
travellers  remained  at  nearly  650,000.  In  July  1950,  1 14,738 
foreigners  landed  at  United  Kingdom  ports,  and  97,062 
embarked.  Similar  figures  in  July  1949  were  101,768,  and 
84,076.  Further  steps  were  taken  to  reduce  formalities  at 
ports  of  arrival  and  to  facilitate  the  passage  of  tourists 
through  the  necessary  controls. 

As  a  result  of  individual  visa  agreements,  nationals  of  the 
following  countries  were  not  required  to  obtain  visas  for 
travel  to  the  United  Kingdom:  Belgium,  Denmark,  France, 
Iceland,  Italy,  Liechtenstein,  Luxembourg,  Monaco,  the 
Netherlands,  Norway,  San  Marino,  Sweden,  Switzerland  and 
the  United  States. 

By  Oct.  1,  1950,  some  77,000  aliens,  mostly  of  Polish  or 
Baltic  origin,  who  had  been  temporarily  accommodated  in 
displaced  persons  camps  on  the  continent,  had  been  admitted 
for  employment  in  the  United  Kingdom  with  a  view  to 
settlement.  With  them  came  nearly  4,000  dependants.  These 
foreigners  were  restricted  *  to  employment  in  undermanned 
industries  but  from  Jan.  1,  1951,  those  with  three  years  resi- 
dence would  be  free  to  take  any  work  they  could  obtain. 

Out  of  the  174,000  Polish  servicemen  brought  to  the 
United  Kingdom  after  mid- 1945,  some  61 ,500  were  repatriated 
and  17,000  assisted  to  emigrate.  The  remainder  settled  in 
civilian  life  in  Great  Britain,  and  31,000  persons  dependent 
on  them  were  brought  from  abroad  to  join  them.  During 
1950  about  2,000  further  Polish  refugees  were  admitted 
from  the  I  ebanon  and  east  Africa. 

The  number  of  foreigners  admitted  after  the  end  of  World 
War  II  under  compassionate  schemes  introduced  to  allow 
relatives  in  the  United  Kingdom  to  offer  homes  to  aliens  in 
isolated  and  distressed  circumstances  abroad,  or  the  victims 
of  political  persecution,  rose  to  over  7,000.  During  1950 
the  government  agreed  to  admit  2,000  displaced  persons  in 
the  care  of  the  International  Refugee  organization  in  Germany 
or  Austria,  provided  their  accommodation  and  maintenance 
were  guaranteed  by  individuals  or  organizations  in  the  United 
Kingdom.  About  2,000  foreigners  were  allowed  to  remain 
in  the  United  Kingdom  after  marriage  to  British  subjects. 

In  1950  about  36,000  permits  were  issued  for  non-resident 
foreigners  to  come  and  work  in  the  United  Kingdom  for 
periods  of  varying  length.  This  maintained  the  average  of 
previous  years.  The  majority  of  permits  were  for  domestic 
employment  in  hospitals,  institutions  and  private  households. 

Between  Jan.  1  and  Oct.  1,  1950,  5,702  new  applications  for 
naturalization  were  lodged,  compared  with  a  yearly  average 
of  1,708  before  World  War  11,  and  5,610  for  the  same  period 
in  1949.  Certificates  granted  during  the  same  period  numbered 
5,197,  an  annual  rate  of  approximately  6,950  as  compared 
with  9,066  in  1949.  The  number  of  applications  received 
immediately  after  World  War  II  was  abnormally  high  and  the 
time  taken  in  dealing  with  individual  applications  was 
necessarily  slower.  The  decrease  in  the  number  of  certificates 
granted  in  1950  indicated  that  the  bulk  of  the  postwar 
applications  had  been  disposed  of  and  that  numbers  had 
returned  to  a  normal  level.  (T.  G.  W.) 


38 


ALIMENTARY    SYSTEM 


1950 

1949 

1948 

1947 

12,697 

13,284 

12,361 

20,328 

5,882 

5,347 

3,860 

* 

6,065 

5,777 

7,486 

10,703 

8,743 

8,301 

9,452 

11,516 

3,793 

4,371 

5,136 

6,495 

2,122 

2,752 

3,143 

3,562 

3,257 

3,478 

5,768 

10,764 

23,787 

23,284 

22,944 

30,536 

66,346 

66,594 

70,150 

93,904 

United  States.  It  is  estimated  that  there  were  approximately 
3  million  resident  aliens  in  the  continental  United  States  on 
June  30,  1946.  This  estimate  does  not  take  into  account 
persons  there  temporarily,  that  is,  non-immigrants,  border 
crossers  and  imported  labourers. 

Naturalizations.  During  the  year  ended  June  30,  1950, 
66,346  petitions  for  naturalization  were  granted  to  non- 
citizens  and  during  1950  2,276  petitions  were  denied. 

In  addition  to  those  persons  whose  U.S.  citizenship  was 
revoked,  5,792  persons  expatriated  themselves  by  affirmative 
action:  1,693  by  voting  in  foreign  political  elections;  1,096 
through  naturalization  in  a  foreign  state;  1,424  by  taking  up 
residence  in  a  foreign  state;  721  by  serving  in  foreign  armed 
forces;  109  by  leaving  the  U.S.  to  avoid  military  service  and 
for  other  reasons. 

NoN-Cm/nNs  NATURALIZED  IN  IHK  U.S.,  1947-50 

(Years  ended  June  30) 
Former  nationality 
British 
Canadian 
German 
Italian 
Polish 
Russian 
Filipino 
Other 
Total 

*  Included  with  British. 

New  Legislation.  On  April  20,  1950,  S.3455— an  orinibus 
bill  having  as  its  objective  the  complete  revision  of  immigra- 
tion and  nationality  laws— was  introduced  in  the  Senate. 
One  of  the  more  important  legislative  enactments  of  the 
year  affecting  the  work  of  the  immigration  and  naturalization 
service  was  public  law  No.  555,  approved  June  16,  1950, 
which  amended  the  Displaced  Persons  act  of  1948.  Under 
the  amending  act  the  number  of  refugees  and  displaced  persons 
who  might  be  admitted  to  the  U.S.  was  increased  to  415,744. 
Additional  safeguards  were  provided  against  the  entry  of 
those  whose  admission  to  the  U.S.  would  be  against  the 
national  interest.  The  Department  of  State  was  given  author- 
ity to  determine  eligibility  for  certain  groups  outside  Germany 
and  Austria.  The  date  for  issuance  of  visas  under  the  Dis- 
placed Persons  act  generally  was  extended  to  June  30,  1951, 
although  in  some  instances  (such  as  applicants  who  were 
orphans  or  had  been  expelled  from  Germany),  visas  might  be 
issued  until  June  30,  1952. 

Public  law  587,  approved  June  30,  made  250  special  quota 
immigration  visas  available  to  certain  alien  sheep-herders 
for  a  period  of  one  year.  (See  also  IMMIGRATION  AND  EMI- 
GRATION.) (A.  R.  MACK.) 

ALIMENTARY  SYSTEM.  Oesophagus.  The  import- 
ance of  the  psychomatic  factor  in  irritable  colon,  cardio- 
spasm,  pylorospasm,  anorexia  nervosa  and  possibly  peptic 
ulcer  and  chronic  ulcerative  colitis  was  generally  conceded. 
Stewart  Wolf,  T.  P.  Almy  and  Catherine  R.  Lee  reported 
experimental  observations  on  cardiospasm  in  14  human 
subjects.  Their  studies  indicated  that  the  dilated,  elongated 
and  obstructed  oesophagus  of  cardiospasm  may  be  the  end- 
stage  of  a  process  which  in  early  stages  is  reversible  and 
never  entirely  static.  In  all  patients  episodes  of  sympto- 
matic exacerbation  and  remission  could  be  correlated  with 
variations  in  life-situation,  feeling-state  and  attitude. 

Stomach  and  Duodenum.  Works  on  peptic  ulcer  continued 
to  dominate  gastro-enterotogic  literature  in  1950.  Interest 
was  displayed  in  aetiology  in  differentiating  small  ulcerating 
gastric  carcinoma  from  benign  gastric  ulcer  and  also  in 
more  effective  methods  of  medical  treatment.  A.  C.  Ivy, 
M.  I.  Grossman  and  W.  H.  Bachrach  revealed  the  multi- 
plicity and  interdependence  of  factors  in  the  production  of 
experimental  ulcer  in  the  rabbit  and  dog  and  the  super- 


imposition  of  one  factor  on  another  and  looked  forward  to 
the  day  when  mutilating  operations  for  ulcer  would  be 
unnecessary  (Peptic  Ulcer,  pp.  766,  1088,  Philadelphia,  1950). 
The  parasympatholytic  chemical  agent,  banthine,  was  found 
to  be  usually  effective  in  the  treatment  of  uncomplicated 
ulcer,  especially  if  the  drug  was  well  tolerated.  The  results 
of  vagotomy  after  a  five-year  follow-up  of  thousands  of 
cases  were  almost  identical  with  those  of  gastro-enterostomy. 

Prolonged  and  excessive  intake  of  milk  (containing  large 
amounts  of  calcium  and  phosphorus)  and  alkali  in  the  treat- 
ment of  peptic  ulcer  may  cause  damage  to  the  kidneys, 
tendency  to  fixation  in  urinary  calcium  secretion,  excessive 
calcium  in  the  blood,  tendency  to  supersaturation  with 
calcium  phosphate  and  deposition  of  calcium  salts  in  body 
tissues,  according  to  the  observations  of  C.  H.  Burnett, 
R.  R.  Commons,  Fuller  Albright  and  J.  E.  Howard.  Clinical 
improvement  followed  intake  low  in  milk  and  alkali. 

To  ascertain  whether  gastric  juice  is  hypersecreted  before 
the  development  of  ulcer  and  of  duodenal  ulcer  in  particular, 
R.  Doll,  F.  A.  Jones  and  N.  F.  Maclagan  undertook  a 
follow-up  study  on  100  normal  medical  students  who  had 
been  subjected  to  histaminc  test  meals  15  years  earlier. 
Subsequent  medical  histories  were  obtained  in  85  of  the 
original  group.  The  results  indicated  that  hypersecretion  is  a 
cause  rather  than  an  effect  of  ulcer. 

R.  C.  Batterman  and  I.  Ehrenfeld  concluded  after  investi- 
gation that  tobacco-smoking  is  detrimental  to  the  peptic 
ulcer  patient:  of  108  patients  observed  39  were  non-smokers 
and  26  discontinued  smoking  on  first  seeking  treatment. 

Hepatohiliary  and  Pancreatic  Systems.  Experiences  in 
differential  diagnosis  of  jaundice  by  needle  biopsy  of  the 
liver  were  reported  by  F.  G,  Weisbrod,  L.  Schiff,  E.  A.  Gall, 
F.  P.  Cleveland  and  J.  R.  Berman  (Gastroenterology,  14: 
56-72,  Jan.  1950).  From  157  patients  with  jaundice  181 
adequate  liver  biopsies  were  obtained.  Diagnosis  based  on 
biopsy  was  shown  to  be  more  reliable  than  that  based  on  the 
combined  results  of  certain  tests  of  liver  function,  namely 
cephalin  flocculation,  thymol  turbidity  and  serum  alkaline 
phosphatase  determinations  in  the  various  forms  of  jaundice 
studied.  Errors  in  differentiating  virus  hepatitis  from 
obstructive  jaundice  on  the  basis  of  needle  biopsy  under 
certain  circumstances  were  pointed  out. 

The  detection  of  chronic  pancreatitis  in  its  earlier  stages 
had  been  exceedingly  difficult,  and  an  advance  in  diagnosis 
apparently  depended  on  results  of  tests  of  pancreatic  function. 
Norms  were  established  for  total  secretory  volume,  con- 
centration of  bicarbonate  and  total  bicarbonate  and  amylase 
responses  to  a  standard  commercially  available  preparation 
of  secretin.  A  study  of  the  data  by  D.  A.  Dreiling  and 
Franklin  Hollander  yielded  evidence  making  necessary  the 
use  of  an  80-min.  collection  period  and  the  inclusion  of 
enzyme  determinations  in  the  clinical  application  of  the 
procedure.  Body-weight  adjustment  of  the  values  for  total 
volume  of  secretion  and  total  quantity  of  amylase  resulted  in  a 
marked  decrease  in  a  scatter  of  the  data  and  therefore  a 
narrowing  of  the  range  of  normalcy;  volume  and  enzyme 
data  should  therefore  be  reduced  to  a  per  kilogram 
basis. 

Intestines.  Sulphonamides  reduce  the  carrier  rate  following 
the  acute  phase  of  bacillary  dysentery,  but  reports  were 
contradictory  as  to  their  efficacy  in  other  respects  during  this 
phase.  Streptomycin  is  uniformly  effective  in  relieving  the 
symptoms  of  tuberculous  enteritis.  H.  H.  Anderson  and 
his  associates  found  the  thioarsenates  highly  effective  and 
superior  to  all  other  arsenical  amoebacides.  Aureomycin 
in  the  treatment  of  refractory  amoebiasis  was  followed  by 
encouraging  results.  The  potency  of  chloroquine  in  the 
treatment  of  hepatic  amoebiasis  was  amply  confirmed. 

(G.  B.  EN.) 


AMBASSADORS    AND    ENVOYS 


3< 


AMBASSADORS   AND 

Britain,  Dec.  31,  1950. 

To  Great  Britain 

*Shah  Wali  Khan 

*Carlos  Alberto  Hogan  . 

Lothar  Wimmer    .... 

*Vicomte  Obert  dc  Thieusics  . 

*  Napoleon  Solares  Arias 

*J.  J.  Moniz  de  Aragao 

Naiden  K.  Nikolov 

*Manuel  Bianchi  .... 


*  Rafael  Sanchez  Amaya  . 
tGmllermo  Padilla  Castro  . 
*Roberto  Gonzalez  de  Mendoza  y  de  la  Torre  , 

*Rudolf  Bystricky 

'Count  Eduard  Reventlow      . 

Julio  Vega  Batlle 

*Gonzalo  Zaldumbide 

*Abd-el-Fattah  Amr  Pasha     . 

Ato  Abbebe  Retta 

Eero  Aarne  Wuori 

"Rene  Massigli 

^{Hans  Schlangc-Schocningen. 

*Leon  Victor  Melas 

Francisco  Linares  Aranda       . 

Frederic  Duvigneaud 

Tiburcio  Carius 

Elek  BolgAr 

Stefan  Thorvardsson 

*Subandrio 

*Emir  Zeid  ibn  al-Hussein       . 

'Frederick  H.  Boland 

Eliahu  Elath 

*Tommaso  Gallarati-Scotti     . 

Emir  Abdul-Majid  Haidar      . 

Tchi  Chang  Yun 

Victor  Khouri 

Baron  Robert  Aernout  de  Lynden  . 

Andre  Clasen 

*Fedcrico  Jimenez  O'Farrill    . 
*Shanker  Shumshere  Jung  Bahadur  Rana 
*Jonkhecr  E.  Michiels  van  Verduynen 


ENVOYS.    The  following  is  a  list  of  ambassadors  and  envoys  to  and  from  Grea 


*Per  Preben  Prebensen  . 
Bernardino  Gonzalez  Ruiz 
Augusto  Saldivar  . 
*AH  Soheily 

*Ricardo  Rivera  Schreiber 
Jose  E.  Romero     . 
*Jerzy  Michalowski 
*Ruy  Enncs  Ulrich 
Nicolac  Cioroiu     . 
J.  Arturo  Castcllanos     . 
*Sheikh  Hafiz  Wahba     . 
jDuke  of  San  Lucar  la  Mayor 
*Bo  Gunnar  R.  Hagglof 
Henry  de  Torrent^ 
Edmond  Homsy    . 
*Phra  Bahiddha  Nukara 
*Cevat  Acikalin     . 
*Ghcorghy  N.  Zarubin  . 
•Walter  Sherman  Gifford 
*Enrique  E.  Buero 
||Archbishop  William  Godfrey 
"Carlos  Sosa-Rodriquez 
Tran  Van  Don  (designate) 

*Joze  Brilej  .... 


Country 
Afghanistan         . 

Argentina 

Austria 

Belgium 

Bolivia 

Brazil 

Bulgaria      ..... 
Burma         ..... 

Chile 

China 

Colombia 

Costa  Rica  .... 

Cuba 

Czechoslovakia    .... 
Denmark     ..... 
Dominican  Republic     . 
Ecuador      

Egypt        

Ethiopia      ..... 

Finland 

France        

Germany 

Greece 

Guatemala 

Haiti 

Honduras 

Hungary 

Iceland 

Indonesia    ..... 

Iraq 

Ireland,  Republic  of 

Israel  

Italy  

Japan          ..... 

Jordan 

Korea 

Lebanon     ..... 

Liberia 

Luxembourg        .... 

Mexico 

Nepal          .         .         .         .  t      . 
Netherlands         .         .         . 
Nicaragua  ..... 

Norway 

Panama * 

Paraguay  ..... 
Persia  (Iran)  .... 

Peru 

Philippines  ..... 

Poland 

Portugal 

Rumania  ..... 
Salvador,  El  .... 
Saudi  Arabia  .... 

Spain 

Sweden 

Switzerland  .... 
Syria  ..... 

Thailand  (Siam)  .... 

Turkey 

Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics 
United  States  of  America 
Uruguay      ..... 

Vatican 

Venezuela  "..... 
Vietnam 

Yugoslavia  .... 

United  Nations    .... 


From  Great  Britain 
*Sir  Alfred  John  Gardiner 
*Sir  John  Balfour 
J  Sir  Harold  Anthony  Caccia 
*Sir  John  Helier  Le  Rougetel 
"John  Garnett  Lomax 
*Sir  Ncvile  Montagu  Butler 
Paul  Mason 

*  Richard  Langford  Speight 
*Sir  Cecil  Bertrand  Jerram 
|John  Colville  Hutchison 
•Gilbert  MacKereth 
Bernard  Ponsonby  Sullivan 
*Adrian  Holman 
*Philip  Mainwaring  Broadmead 
*Sir  Alec  Randall 
Stanley  Herbert  Gudgeon 
*John  Eric  Maclean  Carvcll 
*Sir  Ralph  Clarmont  Skrine  Stevenson 
Daniel  William  Lascelles 
Oswald  Arthur  Scott 
*Sir  Oliver  Charles  Harvey 
ffSir  Ivone  Augustine  Kirkpatrick 
*Sir  Clifford  Norton 
Wilfred  Hansford  Gallienne 
David  Jarvis  Mill  Irving 
Gerald  Ernest  Stockley 
Geoffrey  Wallingcr 
John  Dee  Green  way 
*Derwent  William  Kermode 
*Sir  Henry  Mack 
*Sir  Gilbert  Laithwaite 
Sir  Alexander  Knox  Helm 
*Sir  Victor  Mallet 
§  Sir  Alvary  Gascoignc 
Sir  Alec  Kirkbride 
Vyvyan     Holt    (taken    prisoner    by    North 

Koreans,  July  1950) 
Sir  William  Evelyn  Houston-Boswall 
John  Gilroy  Baillie 
Geoffrey  Allchin 
"John  William  Taylor 
*Sir  George  Falconer 
*Sir  Philip  Nichols 
Nigel  Oliver  Willoughby  Steward 

*  Michael  Robert  Wright 
Eric  Arthur  Cleugh 

Ian  Henderson 

*Sir  Francis  Michie  Shepherd 

*Sir  James  Leishman  Dodds 

Linton  Harry  Foulds 

*Sir  Charles  Harold  Batcman 

*Sir  Nigel  Ronald 

Walter  St.  Clair  Howland  Roberts 

Ralph  Henry  Tottenham-Smith 

*Alan  Charle$  Trott 

t  Douglas  Frederick  Howard 

*Sir  Harold  Lister  Farquhar 

Patrick  Stratford  Scrivener 

William  Horace  Montagu-Pollock 

*Sir  Geoffrey  Thompson 

*Sir  Noel  Charles 

*Sir  David  Kelly 

*Sir  Oliver  Franks 

*  Douglas  Frederick  Howard 
Sir  J.  V.  T.  W.  T.  Pcrowne 
*Sir  John  Hall  Magowan 

Frank   Stannard   Gibbs    (also   accredited   to 

Cambodia  and  Laos) 
*Sir  Charles  Peake 
**Sir  Hubert  Miles  Gladwyn  Jebb 


*  Ambassador  Unstarred,  Minister.          t  Charg6  d'Aflaires.  t  Also  United  Kingdom  High  Commissioner  in  Austria.  5  Political  Representative. 

H  Apostolic  Delegate.         H  Consul  General.          *•  Permanent  U.K.  representative  to  the  United  Nations.  tt  High  Commissioner  to  West  German  federal 

government.  i 


40 


AMERICAN    LITERATURE 


Sir  Ralph  Stevenson  (centre),  British  ambassador  to  Egypt,  seen 
after  presenting   his  credentials    to    King   Farouk,   June    1950. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  high  commissioners  within  the 
Commonwealth  of  Nations,  Dec.  31,  1950. 

From  Australia  to 
Canada         .... 
Ceylon          .... 
Great  Britain 

India 

New  Zealand 

Pakistan        .... 

South  Africa 

From  Canada  to 

Australia      .         .         .         , 

Great  Britain 

India 

New  Zealand 

Pakistan       .... 

South  Africa 

From  Ceylon  to 

Australia      .... 

Great  Britain 

India 

Pakistan        .... 
From  Great  Britain  to 
Australia      .... 
Canada         .... 
Ceylon          .... 

India 

New  Zealand 

Pakistan        .... 

South  Africa. 

Southern  Rhodesia 


Francis  Michael  Forde 
Charles  William  Frost 
*Eric  John  Harrison 
Herbert  Roy  Gollan 
Arthur  Roden  Cutler 
John  Egfton  Oldham 
(vacant) 

Uo-Richer  LaFteche 
L.  Dana  Andrews 
Warwick  Fielding  Chipman 
Alfred  Rive 
David  Moflfat  Johnson 
T.  W.  L.  MacDermot 

J.  Aubrey  Mairtensz 
Sir  Oliver  Goonctilleke 
C.  Coomaraswamy 
T.  B. Jayah 


Edward  John  Willhms 

Sir  Alexander  Clutterbuck 

Sir  Walter  Crossfield  Hankinson 

Sir  ArchiSald  Nye 

Sir  Charles  Roy  Price 

Sir  Laurence  Graflftey-Smith 

Sir  Evelyn  Baring 

Ian  M.  R.  MacLennan 


From  India  to 

Australia      . 

Canada         .... 

Ceylon          . 

Great  Britain 

Pakistan        . 

From  New  Zealand  to 

Australia      .         .         . 

Canada         .... 

Great  Britain 

From  Pakistan  to 

Australia      .          .         .         . 

Canada         . 

Great  Britain 

India 

From  South  Africa  to 
Australia       .... 
Canada         .... 
Great  Britain 
Southern  Rhodesia 
From  Southern  Rhodesia  to 
Great  Britain 
South  Africa 

*  Resident  Minister  in  London. 


Prince  M.  S.  Duleepsinhji 

(vacant) 

(vacant) 

V.  K.  Krishna  Menon 

(vacant) 

G.  E.  L.  Alderton 

Thomas  Charles  Atkinson  Hislop 

William  Joseph  Jordan 

Yusaf  A.  Haroon 
Mohammad  Ali 
Habib  Ibrahim  Rahimtoola 
Mohammad  Ismail 

Philippus  Rudolph  Viljoen 
Alfred  Adrian  Roberts 
Albertus  Lourens  Geyer 
Terence  Henry  Eustace 

Kenneth  M.  Goodcnough 
Anthony  Drinkwater  Chataway 
(designate) 


The  state  landau  carrying  the  Indonesian  ambassador,  Subandrio, 

from  his  embassy  to  present  his  letters  of  credence  to  the  King, 

March  23t  1950.   This  was  the  first  time  an  ambassador  had  been 

driven  in  a  landau  since  before  World  War  II. 


AMERICAN  FEDERATION  OF  LABOUR: 

see  TRADE  UNIONS. 

AMERICAN  LITERATURE.  The  confusion  and 
uncertainty  in  the  United  States  in  1950  shaped  the  writing 
of  the  year.  It  was  also  a  year  of  looking  backward:  there 
were  a  remarkable  number  of  books  devoted  to  scholarship 
in  American  history  and  novels  which  re-created  historic 
figures  or  eras. 

The  reading  public,  however,  responded  to  the  new  tensions 
by  turning  in  great  numbers  to  three  controversial  books. 
Gayelord  Hauser's  Look  Younger,  Live  Longer  promised  peace 
of  soul  through  yeast,  yoghurt  and  hormones.  L.  R.  Hubbard 
propounded  a  new  science  of  mental  health  through  special 
techniques  of  self-psychoanalysis  in  his  Dianetics.  Immanuel 
Velikovsky's  Worlds  In  Collision,  an  explanation  of  ancient 
historic  events  in  terms  of  two  series  of  cosmic  catastrophes, 
roused  such  a  storm  over  its  veracity  and  sincerity  that  its 
original  publishers  handed  over  the  rights  to  another  pub- 
lishing house. 

At  the  outbreak  of  war  in  Korea,  many  books  on  Asiatic 
politics  and  history  appeared.  Among  them  were  George 
McCune's  Korea  Today  and  Owen  Lattimore's  Pivot  of  Asia, 
a  study  of  the  frontiers  of  China  and  Russia.  Two  other 
books  on  Asia  were  Foster  Bowman  Hailey's  Half  of  One 
World  and  Bruno  Lasker's  Human  Bondage  in  Southeast  Asia. 

The  stream  of  books  about  World  War  II  continued. 
They  included  Frank  Howley's  Berlin  Command  and  Lucius 
Clay's  Decision  in  Germany.  Mark  Clark  told  the  inside  story 
of  the  Italian  campaign  in  Calculated  Risk,  Robert  L.  Eichel- 
berger  that  of  the  ground  war  in  the  Pacific  in  Our  Jungle  Road 
to  Tokyo.  Admiral  William  D.  Leahy,  in  /  Was  There, 
reported  on  his  personal  observations  at  the  Cairo,  Tehran, 
Yalta  and  Potsdam  meetings. 

A  flood  of  books  documented  the  country's  confusion  with 
regard  to  loyalty*  security  and  freedom  of  speech.  Walter 
Gellhorn's  Security,  Loyalty,  and  Science  analysed  the  dangers 
to  scientific  workers  of  the  screening  process.  Carey 
McWilliams,  in  Witch  Hunt,  related  the  present  purges  to 
similar  episodes  in  history.  Nathaniel  Weyl  wrote  Treason,  a 
survey  of  disloyalty  and  betrayal  in  American  history  up  to 
the  Hiss  case.  Two  books  dealt  with  the  Hiss  trial:  Ralph 
de  Toledano  and  Victor  Lasky,  in  Seeds  of  Treason,  defended 
the  proposition  that  Hiss  had  betrayed  his  country;  Alistair 
Cooke,  a  British  reporter  who  covered  the  trial,  wrote  A 
Generation  on  Trial  as  an  objective  study  of  the  facts  and  issues. 
Haywood  Patterson's  Scottsboro  Boy  told  the  story  of  an 
earlier  trial  and  prison  terrors. 


ANAEMIA 


41 


Two  collections  of  Roosevelt  documents  appeared: 
F.D.R.:  His  Personal  Letters,  1929-1945,  edited  by  Elliott 
Roosevelt,  and  The  Public  Papers  and  Addresses  of  Franklin  D. 
Roosevelt,  compiled  by  Samuel  I.  Roseman.  John  Gunther's 
popular  Roosevelt  in  Retrospect  attempted  an  appraisal  of 
the  president. 

Five  volumes  appeared  in  the  series  Chronicles  of  America, 
edited  by  Allan  Nevins:  The  Era  of  Franklin  D.  Roosevelt,  by 
Denis  William  Brogan;  From  Versailles  to  the  New  Deaf,  by 
Harold  Underwood  Faulkner;  The  New  Deal  and  World 
Affairs  (1933-1945),  by  Allan  Nevins;  The  United  States  in  a 
Chaotic  World  (1918-1933),  by  Allan  Nevins;  and  War  for 
the  World,  by  Fletcher  Pratt. 

Other  historical  works  for  the  general  reader  included: 
Carl  Van  Doren's  Jane  Mecom,  a  biography  of  Benjamin 
Franklin's  sister;  Catherine  Drinker  Bowen's  John  Adams  and 
the  American  Revolution;  Irving  Brant's  James  Madison, 
Father  of  the  Constitution,  1787-1800,  the  third  volume  of  a 
series,  and  Margaret  L.  Coil's  John  C.  Calhoun,  American 
Portrait,  excellent  for  its  picture  of  the  times. 

A  large  group  of  books  appeared  on  psychoanalysis. 
Erich  Fromm's  Psychoanalysis  and  Religion  advanced  the 
belief  that  both  can  work  together  for  the  saving  of  man's 
soul.  Karen  Horney's  Neurosis  and  Human  Growth  presented 
her  positive  approach  to  psychoanalytic  therapy.  There  were 
also  Psychosomatic  Medicine  by  Franz  Alexander  and 
Psychoanalysis:  Evolution  and  Development  by  Clara  Thomp- 
son and  Patrick  Mullahy. 

Fiction.  Although  some  good  new  novels  appeared  in  1950, 
there  were  no  striking  developments  in  fiction  and  the  quality 
of  lesser  novels  was  undistinguished.  Ernest  Hemingway's 
Across  the  River  and  Into  the  Trees,  the  story  of  an  ageing 
colonel,  his  loves,  memories,  opinions  and  manner  of  dying, 
was  immoderately  praised  and  damned;  the  condemnation 
arose  not  so  much  from  the  book  itself  as  from  the  critics' 
conception  of  Hemingway's  personality  and  prejudices.  Many 
other  novels  portrayed  characters  involved  in  special  settings 
or  with  special  problems,  the  most  distinguished  being  John 
Hersey's  The  Wall,  about  the  Warsaw  ghetto  under  Nazi 
persecution.  James  Aldridge,  in  The  Diplomat,  wrote  the 
story  of  the  political  awakening  of  a  young  man  attached  to  a 
distinguished  empire-building  British  diplomat.  William  L. 
Shirer,  turning  for  the  first  time  to  fiction,  used  his  knowledge 
of  Germany  in  The  Traitor,  a  character  study  of  a  renegade. 
Ned  Calmer 's  The  Strange  Land  was  one  of  the  few  novels 
directly  using  the  war.  Henry  Morton  Robinson's  The 
Cardinal,  a  best-seller,  the  story  of  a  Catholic  priest,  showed 
the  workings  of  the  church.  Arthur  Gordon's  Reprisal  was  a 
story  of  a  Georgia  lynching.  Michael  Amrine,  in  Secret, 
portrayed  a  physicist  with  a  conscience  about  the  atom  bomb. 
Two  writers  who  chose  a  background  of  South  American 
politics,  plots  and  revolutions  were  Robert  Pick  with  his 
Guests  of  Don  Lorenzo  and  Gore  Vidal  with  his  Dark  Green, 
Bright  Red.  Upton  Sinclair  wrote  Another  Pamela;  or  Virtue 
Still  Rewarded,  a  review  of  contemporary  social  history. 
Budd  Schulberg's  The  Disenchanted  ranked  among  the  top 
books  of  the  year.  Based  partly  on  the  life  of  F.  Scott  Fitz- 
gerald, it  was  a  solid,  mature  treatment  of  a  man's  struggle 
with  and  for  success. 

The  number  of  historical  romances  was  slightly  smaller 
than  usual  this  year.  Thomas  B.  Costain's  Son  of  a  Hundred 
Kings,  a  novel  of  the  1890s  in  Canada,  was  a  best-seller. 
Samuel  Shellabarger  used  a  16th-century  French  setting  for 
The  King's  Cavalier.  Nancy  Hale's  The  Sign  of  Jonah  was 
one  of  the  better  panoramic  historical  novels. 

The  psychiatric  novel  and  the  novel  of  character,  still 
important,  were  exemplified  in  Brendan  Gill's  The  Trouble  of 
One  House,  Nancy  Wilson  Ross's  /,  My  Ancestor,  Susan 
Yorke's  The  Widow  and  Laura  Z.  Hobson's  The  Other  Father. 


The  playwright  Tennessee  Williams  ventured  into  the  field 
of  fiction  with  The  Roman  Spring  of  Mrs.  Stone.  Erskine 
Caldwell  published  Episode  in  Palmetto. 

Short  stories  gave  a  much  richer  relative  yield  than  novels. 
The  Collected  Stories  of  William  Faulkner  (q.v.)  headed  the 
list.  Faulkner's  long-held  position  as  an  eminent  American 
writer  was  confirmed  by  the  award  to  him  of  the  1949  Nobel 
prize  for  literature.  The  stories  in  Paul  Bowies'  The  Delicate 
Prey  were  of  violence  and  death  in  an  African  setting.  Mary 
McCarthy  collected  her  sharply  satirical  pieces  in  Cast  a 
Cold  Eye.  Walter  Van  Tilburg  Clark's  Western  stories,  The 
Watchful  God  and  Other  Stones,  were  too  often  marred  by 
heavy  symbolism.  Irwin  Shaw's  Mixed  Company  was  a 
group  of  neatly  told  stories  often  concerned  with  the  impact 
of  World  War  11.  The  stories  in  William  Carlos  Williams 
Make  Light  of  It  were  sketches  of  character.  Other  volumes 
of  stories  were  James  T.  Farrell's  occasionally  sharp  group 
on  An  American  Dream  Girl,  Charles  Jackson's  The  Sunnier 
Side  and  Jesse  Stuart's  Kentucky  stories,  Clearing  in  the  Sky. 

Belles  Lcttres.  Perhaps  the  most  original  contribution  of 
the  year  was  Henry  Nash  Smith's  Virgin  IMHC!,  a  study  of  the 
West  as  myth  and  symbol  in  American  history  and  literature. 
Henry  Steele  Commager  in  The  American  Mind  (1880-1950) 
contributed  on  the  whole  the  best  survey  of  American  thought 
since  the  classic  work  of  Parrington.  Lionel  Trilling,  in 
The  Liberal  imagination,  collected  his  influential  essays  on 
literature  and  society. 

Of  the  studies  of  classical  figures,  several  were  about  Herman 
Melville.  Most  important  was  Newton  Arvin's  addition  to 
the  American  Men  of  Letters  Series,  Herman  Melville,  the  best 
critical  survey  of  his  work.  Another  was  M.  O.  Perceval's 
A  Reading  of  Moby  Dick.  Another  title  in  the  distinguished 
new  American  Men  of  Letters  was  John  Bcrryman's  Stephen 
Crane.  Two  books  on  Mark  Twain  appeared:  Kenneth  R. 
Andrews'  Nook  Farm:  Mark  Twain" s  Hartford  Circle  and 
Gladys  C.  Bellamy's  Mark  Twain  as  a  Literary  Artist.  Other 
biographies  were  Lloyd  Morris'  William  James  and  Louise 
Hall  Tharp's  highly  readable  The  Peabody  Sisters  of  Salem. 

Some  of  the  critical  works  on  contemporary  Writers  were 
William  Carlos  Williams  by  Vivienne  Koch,  The  Shaping 
Spirit:  A  Sntdy  of  Wallace  Stevens  by  William  Van  O'Connor 
and  The  An  ofT.  S.  Eliot  by  Helen  Gardner.  Edgar  Kemler's 
sympathetic  biography,  The  Irreverent  Mr.  Mencken,  reviewed 
the  era  as  well  as  me  subject. 

A  volume  of  great  historical  value  and  of  interest  in  view 
of  the  controversy  about  the  1949  Bollingen  prize  was  The 
Letters  of  Ezra  Pound  1907-1941,  edited  by  D.  D.  Paige. 
Kenneth  Burke,  the  most  philosophical  of  the  new  critics, 
wrote  A  Rhetoric  of  Motives;  and  Edmund  Wilson  collected 
in  Classics  and  Commercials  his  often  brilliant  critical  essays. 

Poetry.  The  year  1950  saw  the  deaths  of  several  disting- 
uished literary  figures:  F.  O.  Mathiessen;  John  Gould 
Fletcher;  William  Rose  Benet;  Carl  Van  Doren;  Edna  St. 
Vincent  Millay;  and  Edgar  Lee  Masters  (for  the  last  two 
see  OBITUARIES). 

Mathiessen's  new  edition  of  the  Oxford  Book  of  American 
Verse  appeared,  in  general  an  excellent  selection.  Carl 
Sandburg,  with  the  publication  of  Complete  Poems,  announced 
the  end  of  his  career  as  a  poet.  Conrad  Aiken  revised  his 
44  symphonic  poems "  and  published  them  in  The  Divine 
Pilgrim.  William  Carlos  Williams  gathered  together  The 
Collected  Later  Poems.  Wallace  Stevens  wrote  The  Auroras 
of  Autumn  and  received  the  Bollingen  Award.  E.  E.  Cummings 
wrote  XA1PE,  71  new  poems,  and  also  won  the  Academy 
of  American  Poets'  fellowship.  (See  also  LITERARY  PRIZES.) 

(H.  M.  H.) 

ANAEMIA.  The  treatment  of  special  anaemias  due  to 
changes  in  red  blood  cells  received  much  attention  during 


42 


ANAESTHESIOLOGY— ANDORRA 


1950  and  the  effectiveness  of  vitamin  B12  was  the  subject  of 
many  reports.  One  microgram  a  day  of  vitamin  B12  to  patients 
with  pernicious  anaemia  was  confirmed  as  valuable.  Vitamin 
B12b  was  also  useful.  These  substances  were  of  especial 
value  in  patients  sensitive  to  liver  extract,  and  in  those  with 
neurological  involvement.  The  medication  was  most  effective 
when  given  by  injection,  but  oral  administration  could  be 
enhanced  by  potentiators  such  as  stomach  or  duodenal 
mucosa,  folic  acid  or  gastric  juice  from  normal  people.  The 
blood-producing  effect  of  gastric  juice  concentrate  or  beef 
muscle  extract  was  found  to  be  proportional  to  their  vitamin 
B12  content.  Folic  acid  and  vitamin  B12  were  found  to  be 
synthesized  in  relatively  large  amounts  in  the  large  intestine, 
even  in  patients  with  pernicious  anaemia.  The  vitamin  was 
not  effective  in  the  treatment  of  large  cell  anaemia  of 
pregnancy  in  ordinary  doses  although  folic  acid  or  large 
doses  of  vitamin  B12  caused  an  adequate  improvement. 
There  appeared  to  be  a  relation  between  folic  acid,  folinic 
acid  and  the  Lcuconostoc  citrovorum  factor,  and  the  possibility 
was  suggested  that  folic  acid,  liver  extract  and  vitamin  B12 
were  essential  to  the  formation  of  nucleic  acid  and  nucleo- 
protein  through  a  chemical  chain  reaction. 

Monkeys  deficient  in  folic  acid  failed  to  become  anaemic 
when  they  were  supplied  with  sufficient  quantities  of  ascorbic 
acid,  but  folic  acid  deficiency  anaemia  responded  only  to  folic 
acid.  This  substance  while  producing  an  improvement  in  the 
blood  in  pernicious  anaemia  did  not  check  or  prevent  the 
neurological  symptoms.  Vitamin  B12,  however,  was  effective 
in  reversing  these  complications.  Folic  acM  was  not  harmful 
to  the  central  nervous  system  when  used  in  the  treatment  of 
other  types  of  anaemia. 

Patients  with  pernicious  anaemia  had  a  special  predis- 
position to  cancer  of  the  stomach,  the  rate  being  three  times 
that  expected  of  a  corresponding  age  group  and  more  than 
six  times  as  frequent  as  in  a  group  showing  achlorhydria  or 
hypochlorhydria. 

A  heat-labile  haemolytic  factor,  resembling  serum  coagula- 
tion accelerator,  was  present  in  the  plasma  of  patients  with 
paroxysmal  nocturnal  haemoglobinuria  as  an  inert  precursor 
which  could  be  activated  by  thrombin.  The  haemolysis  was 
inhibited  by  dicumarol. 

The  relationship  of  sensitization  of  Rh-negative  women 
received  much  attention.  Besides  tfye  development  of 
erythroblastotic  infants  who  were  Rh-positive  in  mothers 
sensitized  from  the  infant,  examples  of  the  development  of 
antibodies  were  described  after  blood  transfusion  and 
subcutaneous  hacmotherapy.  The  occurrence  of  erythroblas- 
tosis  in  one  of  a  set  of  twins  was  reported. 

Erythroblastosis  foctalis  was  treated  by  replacement  trans- 
fusions, counter-sensitization  with  bacterial  vaccines  and  with 
hapten  (extract  of  Rh-positive  red  blood  cells).  While  results 
were  sometimes  encouraging  in  individual  patients,  the 
effects  were,  as  a  whole,  poor.  Erythroblastosis  was  pre- 
vented in  some  patients  by  the  treatment  of  the  mother  with 
vitamin  K.  and  a nhydro-hydroxy -progesterone.  Good  results 
were  noted  in  one  series  of  cases  after  the  transfusion  of  50  to 
60  c.c.  of  scdimented  red  blood  cells.  The  results  of  treatment 
with  exchange  transfusions  varied;  some  workers  reported 
cures  whereas  others  had  a  high  death  rate. 

The  concentration  of  anti-A  and  anti-B  substances  in  the 
blood  of  group  O  (universal)  donors  was  reduced  to  safe 
levels  for  use  in  treating  anaemia  by  the  addition  of  substances 
isolated  from  animal  stomach  linings.  Otherwise  severe 
haemolytic  anaemia  developed  in  some  patients.  Some 
reactions  were  prevented  by  the  use  of  washed  red  blood 
cells  instead  of  whole  blood.  At  high  altitude  during  an 
aeroplane  trip  sudden  enlargement  of  the  spleen,  with  heart 
complications,  was  noted  in  a  patient  with  sicklaemia. 
Anaemia  was  noted  in  14  %  of  the  people  in  middle  Tennessee. 


BIBLIOORAHPY.  C.  C.  Unglcy,  **  Use  of  Vitamin  Blf  Therapy  in 
Pernicious  Anaemia,'*  Brit.  Med.  /.,  2,  1370,  Dec.  17,  1949;  W.  H. 
Crosby  and  W.  Dameshek,  "  Paroxysmal  Nocturnal  Hemoglobinuria. 
The  Mechanism  of  Hemolysis  and  Its  Relation  to  the  Coagulation 
Mechanism,"  Blood,  J.  of  Hematology,  5,  822  (Sept.  1950);  E.  B.  Brown, 
C.  V.  Moore,  C.  Reynafarje  and  D,  E.  Smith,  "  Intravenously  Admini- 
strated Saccharated  Iron  Oxide  in  the  Treatment  of  Hypochromic 
Anaemia.  Therapeutic  Results,  Potential  Dangers  and  Indications/' 
/.  Am.  Med.  A.,  144,  1084,  Nov.  25,  1950;  B.  H.  Sullivan,  "  Danger 
of  Airplane  Flight  to  Persons  with  Sicklemia,"  Ann.  Int.  Med.,  32,  338, 
Feb.  1950.  (R.  IS.) 

ANAESTHESIOLOGY.  During  1950  it  became 
apparent  that  certain  specially  prepared  synthetic  salts,  such 
as  methyl  iodide  and  methyl  chloride  of  curare,  had  no 
apparent  advantages  over  the  standard  </-tubocurarine  that 
had  become  almost  a  standard  agent  in  a  solution  of  3  mg. 
per  c.c.  Curare  possessed  an  advantage  over  decamethonium 
bromide,  or  C-10,  with  the  trade  name  of  Syncurine,  in  that 
an  antidote  for  curare  was  available,  whereas  there  was 
none  for  Syncurine.  Previously,  prostigmine  had  been  fairly 
effective  as  an  antidote  for  curare,  but  by  the  middle  of  1950 
an  agent,  an  analogue  of  prostigmine  (HofTmann-LaRoche, 
Inc.)  was  found  to  be  very  effective  in  increasing  the  volume 
of  respiration  when  undesired  depression  had  developed 
from  the  use  of  curare.  In  the  field  of  shock  therapy  dextran, 
gelatin  and  periston  showed  themselves  to  be  valuable. 

The  so-called  pain  clinics  in  the  U.S  increased  in  number; 
each  clinic  showed  an  increase  during  the  year  in  the  number 
of  patients  treated.  Refinement  in  technique  was  achieved, 
so  that  the  use  of  roentgenograms  which  showed  that  the 
needles  had  been  properly  placed  had  become  almost  essential 
in  most  instances  of  nerve  block.  Measurements  of  skin 
temperature  and  skin  resistance  to  electric  current  proved  to 
be  very  informative  as  to  the  effectiveness  of  blocks  that  were 
done  and  of  subsequent  operations  in  which  nerves  had  been 
sectioned. 

Albert  Faulconer,  Jr.,  invented  a  device  which  enabled 
the  intermittent  intravenous  administration  of  solution  of 
pentothal  sodium  solution  to  be  automatically  controlled 
by  measuring  the  minute  volume  of  respiration.  The  meter 
of  the  device  became  useful  in  the  measurement  of  respiratory 
depression  caused  by  curare  and  the  effect  of  the  various 
antidotes  used  to  abate  such  depression.  It  was  found  to  be 
useful  in  the  post-anaesthesia  observation  room  in  helping 
to  estimate  the  patient's  condition  as  anaesthesia  became 
light  or  disappeared.  (See  also  SURGERY;  ELECTRONICS.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Curt  P.  Richter,"  Instructions  for  Using  the  Cutaneous 
Resistance  Recorder,  or  *  Dermomcter '  on  Peripheral  Nerve  Injuries, 
Sympathectomies  and  Paravertebral  Blocks,"  J.  Neurosurg.,  3,  181-191, 
Springfield,  Illinois,  May  1946;  Raymond  F.  Courtin,  Reginald 
G.  Bickford  and  Albert  Faulconer,  Jr.,  "  Electro-encephalography 
During  Surgical  Anesthesia — A  New  Aid  for  the  Control  of 
Anesthesia,"  J.A.M.A.,  139,  1195,  Chicago,  April  23,  1949;  Reginald 
G.  Bickford,  Albert  Faulconer,  Jr.,  Donald  E.  Soltero  and  Charles 
W,  Mayo,  **  Automatic  Encephalographic  Control  of  Anesthesia,"  ibid, 
143,  285,  Chicago,  May  20,  1950;  John  S.  Lundy,  Howard  K.  Gray  and 
Winchell  McK.  Craig, "  Dextran  in  Supportive  Therapy,  with  Comments 
on  Periston  and  Gelatin,"  Arch.  Surg.,  61,  55-61,  Chicago,  July  1950. 

(J.  S.  L.) 

ANDORRA.  A'  small  autonomous  principality  between 
France  and  Spain,  bounded  on  the  N.  by  the  dtpartements 
of  Ari&ge  and  Pyrenees  Orientates,  and  on  the  S.  by  the 
Spanish  province  of  Lerida.  Area:  191  sq.  mi.  Pop.  (1950 
est.):  5,400.  Language:  Catalan.  Religion:  Roman  Catholic. 
Capital:  Andorra-la- Vieja  (pop.,  1950  est,  980).  Co-princes: 
the  president  of  the  French  republic  and  the  bishop  of  Urgel, 
Spam,  respectively  represented  in  1950  by  Andr6  Bertrand 
and  Jaime  Sansa  Nequi,  their  viguiers.  An  elected  General 
Council  of  24  members  appoints  one  of  its  members  as  the 
syndic  gtniral  des  valltes  (from  1946,  Franciscp  Cayrat). 

The  event  of  the  year  was  the  reduction  from  100  to  60 


ANGLICAN   COMMUNION 


43 


of  the  French  gardes  mobiles  which  were  stationed  from 
autumn  1944  on  Andorran  territory  for  the  purpose  of 
maintaining  order. 

On  Feb.  2  the  Paris  Tribunal  des  Conflits  declared  null 
and  void  the  order  of  a  Paris  court  given  on  March  8,  1949, 
to  the  Radiodiffusion  Francaise  to  cease  jamming  the  broad- 
casts of  Radio  Andorra.  However,  the  Andorran  broadcasts 
were  not  jammed  during  the  year. 

ANGLICAN  COMMUNION.  The  Church  of  South 
India  was  the  leading  topic  of  discussion  and  negotiation 
within  the  Anglican  communion  in  1950.  In  January  the 
Church  of  India,  Burma  and  Ceylon  urged  that  the  doctrinal 
position  of  the  Church  of  South  India  should  be  clarified  in 
accordance  with  the  resolutions  of  the  Lambeth  conference 
(1948).  In  the  meantime  former  Anglican  clergy  now  belong- 
ing to  the  Church  of  South  India  might  function  only  in 
Anglican  churches  when  visiting  North  India.  Lay  people 
from  South  India  were  to  receive  communion  in  North 
India,  with  the  permission  of  the  bishop,  only  if  their  con- 
firmation had  been  adequate;  other  communicants  of  the 
Church  of  South  India  might  receive  communion  on  the 
principle  of  "  economy." 

The  report  of  the  joint  committee  of  the  convocations  of 
Canterbury  and  York  on  relations  with  the  Church  of  South 
India  was  issued.  Though  fully  satisfied  with  the  credal 
orthodoxy  of  the  Church  of  South  India  and  with  its 
sacraments,  confirmation  service  and  synodal  procedure, 
it  expressed  the  hope  that  all  its  ministers  would  have 
been  episcopally  ordained  at  the  end  of  30  years:  till 
this  had  been  accomplished  full  inter-communion  could 
not  take  place,  but  the  question  of  the  recognition  of 
the  South  Indian  ministry  was  to  be  reconsidered  in  live 
years'  time.  Suggestions  were  made  for  the  reception 
of  bishops,  clergy  and  laity  of  the  Church  of  South  India 
when  in  England  and  of  members  of  the  Church  of  England 
when  in  South  India.  Celebration  of  the  Holy  Communion 
by  bishops  of  the  Church  of  South  India,  when  in  England, 
was  left  to  the  discretion  of  the  diocesan  bishops. 

The  Church  of  South  India  published  an  interim  reply  to 
the  six  questions  raised  by  the  Lambeth  conference  (1948) 
and  a  reply  to  questions  on  faith  and  order  raised  by  the 
joint  committee  of  the  convocations  of  Canterbury  and  York. 
The  Church  of  India,  Burma  and  Ceylon  agreed  to  appoint 
a  bishop  as  commissary  of  the  metropolitan  for  the  Anglicans 
in  Nandyal  who  were  standing  out  of  the  Church  of  South 
India. 

The  endowment  funds  of  the  bishoprics  of  Tinnevelly  and 
Dornakal,  supplied  by  the  S.P.C.K.  and  S.P.G.,  were  returned 
to  those  societies,  under  the  judgment  of  Mr.  Justice  Vaisey 
(Dec.  1949);  and  a  scheme  was  arranged  whereby  similar 
funds,  supplied  by  the  Colonial  Bishoprics  fund,  were  made 
available  for  bishoprics  in  North  India.  Bishop  Aurobindo 
Nath  Mukerji  of  Delhi  was  elected  metropolitan  of  India 
and  bishop  of  Calcutta  in  succession  to  the  Right  Rev.  G.  C. 
Hubback  who  had  retired.  Canon  John  Richardson  was 
consecrated  first  bishop  of  the  Nicobar  Islands. 

The  South  African  Church  continued  its  opposition  to 
the  colour  bar  in  South  Africa,  not  only  in  church  circles 
but  as  a  principle  to  be  observed  generally  by  the  British 
community  in  South  Africa.  Bishop  Stephen  Neill  conducted 
a  three  months'  tour  of  the  churches  in  Africa.  A 
conference  of  East  African  bishops  proposed  a  new 
province  for  Central  Africa  consisting  of  the  dioceses  of 
Nyasaland,  Northern  Rhodesia  and  Southern  Rhodesia. 
The  Rev.  J.  A.  A.  Maund,  rector  of  Pretoria,  was  consecrated 
bishop  of  the  new  see  of  Basutoland. 

Early  in  the  year  the  bishop  of  Chichester,  the  Right  Rev. 
G.  K.  A.  Bell,  toured  Australia,  New  Zealand  and  India  on 


Dr.  Geoffrey  Fisher \  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  seen  in  Bixhopscourt, 

Ballarat,  Victoria,  during  his  visit  to  Australia  in  1950. 
behalf  of  the  World  Council  of  Churches.  A  church  at 
Matakohe,  North  Auckland,  built  by  the  New  Zealand 
government,  was  dedicated  in  memory  of  J.  G.  Coates 
(prime  minister,  1925-28).  The  archbishop  of  Canterbury 
(q.v.)  (Dr.  Geoffrey  Fisher)  at  the  end  of  the  year  toured 
Australia,  Tasmania  and  New  Zealand.  Two  centenaries 
were  celebrated  during  this  visit:  that  of  the  Australian  Board 
of,  Missions  and  that  of  the  foundation  of  the  Anglican 
Church  at  Canterbury,  New  Zealand.  The  diocese  of  Carpen- 
taria, Australia,  celebrated  its  50th  anniversary.  The  erection 
of  a  new  cathedral  at  Suva,  Fiji,  was  begun.  Bishop  Yashira 
of  Kobe  toured  the  Anglican  churches  in  the  United  States, 
Canada,  Manila,  the  Philippines  and  Australia  and  testified 
to  the  cordial  welcome  given  to  him  by  people  who  had 
suffered  at  the  hands  of  the  Japanese  in  World  War  II. 

The  bishop  of  Fulham,  the  Right  Rev.  G.  E.  Ingle,  began 
a  series  of  tours  of  the  Anglican  churches  in  northern  and 
central  Europe.  In  July  he  was  in  Moscow.  He  held  a 
conference  of  European  chaplains  at  Amsterdam  attended 
by  the  bishop  of  London,  the  Right  Rev.  J.  W.  C.  Wand. 
The  archbishop  of  Wales,  the  Most  Rev.  John  Morgan, 
was  requested  by  the  governing  body  of  the  Church  in  Wales 
to  set  up  a  commission  for  the  reform  of  the  Welsh 
prayer  book.  It  was  decided  to  use  a  sum  of  £30,000, 
bequeathed  in  order  that  a  tower  might  be  added  to  the 
cathedral  at  Bangor,  for  other  purposes  connected  with  the 
cathedral.  The  synod  of  the  Church  of  Ireland  inaugurated 
negotiations  for  inter-communion  with  the  Old  Catholic 
Church  of  the  Netherlands.  (See  also  CHURCH  OF  ENGLAND; 
MISSIONS,  FOREIGN  RELIGIOUS;  THEOLOGY;  WORLD  COUNCIL 
OF  CHURCHES,)  (A.  J.  MAC.) 


44 


ANGLING— ANTARCTICA 


ANGLING.  Rough  weather  during  much  of  the  year 
handicapped  sea  anglers,  tunny  catches  being  especially 
affected;  but  although  the  total  was  well  below  that  of  1949 
one  angler  opened  the  season  remarkably  well  by  getting 
five  tunny  in  two  trips,  averaging  over  600  Ib.  apiece.  In 
August  a  record  brill  of  16  Ib.  was  caught  at  St.  Johns, 
Isle  of  Man.  Among  the  coast-town  festivals  Looe  was 
again  prominent,  notable  captures  there  including  skate  of 
103  Ib.,  bass  of  13  Ib.  and  pollack  of  14  Ib.,  besides  a  number 
of  blue  sharks  (of  which  two  anglers  took  1 1  in  one  day). 
The  Dover  club's  annual  camping  week  on  the  breakwater, 
with  all-night  fishing,  produced  a  total  of  754  fish  weighing 
579  Ib.,  including  several  good  bass.  At  Bournemouth  two 
trigger-fish  were  caught— rare  visitors  to  British  waters. 

Two  new  fresh-water  records  during  the  year  were  a 
grayling  of  7  Ib.  2  oz.  (R.  Melgum)  and  a  tench  of  8£  Ib. 
caught  in  the  Leicester  canal.  The  annual  all-England  con- 
test, fished  at  Peterborough  in  September,  produced  good 
weights,  the  local  association  winning  with  62^  Ib. 

A  proposal  to  introduce  a  large  Indian  species  to  British 
rivers  was  turned  down  in  view  of  the  risk  to  indigenous 
species. 

The  Angler's  Co-operative  association,  formed  to  combat 
pollution  of  rivers,  added  several  more  to  its  list  of  successful 
actions  during  the  year.  (D.  F.  KY.) 

ANGLO-EGYPTIAN  SUDAN.  Territory  in  north- 
east Africa  under  the  joint  sovereignty  of  Great  Brite;n  and 
Egypt.  Area:  967,500  sq.mi.  Pop.  (no  census  ever  taken, 
1948  est.):  7,547,500.  Language:  English,  Arabic,  and  various 
Nilotic  and  Negro  tribal  dialects  in  the  south.  Religion: 
Arabic  minority  is  Moslem;  the  bulk  of  the  Negro  population 
is  heathen;  only  c.  20%  of  population  in  the  south  is  Christian. 
Chief  towns  (1948  est.):  Khartoum  (cap.,  71,400);  Omdurman 
(125,300);  El  Obeid  (70,100);  Wad  Medani  (57,300);  Port 
Sudan  (47,000).  Governor  general,  Sir  Robert  George  Howe; 
leader  of  the  Legislative  Assembly,  Miralai  Abdullah  Bey 
Khalil. 

History.  The  differences  between  Great  Britain  and  Egypt 
about  the  future  of  the  Sudan  remained  unsolved  and  were 
the  subject  of  renewed  political  excitement  in  Egypt  towards 
the  end  of  the  year.  This  dispute  continued  to  have  its  effect 
upon  the  internal  political  life  of  the  country,  yet  it  could  be 
said  that  the  year  was  one  of  progress  towards  the  govern- 
ment's declared  object — the  Sudanization  and  independence 
of  the  Sudan.  In  his  report  on  local  government,  which  had 
been  called  for  in  1949,  A.  H.  Marshall  made  proposals  for 
drastic  changes  in  policy,  involving  the  creation  of  single 
local  authorities  for  all  purposes,  financially  independent 
and  answerable  to  the  local  electors.  The  executive  council 
accepted  the  proposals  in  principle  and  laid  them  before  the 
Sudan  Legislative  Assembly,  which  thereon  approved  what 
amounted  to  the  replacement  of  the  Egyptian  (and  originally 
French)  system  by  an  English  one. 

The  ministers  of  health  and  agriculture  announced  five-year 
plans,  but  ihe  most  notable  developments  were  in  the  field 
of  education.  The  minister,  Abdurrahman  Ali  Taha,  stated 
that  his  department  planned  to  extend  elementary  education 
to  cover  two-fifths  of  the  children  of  school  age  in  the  northern 
Sudan  within  a  decade.  This  would  involve  the  opening  of 
new  centres  for  the  training  of  teachers  and  the  increasing  of 
the  number  of  boys'  elementary  schools  in  the  area  from  156 
to  356  and  of  girls'  schools  from  101  to  211.  The  third 
government  secondary  school,  opened  at  El  Obeid  in  January 
with  accommodation  for  480  boarders,  was  under  the  charge 
of  the  first  Sudanese  headmaster  in  history.  Less  happily, 
there  were  signs  of  the  spread  to  the  Sudan  of  student  strikes, 
familiar  in  Egypt  and  elsewhere,  although  these  were  on  a 
much  smaller  scale  than  in  the  preceding  autumn. 


A  potentially  serious  source  of  Sudanese  disunity  was  the 
difference  between  the  Moslem,  Arabic-speaking  and  advanced 
north  and  the  more  backward  and  still  largely  pagan  Negro 
south.  The  considerable  activities  of  Christian  European 
missionaries  in  the  south  led  to  assertions  that  Islam  and 
Arabic  were  being  handicapped.  The  minister  of  education 
announced  that  18  northern  officials  were  to  be  sent  to 
further  the  spread  of  Arabic  in  the  south,  while  southern 
requests  for  English  programmes  from  the  Omdurman  radio 
station  were  not  acceded  to. 

National  feeling  showed  itself  in  debates  on  the  Sudan 
defence  force,  although  it  was  made  clear  that  Sudanization 
had  progressed  so  far  that  there  were  in  1950  only  40  British 
officers,  as  against  69  in  1939.  On  June  30  the  Sudan  Planta- 
tions syndicate  was  wound  up,  and  the  Gezira  scheme  came 
under  nationalized  control.  This  was  the  occasion  of  what 
must  be  regarded  as  the  most  striking  feature  of  the  events 
of  the  year  because,  when  a  British  member  of  the  executive 
council  was  appointed  to  its  management,  he  was  replaced 
by  a  Sudanese,  thereby  giving  rise  to  a  Sudanese  majority 
(7  Sudanese  as  against  5  British  members)  on  that  body. 
The  Legislative  Assembly  debated  the  future  of  Gezira  and 
important  reforms  in  land  registration  were  undertaken.  In 
December  considerable  excitement  was  caused  by  a  debate 
on  a  motion  in  the  Legislative  Assembly  in  favour  of  the 
immediate  independence  of  the  country,  which  was  defeated 
by  one  vote.  (H.  S.  D.) 

Education.  (1949)  Northern  System.  Government  schools  .-elementary 
249,  pupils  35,613;  sub-grade  and  Koran  544,  pupils  38,550;  inter- 
mediate 17,  pupils  2,568;  secondary  5,  pupils  1,045;  technical  2,  pupils 
312;  teachers*  training  colleges  5,  teachers  trained  annually  245. 
Non-government  schools  60,  pupils  14,791.  University  education  at 
Gordon  Memorial  college,  higher  education  at  Kitchener  School  of 
Medicine.  Southern  System.  Schools:  elementary  3,  pupils  291 ;  inter- 
mediate 1,  pupils  150;  secondary  2;  pupils  at  mission  schools  20,669. 

Agriculture.  Main  crops  ('000  metric  tons,  1948;  1949  in  brackets): 
cotton  seed  106  (110);  cotton,  ginned  56  (55);  sesame  seed  (1947) 
141  -2;  gum  arabic  (1947)  37;  groundnuts  (1947)  20;  dates  (1947)  46. 
Livestock  ('000  head,  Jan.  1948):  cattle  3,500;  sheep  5,500;  camels  1,500. 

Foreign  Trade.  (£E  million,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets) 
import  23-9  (13-9);  export  27-4  (17-2).  Main  sources  of  imports 
(1949):  U.K.  32%;  Egypt  16%.  Main  destination  of  exports:  U.K. 
65%;  Egypt  10%.  Main  imports:  cotton  piece-goods  18%;  sugar, 
coffee,  tea  14%;  coal,  oil  fuel  and  petrol  0-5%.  Main  exports:  raw 
cotton  69%;  livestock  10%;  gum  0-6%. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Railways  (1949):  2,013  mi.  Licensed 
motor  vehicles  (Dec.  1949):  cars  2,600;  commercial  3,300.  Telephone 
subscribers  (1949):  3,520.  Wireless  licences  (1949):  3,227. 

Finance  and  Banking.  (£E  million)  budget  (1949  actual)  revenue 
18*7,  expenditure  11  -6;  (18  months  1950-51  est.)  revenue  28 -7,  expendi- 
ture 21  •  1.  Total  external  debt  (Dec.  1948)  12-8,  of  which  5-4  to  Egypt 
for  development.  Monetary  unit:  Egyptian  pound  with  an  exchange 
rate  of  £E  0  •  975  to  the  pound  sterling  and  £E  0  -  348  to  the  U.S.  dollar. 

ANGOLA  :  see  PORTUGUESE  COLONIAL  EMPIRE. 
ANNAM  :  see  INDO-CHINA. 

ANTARCTICA.  The  considerable  activities  of  various 
countries  in  the  Antarctic  regions  during  recent  years  were 
maintained  in  1950. 

Falkland  Islands  Dependencies  Survey.  The  Falkland 
Islands  Dependencies  survey  in  its  seventh  consecutive  year 
established  a  new  base  at  Rytviken,  South  Georgia,  and 
maintained  its  other  bases  with  the  exception  of  that  on 
Stonington  Island,  Marguerite  bay.  In  1949  relief  of  the 
Stonington  Island  base  proved  impossible  owing  to  the 
failure  of  the  sea  ice  to  break  up.  Dr.  V.  E.  Fuchs  with  10 
companions  had  therefore  to  remain  in  the  south  for  an 
additional  year.  The  final  sledge  journey  of  1,080  mi.  lasted 
90  days,  the  party  returning  to  base  shortly  before  recon- 
naissance flying  began  from  the  northern  bases.  With  the 
first  appearance  of  open  water  those  men  who  had  spent 
three  consecutive  winters  in  the  south  were  flown  out  in  a 


ANTARCTICA 


45 


Norseman  seaplane.  On  Feb.  12  the  survey's  ship  "  John 
Biscoe  "  brought  out  the  rest  of  the  party  together  with  their 
dogs,  specimens,  records  and  much  equipment.  The  base 
remained  closed  for  the  time  being.  The  new  base  at  Rytviken 
would  carry  out  a  survey  and  study  of  the  biology  of  the 
elephant  seal  population  of  South  Georgia  during  1951. 
This  would  be  co-ordinated  with  the  work  already  done  in 
the  South  Orkneys. 

The  International  Norwegian-British-Swedish  Expedition. 
This  expedition  met  with  considerable  difficulty  in  effecting  a 
landing  on  the  Queen  Maud  Land  coast,  guarded  as  it  is  by  a 
barrier  of  lOO-ft.-high  ice  cliffs.  The  expedition  was  accom- 
panied by  two  Auster  float  planes,  operated  by  an  R.A.F. 
party  under  Squadron  Leader  B.  Walford.  Reconnaissance 
by  these  planes  finally  located  a  single  break  in  the  barrier 
cliffs  allowing  access  to  the  hinterland  in  the  vicinity  of 
Cape  Norvegia  (Lat.  71°03'S.;  Long.  10°54'W.).  There  the 
expedition  leader,  Capt.  J.  Giaever,  established  his  base  well 
back  from  the  ice  cliffs,  using  "  weasels  "  (light,  tracked  carriers) 
and  trailers  to  transport  huts,  stores  and  equipment.  The 
base  which  lay  more  than  100  mi.  from  the  nearest  rock 
outcrop  had  been  named  "  Maudheim."  At  the  end  of  the 
winter  a  sledge  party  using  both  dogs  and  "  weasels  "  recon- 
noitred a  route  for  nearly  200  mi.  to  the  south.  During  the 
summer  it  was  hoped  to  use  this  route  for  exploration  of 
the  ice-free  mountain  area  first  seen  and  photographed  from 
the  air  by  the  German  4*  Schwabenland  "  expedition  of  1938. 
The  R.A.F.  party  and  the  aircraft  returned  to  England  on 
board  the  expedition's  700-ton  vessel  "  Norsel."  In  Nov. 
1950  the  ship  again  left  Norway  for  the  south  carrying  stores 
and  equipment  for  the  expedition  which  would  remain  in 
the  field  for  another  year. 

French  Adtlie  Land  Expedition.  Under  the  command  of 
Andre  Liotard,  this  expedition  failed  to  penetrate  the  ice 


in  1949,  but  in  1950  succeeded  in  reaching  the  mainland  on 
Jan.  18.  A  base  was  established  on  a  low  rocky  point  along 
the  coast.  This  was  the  first  French  expedition  to  Ad61ie 
Land  since  Dumont  d'Urville  discovered  that  coast  in  1840. 
The  first  party  to  land  there  was  Douglas  Mawson's 
Australian  expedition  in  1913.  The  present  expedition's 
ship,  **  Commandant  Charcot,"  named  after  the  great 
French  explorer,  departed  on  Feb.  3,  after  putting  down  two 
years'  supplies.  The  main  subjects  of  study  were  geography, 
geology,  hydrography  and  meteorology.  The  expedition 
was  equipped  with  a  four-seater  Stinson  aircraft  and  two 
"  weasels,"  with  over  30  sledge  dogs  in  addition.  Ad&ie 
Land  lies  between  136°  and  142°E.  longitude  and  extends 
from  the  Antarctic  circle  to  the  pole. 

Other  Work  in  the  Antarctic.  The  work  of  the  Australian 
National  Antarctic  Research  expedition  on  Heard  and 
Macquarie  Islands,  having  been  in  progress  for  three  years, 
continued  under  the  command  of  its  leader,  Phillip  C.  Law. 
In  1950  equipment  was  landed  at  Macquarie  Island  for 
cosmic  ray  work  and  for  maintaining  ionospheric,  geo- 
magnetic and  scismographic  records.  The  Argentine  and 
Chilean  governments  maintained  the  bases  which  they  set 
up  within  the  Falkland  Islands  Dependencies  sector.  It  was 
reported  that  on  Oct.  15  the  Argentine  supply  ship,  "  Ernesto 
Tornquist,"  ran  aground  on  Cape  Constance,  South  Georgia. 
Some  250  persons  on  board  were  taken  off  by  whale  catchers 
from  Grytviken. 

During  the  last  season  the  pelagic  whaling  fleet  and  shore- 
based  whalers  of  various  nationalities  continued  operations 
with  satisfactory  results  under  the  conditions  laid  down  by 
the  Washington  convention  of  1946.  It  was  expected  that  the 
U.S.S.R.  would  again  despatch  a  whale  factory  ship  and 
catchers  to  the  Antarctic  in  1950.  (See  also  EXPLORATION 
AND  DISCOVERY.)  (V.  E.  F.) 


!^'?cl|pl 


The  Norwegian-British-Swedish  antarctic  expedition  in  Queen  Maud 
Land,  1950.  The  winter  quarters  (7),  the  steamer  **  Norsel"  at  anchor 
in  Norse  I  bay  (2)  and  members  of  the  Royal  Air  Force  unit  with 
one  of  the  Auster  aircraft  which  had  been  specially  fitted  with  skis 
to  enable  it  to  land  on  snow. 


46 


ANTHROPOLOGY 


ANTHROPOLOGY.  The  third  session  of  the  Inter- 
national  Congress  of  Prehistoric  and  Protohistoric  Sciences 
met  at  ZUrich  in  August;  its  work  was  divided  among  six 
sections  and  96  papers  were  read.  An  invitation  to  hold  the 
fourth  session  in  Spain  in  1954  was  accepted.  The  seventh 
International  Congress  for  the  History  of  Religions  met  in 
Amsterdam  in  September;  the  theme  of  the  congress  had  been 
announced  as  the  discussion  of  a  myth  and  ritual  pattern  in 
civilization  and  in  primitive  society,  but  many  other  topics 
were  included.  Relations  of  the  Congress  with  the  United 
Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural  organization 
(U.N.E.S.C.O.)  came  under  review  and  it  was  decided  to 
establish  an  international  organization  to  promote  the  study 
of  the  history  of  religion  under  the  auspices  of  the  Conscil 
International  de  la  Philosophic  et  des  Sciences  Humaines  (of 
U.N.E.S.C.O.).  It  was  hoped  that  the  eighth  congress  would 
meet  in  Rome  in  1955  (see  Man,  1950,  London). 

The  International  Anatomical  congress  met  at  Oxford  in 
July  under  the  presidency  of  Professor  W.  E.  Le  Gros  Clark, 
and  was  attended  by  over  500  members  from  56  countries. 
Three  sessions  were  devoted  to  physical  anthropology  and 
about  20  communications  presented.  Several  papers  were 
concerned  with  the  fossil  remains  excavated  in  Africa; 
Professor  S.  Zuckerman  (Birmingham)  claimed  that  Australo- 
pithecinae  could  not  be  classified  as  more  hominid  than  ape 
while  Professor  Le  Gros  Clark  differed.  L.  S.  B.  Leakey 
(Nairobi),  on  whom  Oxford  university  conferred  the  Degree 
of  doctor  of  science  honoris  causa,  described  the  environ- 
mental background  associated  with  his  finds  of  Early  Miocene 
fossil  primates.  Later,  in  collaboration  with  Professor  Le 
Gros  Clark,  he  delivered  an  address  to  the  Royal  Anthro- 
pological institute  on  the  Miocene  apes  of  Kenya.  Racial 
differentiation  in  modern  man,  climatic  adaptation  and  human 
phylogeny,  blood  grouping  and  many  other  special  studies 
were  discussed  (see  report  in  Man,  1950,  237). 

Research  into  the  antiquity  of  man  was  continued  during 
the  year,  and  a  notable  discovery  of  two  large  skulls,  excavated 
by  R.  Broom  in  the  Transvaal,  was  reported;  a  full  description 
was  expected.  Professor  D.  A.  E,  Garrod  (Cambridge) 
addressed  the  Royal  Anthropological  institute  on  the  excava- 
tion of  an  early  Magdalenian  rock  shelter  at  aAngles-sur- 
TAnglin,  Vienne,  France,  and  showed  a  representation  of 
the  life-size  naturalistic  portrait  of  an  Qld  Stone  Age  man 
discovered  there  ("  Angles  Man  "). 

An  important  event  in  east  Africa  was  the  establishment 
at  Makerere  college,  Uganda,  of  the  East  African  Institute 
of  Social  Research  with  Audrey  I.  Richards,  distinguished  as 
an  anthropologist,  as  the  first  director.  The  functions  of  the 
institute  were  announced  as  the  establishment  of  a  centre  for 
the  extension  of  knowledge  of  the  cultures  and  languages  of 
the  peoples  of  east  Africa  and  their  reactions  to  modern 
conditions  and  policies;  the  conduct  of  field  studies;  co- 
operation with  similar  institutions;  the  organization  of  studies 
of  administrative  importance  for  government;  the  training 
of  research  workers;  and  the  accumulation  and  publication 
of  data. 

An  Institute  of  the  Desert  (Institut  Fouad  ler  du  Desert) 
was  established  in  Egypt  at  Heliopolis  with  a  comprehensive 
programme  providing  for  the  study  of  all  aspects,  past  and 
present,  of  the  desert;  a  library  and  museum  and  field  and 
experimental  work  in  all  sections  were  planned. 

A  Norwegian  traveller,  Thor  Heyerdahl,  published  a 
popular  account,  The  Kon-Tiki  Expedition  by  Raft  across  the 
Pacific  (London,  1950),  of  his  adventure  in  sailing  a  steerable 
raft  of  green  balsa  logs  for  4,300  mi.  from  Peru  to  Tuamotu 
along  the  south  equatorial  current;  he  claimed  that  this  was  a 
line  of  migration  to  Polynesia  about  A.D.  500  and  1 100.  The 
argument  was,  received  with  interest  and  the  further  publica- 
tion of  scientific  data  was  awaited. 


Race  was  the  subject  of  a  statement  by  U.N.E.S.C.O. 
summarizing  the  findings  of  a  panel  of  scientists  (see  The 
Times,  July  16,  1950).  The  panel  was  asked  to  define  the 
concept  of  race  and  to  summarize  established  scientific  facts: 
the  seven-point  statement  issued  laid  down  that  racial 
discrimination  had  no  foundation  in  biological  fact;  that  the 
range  of  mental  capacities  in  all  races  was  about  the  same, 
there  being  no  evidence  of  innate  qualitative  differences; 
that  there  was  no  evidence  that  race  hybridization  produced 
biologically  bad  results,  social  difficulties  being  attributable 
to  social  and  cultural  factors;  that  race  was  less  a  biological 
fact  than  a  social  myth;  that  scientifically  no  modern  national 
or  religious  group  was  a  race,  nor  was  a  linguistic,  geographic 
or  cultural  community  a  race;  that  tests  had  shown  an  essen- 
tial similarity  in  mental  characters  among  racial  groups;  and, 
lastly,  that  all  human  beings  possessed  educability  and  adapta- 
bility. 

The  British  Association  of  the  Advancement  of  Science 
held  its  annual  meeting  at  Birmingham.  Redcliffe  N.  Salaman, 
(president,  section  H,  anthropology  and  archaeology)  spoke 
on  the  influence  of  food  plants  on  social  structure;  he  used 
the  potato  as  his  example  but  called  for  investigation  into 
the  influence  of  other  food  plants.  The  concept  of  culture 
was  discussed  from  several  angles  by  Phyllis  Kaberry  (Lon- 
don), Glyn  Daniel  (Cambridge)  and  Professor  M.  Fortes 
(Cambridge).  Advances  were  also  reported  in  the  knowledge 
of  blood  groups  and  their  uses  in  anthropology;  further 
reports  were  also  made  on  the  dating  of  fossil  remains  by 
fluorine  tests.  R.  E.  M.  Wheeler  reported  the  discovery  of  a 
platform  for  unloading  grain  at  Mohenjodaro;  silting  along- 
side had  reduced  its  value,  and  decline  culminated  in  a 
massacre  about  1500  B.C.,  the  period  usually  assigned  to  the 
Vedic-Aryan  invasions  of  India.  In  Southern  Rhodesia  a  new 
site  was  found  with  resemblances  to  Zimbabwe,  which,  it  was 
hoped,  would  throw  light  on  the  history  of  mediaeval  south 
Africa.  At  Heliopolis  a  cemetery  was  opened  up:  four  watch 
dogs  buried  at  the  edge  were  uncovered,  then  graves  with 
offerings  of  small  gazelles,  then  a  row  of  burials  of  men  about 
1  •  8  m.  in  height,  probably  immigrants,  and  lastly,  a  row  of 
burials  of  small  women,  apparently  indigenous;  the  cemetery 
was  thought  to  be  later  than  that  excavated  at  Maadi,  but 
both  were  considered  earlier  than  the  great  cemetery  of  the 
1st  and  2nd  dynasty  at  Helwan. 

A  scientific  expedition  from  Oxford  visited  southern 
Tunisia  during  the  summer;  among  its  members  was  Julek 
Slaski,  a  social  anthropologist,  who  studied  Berber  marriage 
customs  and  also  the  troglodyte  settlements  at  Matmata. 

Professor  J.  H.  Mutton  was  succeeded  as  William  Wyse 
professor  of  social  anthropology  at  Cambridge  university  by 
M.  Fortes;  S.  F.  Nadel  left  King's  college  Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne  (Durham  university)  to  become  professor  at  the  Aust- 
ralian National  university  at  Canberra  and  R.  O'R.  Piddington 
left  Edinburgh  to  become  professor  at  Auckland  University 
college,  New  Zealand;  R.  von  Heine-Geldern  returned  to 
Austria  on  appointment  to  a  chair  in  the  University  of 
Vienna. 

The  annual  Huxley  Memorial  lecture  of  the  Royal  Anthro- 
pological institute  was  delivered  by  Julian  Huxley  on  "  New 
Wine  for  New  Bottles:  Ideology  and  Scientific  Knowledge  "; 
the  bi-annual  Henry  Myers  lecture  of  the  same  institute  was 
delivered  by  Professor  E.  O.  James,  on  "  Religion  and 
Reality,"  and  Professor  E.  E.  Evans-Pritchard,  president  of 
the  institute,  delivered  the  Marett  lecture  at  Oxford  on 
"  Social  Anthropology:  Past  and  Present."  (S.  F.  SN.) 

New  anthropological  journals  included  UHomme:  Cahiers 
d* ethnologic >  de  geographic  et  de  linguistique,  issued  by  the 
Ecole  Pratique  des  Hautes  Etudes  of  the  Sorbonne  and  edited 
by  Claude  L6vi-Strauss,  Emile  Benveniste  and  Pierre  Gourou; 
and  Homo,  Zeitschrift  fur  die  vergleichende  Forschung  am 


ARABIA 


47 


Menschen,  under  the  editorship  of  Egon  von  Eickstedt. 
The  latter  journal,  which  was  to  appear  quarterly,  would 
continue  the  tradition  and  international  character  of  the 
earlier  Zeitschrift  fur  Rassenkunde. 

United  States.  A  survey  by  Erminie  W.  Voegelin  published 
in  the  American  Anthropologist  showed  that  during  the 
period  1900-50  the  number  of  institutions  offering  anthro- 
pology courses  in  the  United  States  and  Canada  had  grown 
from  1 1  to  304,  while  the  teaching  staffs,  originally  numbering 
17,  had  increased  to  604.  In  the  United  States,  foreign  area 
studies  received  further  support  from  the  Carnegie  Corpora- 
tion of  New  York  which  allotted  additional  funds  to  the 
Social  Science  Research  council  for  area  training  fellowships. 
Yale,  Harvard  and  the  Universities  of  Iowa,  North  Carolina, 
Oklahoma  and  Washington  joined  in  an  organization  known 
as  the  Human  Relations  Area  Files,  formerly  the  Cross- 
Cultural  survey,  established  by  George  P.  Murdock  at  Yale. 
An  important  contribution  was  Julian  H.  Steward's  Area 
Research:  Theory  and  Practice.  The  University  of  California 
at  Los  Angeles  collaborated  with  the  Commonwealth  Serum 
laboratory  of  Victoria,  Australia,  in  inaugurating  a  long- 
term  genetical  survey  of  the  human  populations  of  the 
Pacific  area. 

Problems  of  common  interest  to  anthropology  and  genetics 
were  discussed  at  a  symposium  on  the  Origin  and  Evolution 
of  Man,  held  at  the  Biological  laboratory,  Cold  Spring 
Harbor,  N.Y.  In  Genetics  and  the  Races  of  Man,  William  C. 
Boyd  presented  the  first  comprehensive  statement  of  the 
role  of  genetics,  and  particularly  the  blood  groups,  in  the 
variation  and  racial  classification  of  man.  It  was  pointed 
out  by  Chandler  W.  Rowe  ("  Genetics  v.  Physical  Anthropology 
in  Determining  Racial  Types,"  Southwestern  Journal  of 
Anthropology)  that  the  genetical  classification,  no  less  than 
the  anthropological,  had  its  limitations  and  that  the  objectives 
of  the  two  systems  were  not  identical.  A  striking  example  of 
the  importance  of  blood  group  studies  for  tracing  population 
movements  and  relationships  was  an  article  in  the  American 
Journal  of  Physical  Anthropology,  "  The  ABO,  MN,  and  Rh 
Blood  Groups  of  the  Basque  People/'  by  J.  N.  Marshall 
Chambers,  Elizabeth  W.  Ikin  and  A.  E.  Mourant.  A 
comparison  of  the  blood  group  gene  frequencies  of  the  Basques 
with  those  of  other  Europeans  led  the  authors  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  present  population  of  western  and  central  Europe 
arose  from  the  mixing  of  people  akin  to  the  Basques  with  later 
invaders  from  Asia.  In  Races;  a  Study  of  the  Problems  of 
Race  Formation  in  Man,  Carleton  S.  Coon,  Stanley  M.  Garn 
and  Joseph  B.  Birdsell  emphasized  the  importance  of 
environmental  conditions  in  the  development  of  phenotypic 
features  characteristic  of  the  various  races. 

The  year  1950  brought  new  proof  of  the  effectiveness  of 
two  recently  discovered  techniques  for  dating  ancient  skeletal 
and  cultural  materials — the  fluorine  and  carbon- 14  methods. 
The  fluorine-dating  method,  described  by  Kenneth  P.  Oakley 
and  C.  Randall  Hoskins  in  Nature  ("  New  Evidence  on  the 
Antiquity  of  Man  "),  gave  a  decisive  answer  to  the  long 
disputed  question  of  the  age  and  faunal  associations  of 
Eoanthropus.  Analysis  of  the  fluorine  content  in  these 
hominid  and  other  mammalian  fossils  from  the  Piltdown 
gravel  showed  that  all  of  the  Eoanthropus  specimens — teeth, 
skull  and  jaw  fragments — were  contemporaneous  and  that 
they  belonged  to  the  Upper  or  Middle  instead  of  Lower 
Pleistocene,  as  formerly  supposed.  On  the  other  hand  the 
fluorine  test  confirmed  the  antiquity  of  the  Swanscombe 
skull.  The  method  of  dating  organic  materials  by  means  of 
radioactive  carbon,  which  was  developed  during  the  past 
several  years  by  W.  F.  Libby  and  J.  R.  Arnold  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Chicago  Institute  for  Nuclear  Studies,  yielded  fruitful 
results  in  1950,  when  the  first  carbon-14  dates  were  officially 
announced.  Of  particular  significance  for  American  anthro- 


pology was  the  dating  of  the  last  glaciation  as  about  12,000 
years  ago  and  the  demonstration  that  man  was  living  in 
western  North  America  at  least  as  early  as  8000  B.C.  and 
at  the  southern  tip  of  South  America  some  2,000  years  later. 

Problems  of  Alaskan  archaeology,  physical  anthropology 
and  ethnology  were  discussed  by  anthropologists  from  the 
United  States  and  Canada  at  the  Alaskan  Science  conference, 
held  in  Washington,  D.C.,  Nov  9  to  1 1  under  the  auspices  of 
the  National  Academy  of  Sciences  and  the  National  Research 
Council. 

Columbia  university  inaugurated  a  programme  for  the 
study  of  contemporary  cultures  in  the  middle  east  and  far 
east,  beginning  with  a  field  project  in  India.  Studies  of  the 
Chinese  and  Japanese  segments  of  the  population  in  Hawaii 
were  made  by  Francis  L.  K.  Hsu  and  Marvin  K.  Opler, 
respectively.  Henry  Field  completed  measurements  of  more 
than  2,000  individuals  of  different  tribes  in  Iraq  and  Iran. 
Carleton  S.  Coon  conducted  archaeological  and  somatological 
work  in  Persia.  Philip  Drucker  completed  an  ethnographic 
survey  of  the  Marshall  Islands  for  the  U.S.  naval  adminis- 
tration. 

A  number  of  field  investigations  were  conducted  in  the 
American  Arctic.  L.  L.  Hammerick,  professor  of  Germanic 
philology  at  the  University  of  Copenhagen,  made  linguistic 
studies  on  Nunivak  Island,  Alaska.  William  S.  Laughlin 
and  Frederica  de  Laguna  continued  their  research  programme 
in  the  Aleutian  Islands  and  in  the  Tlingit  area  of  southeast 
Alaska,  respectively.  Viola  Garfield  collected  data  on 
northwest  coast  Indian  art  and  Douglas  Leechman  worked 
among  the  Athabaskan  Indians  in  the  interior.  J.  L.  Gid- 
dings,  Jr.,  and  Helge  Larsen,  joined  by  F.  G.  Rainey,  con- 
tinued their  investigation  of  pre-Eskimo  remains  on  Seward 
peninsula  and  the  Bering  sea  coast.  On  Cornwallis  Island 
in  the  Canadian  arctic  H.  B.  Collins  and  W  E.  Taylor  found 
evidence  of  three  periods  of  occupation— Dorset,  early 
Thule  and  late  Thule. 

Gordon  R.  Willey  was  appointed  Bowdich  professor  of 
Mexican  and  Central  American  archaeology  and  ethnology 
at  Harvard,  and  Alfred  Metraux  became  head  of  the  United 
Nations  Educational,  Scientific  and  Cultural  organization's 
division  for,  the  study  of  race  relations.  The  Viking  fund 
medalists  for  1950  were  George  P.  Murdock,  general  anthro- 
pology, William  K^.  Gregory,  physical  anthropology,  and 
Hallam  L.  Mowus,  archaeology. 

A  second  edition  of  the  International  Directory  of  Anthro- 
pologists, edited  by  Melville  J.  Herskovits,  was  issued  by  the 
Committee  on  International  Relations  in  Anthropology  of 
the  National  Research  council.  Important  publications  that 
appeared  in  1950  included  volume  6  of  the  Bureau  of  Ameri- 
can Ethnology's  Handbook  of  South  American  Indians, 
edited  by  Julian  H.  Steward;  Man  in  the  Primitive  World: 
An  Introduction  to  Anthropology,  by  E.  Adamson  Hoebel; 
An  Introduction  to  Social  Anthropology,  by  Ralph  Piddington ; 
Anthropology,  the  Science  of  Human  Society  and  Culture,  by 
J.  S.  Slotkin.  "  (H.  B.  Cs.) 

ARABIA.  Peninsula  of  southwestern  Asia  of  approx- 
imately 1,027,300  sq.mi.,  with  a  total  population  estimated  at 
9,500,000.  It  consists  politically  of  two  independent  Arab 
states,  Saudi  Arabia  and  Yemen  (a.v.),  the  independent 
sultanates  of  Oman  and  Masqat  or  Muscat;  the  autonomous 
sheikhdoms  of  Bahrein,  Kuwait,  Qatar  and  the  Trucial 
sheikhdoms;  and  Aden  colony  and  protectorates  (<y.v.). 
Language:  Arabic.  Religion:  overwhelmingly  Moslem 
(Sunni). 

Saudi  Arabia.  Area:  c.  597,000  sq.mi.  (excluding  the 
Rub  al  Khali  desert  covering  approximately  193,000  sq.mi.). 
Pop.  (no  census  ever  taken,  1947  est.):  6,00p,000.  Chief 
towns:  Riyadh  (cap.,  60,000);  Mecca  (150,000);  Medina 


48 


ARAB   LEAGUE 


(45,000);  Jedda  (40,000);  Hufuf  (31,500).  Ruler,  King 
Abdulaziz  Ibn  Abdurrahman  Ibn  Faisal  Ibn  Sa'ud;  viceroy 
of  Nejd  and  commander  in  chief,  Emir  Sa'ud,  crown  prince; 
viceroy  of  Hejaz  and  minister  of  foreign  affairs,  Emir  Faisal. 

History.  During  1950  King  Ibn  Sa'ud  celebrated  the  jubilee 
of  his  rule.  During  his  reign  he  had  expanded  his  territories 
from  his  original  kingdom  of  Nejd  so  that  his  government 
extended  over  nine-tenths  of  the  whole  of  the  Arabian 
peninsula.  In  1913  he  captured  from  the  Turks  the  province 
of  Hasa,  where  two  decades  later  was  to  be  found  one  of 
the  richest  oilfields  in  the  world.  In  1920  he  conquered  the 
Hail  emirate  on  the  north  of  Nejd.  In  1924  he  completed  the 
conquest  of  the  Hejaz  which  placed  him  in  possession  of  the 
two  holy  cities  of  Islam — Mecca  and  Medina.  In  1925  he 
captured  the  province  of  *Asir,  south  of  the  Hejaz.  His 
jubilee  focused  the  interest  of  the  world  on  a  great  personality 
who  had  earned  its  respect  and  admiration. 

In  the  Arab  league  Saudi  Arabia  tended,  in  association  with 
Egypt,  Syria  and  the  Lebanon,  to  oppose  the  expansionist 
policy  of  King  Abdullah  of  Jordan.  A  new  development, 
which  showed  the  extent  to  which  the  "  unchanging  east " 
was  modernizing  itself,  was  the  loan  of  $6  million  which 
Saudi  Arabia  made  to  Syria  in  Feb.  1950  (see  SYRIA).  In 
return  for  the  loan  of  which  a  portion  was  already  paid, 
Syria  undertook  to  supply  Syrian  goods  for  Saudi-Arabian 
consumption.  The  dollars  were  presumed  to  have  come  from 
American  oil  royalties. 

In  August  Saudi  Arabia  contracted  a  $15  millio**  loan  from 
the  American  Export-Import  bank.  An  immediate  payment 
of  $4  million  was  to  be  devoted  to  the  construction  of  airports, 
roads  and  seaports.  The  remainder  was  to  be  applied  for  the 
development  of  agriculture  and  for  the  improvement  of 
health,  sanitation  and  transport  conditions. 

The  report  published  in  July  of  the  Arab- American  Oil 
company  (Aramco),  whose  active  concessions  were  \n  the 
Saudi  Arabian  province  of  Hasa  on  the  Persian  gulf, 
announced  the  progress  of  the  railway  which  was  being 
constructed  westwards  from  the  oilfields  by  way  of  Kharj 
and  Hufuf  to  Riyadh.  Already  108  mi.  of  track  had  been 
laid  and  the  line  was  expected  to  be  open  early  in  1951. 

Another  development  from  the  oilfields  during  1950  was 
the  practical  completion  of  the  desert  pipeline  to  pump  the 
Aramco  oil  westwards  across  the  desert  thrpugh  Saudi  Arabia, 
Jordan,  Syria  and  the  Lebanon  to  the  Mediterranean  port  of 
Sidon,  south  of  Beirut.  The  company  was  negotiating 
44  passage  rights  "  with  the  governments  concerned  and  it  was 
hoped  that  oil  would  be  flowing  early  in  1951. 

Developments  elsewhere  in  Saudi  Arabia  included  the 
building  of  a  new  deep-water  jetty  and  customs  sheds  at 
Jedda,  the  Red  sea  port  of  Mecca,  which  would  greatly 
improve  the  conditions  of  pilgrim  traffic  arriving  by  sea  from 
Africa  and  India  and  the  far  east.  A  new  all-weather  highway 
was  also  being  constructed  from  Jedda  to  Medina.  (O.  Tw.) 

Education.  Schools  (1949):  primary  30,  secondary  5;  prc-university  1. 

Agriculture.  Dates  form  the  main  crop  of  the  Arabian  desert,  and 
camels  and  horses  the  principal  livestock. 

Industry.  Crude  oil  production  (*000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950,  six 
months,  in  brackets):  23,460  (11,937).  Raw  materials:  copper  (metric 
tons,  1948)  67;  gold  (troy  ounces,  1949)  67,200;  silver  (troy  ounces, 
1948)  67,819. 

Foreign  Trade.  Main  imports:  textiles,  food  products  and  vehicles. 
Main  exports:  oil,  gold  concentrates,  hides  and  skins. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Licensed  motor  vehicles  (Dec.  1949) : 
cars,  6,000;  commercial  vehicles  7,700.  Radio  sets  (1949)  9,000. 

Finance.  Pilgrimage  dues  (1948  est.,  £10  million)  and  oil  royalties 
(1948  est.,  over  £20  million)  are  the  main  sources  of  revenue.  Monetary 
unit:  riyal  nominally=R.  1  (Indian)  with  an  exchange  rate  of  13-33 
riyals  to  the  pound. 

Oman  and  Masqat.  Area:  c.  65,000 sq.mi.  Pop.  (1947 
est.):  830,000.  Ruler  (from  1932),  Sultan  Said  bin  Taimur, 
the  13th  of  rtjis  dynasty.  British  consul,  Major  F.  L,  L. 
Chauncy. 


Bahrein.  Area:  21 3  sq.mi.  Pop.  (1947  est.):  125,000. 
Ruler  (from  1942):  Sheikh  Sulman  bin  Hamad  al  Khalifah. 
British  political  agent,  C.  J.  Pelly. 

Kuwait.  Area:  c.  9,000  sq.mi.  Pop.  (1949  est.):  120,000. 
Ruler,  Sheikh  Abdullah  bin  Salim.  British  political  agent, 
H.  C.  Jakins.  The  present  ruler  succeeded  his  uncle,  Sheikh 
Ahmad  al  Jabir  as  Subah  who  died  on  Jan.  29,  1950. 

Qatar.  Area:  c.  4,000 sq.mi.  Pop.  (1947  est.):  25,000. 
Ruler  (from  1949):  Sheikh  Ali  bin  Abdullah  al  Thani.  In 
March  the  new  oilfield  was  formally  inaugurated  at  the  new 
oil  port  of  Umm  Said  by  the  ruling  sheikh  who,  by  the  turn 
of  a  tap,  started  the  flow  of  oil  to  a  waiting  tanker. 

Trucial  Sheikhdoms.  Area:  c.  16,000  sq.mi.  (including 
the  sheikhdoms  of  Shargah,  Ras  al  Khaimah,  Umm  al 
Qawain,  Ajman,  Debai,  Abu  Dhabi  and  Kalba).  Pop. 
(1947  est.):  115,000. 

See  Gerald  de  Gaury,  Arabian  Journey  and  Other  Desert  Travels 
(London,  1950). 

ARAB  LEAGUE.  The  League  of  Arab  States  came 
into  being  on  March  22,  1945,  when  its  covenant  was  signed 
in  Cairo  by  the  representatives  of  Egypt,  Iraq,  Lebanon, 
Saudi  Arabia,  Syria,  Transjordan  and  Yemen.  The  council 
of  the  league,  on  which  each  member  has  one  vote,  has  its 
seat  in  Cairo.  The  main  object  of  the  League  was  stated  to 
be  to  co-ordinate  the  political  action  and  safeguard  the 
independence  and  sovereignty  of  the  Arab  states.  Secretary 
general,  Abdurrahman  Azzam  Pasha. 

During  1950  no  progress  was  made  towards  the  conclusion 
of  peace  treaties  between  the  member  states  of  the  league 
and  Israel;  and  on  July  10  the  Palestine  Conciliation  commis- 
sion issued  a  communiqu6  in  Geneva  that  its  mediation 
efforts  over  the  past  six  months  had  failed  and  that  it  was 
transferring  its  activities  to  Palestine  to  resume  contact  with 
the  interested  governments. 

But  though  they  could  not  agree  on  peace  terms  with 
Israel,  the  members  of  Arab  league  in  April  did  agree  unani- 
mously among  themselves  against  the  making  of  a  separate 
peace  with  Israel  by  member  states,  and  for  the  banning 
of  supplies  for  ships  going  to  Israel;  for  the  blacklisting  of 
ships  suspected  of  working  for  Israel;  and  for  the  refusing  of 
visas  to  those  with  Israeli  visas  on  their  passports. 


Prince  Faisal  of  Saudi  Arabia  (left}  with  Nahas  Pasha*  prime 
minister  of  Egypt,  at  a  meeting  of  the  Arab  League  in  1950. 


ARCHAEOLOGY 


49 


THE  MIDDLE  EAST 


E  G 


S  U 


The  members  of  the  Arab  League  are  shown  dotted. 

A  week  before,  however,  on  April  16,  Jordan  had  opposed 
the  general  approval,  subject  to  reservations,  by  the  political 
committee  of  the  league  of  the  United  Nations'  plan  for 
Jerusalem;  and  on  April  13  the  Jordan  delegate  reaffirmed  at  a 
full  meeting  of  the  league  that  his  government's  policy  was 
to  annex  Arab  Palestine  subject  to  the  approval  of  the  Jordan 
parliament  for  which  elections,  which  covered  both  the  former 
Transjordan  and  Arab  Palestine,  had  been  held  on  April  11. 
On  April  24  the  newly  convened  Jordan  parliament  approved 
King  Abdullah's  speech  from  the  throne  announcing  the 
annexation  of  Arab  Palestine.  The  league  promptly  called  an 
extraordinary  session  (May  10-15)  to  discuss  Jordan's  action; 
but  Egypt  failed  to  carry  its  motion  for  the  expulsion  of  Jordan 
who  refused  to  modify  its  action  or  to  accept  a  compromise. 
Egypt  was  supported  by  Syria,  Saudi  Arabia  and  the  Lebanon; 
the  Yemen  and  Iraq  requested  postponement  to  consult 
their  governments. 

The  council  of  the  Arab  league  reassembled  on  June  12, 
but  Jordan  absented  itself  on  the  grounds  that  its  attitude 
was  irrevocable;  whereupon  Egypt,  the  Lebanon,  Syria  and 
Saudi  Arabia  revived  their  motion  for  Jordan's  expulsion 
from  the  league.  The  outcome  was  a  new  resolution 
approved  by  all  the  states  (except  Jordan)  that  Jordan  should 
treat  the  area  of  Arab  Palestine  as  "  trust  property  "  until 
Palestine  was  "  finally  liberated."  The  meeting  also  considered 
the  Arab  states'  collective  security  pact.  It  was  eventually 
signed  by  Egypt,  Saudi  Arabia,  Syria,  the  Lebanon  and  the 
Yemen.  Of  the  remaining  member  states,  Jordan  was  absent 
and  Iraq  abstained  for  "  technical  reasons." 

During  the  rest  of  the  year  this  divergence  of  domestic 
policy  persisted  among  the  member  states,  although  in  their 
general  policy  there  was  unanimity  in  a  reply  to  a  declaration 
by  the  U.S.,  France  and  Great  Britain  about  the  middle  east, 
affirming:  first,  that  the  league  desired  peace;  secondly,  that 
it  refused  to  tolerate  any  act  that  attacked  the  sovereignty 
and  independence  of  its  members;  lastly,  that  the  members' 
rearmament  programmes  were  for  legitimate  local  defence  and 
not,  as  alleged  by  Israel,  for  aggression. 

In  its  session  on  Nov.  3  the  general  assembly  of  the  United 
Nations  unanimously  adopted  a  resolution  to  invite  the  Arab 
league  to  send  an  envoy  to  all  the  assembly's  sessions.  Israel 

S.I.Y.— -5 


abstained  from  voting.  All  the  member  states  of  the  Arab 
league,  except  the  Yemen,  sent  delegates  to  the  second  meeting 
of  the  Pan-Islamic  Economic  conference  which  was  held  in 
Tehran  in  November.  (See  ISLAM.)  (O.  Tw.) 

ARCHAEOLOGY.  The  year  1950  was  one  of  steady 
progress  rather  than  of  spectacular  discovery.  Particular 
mention,  however,  should  be  made  of  the  discovery  of  a 
Roman  fort  in  London;  of  the  excavation  of  the  Mithraic 
temple  on  Hadrian's  wall;  of  the  completion  of  work  on  the 
Odeion  in  the  Agora  at  Athens;  of  the  re-excavation  of 
Nimrud  in  Iraq;  of  the  first  examination  of  the  Lashkari- 
Bazar  palaces  in  Afghanistan;  and  of  the  establishment  of  a 
state  Department  of  Antiquities  in  Pakistan. 

Great  Britain.  R.  J.  A.  Atkinson,  S.  Piggott  and  J.  F.  S. 
Stone  examined  some  of  the  Aubrey  holes  at  Stonehenge; 
i.e.,  the  outermost  circle  of  holes,  a  number  of  which  were 
excavated  in  the  period  1920-26,  when  they  were  taken  to 
be  the  holes  of  posts  (since  decayed  or  destroyed)  and  to 
have  been  made  during  the  early  life  of  the  monument, 
before  the  standing  stones  were  dressed  and  erected.  The 
new  excavation  produced  no  evidence  that  the  holes  had  ever 
contained  posts  or  stones,  though  it  confirmed  the  early  date 
assigned  to  them  by  the  previous  excavators.  Burnt  matter 
and  cremated  bones  were,  however,  found  in  circumstances 
similar  to  those  encountered  on  similar  sites  in  recent  years: 
they  may  have  served  some  ritual  purpose. 

In  the  Cripplegate  area  of  London,  in  the  northwest  of 
the  Roman  city,  where  variation  from  the  standard  con- 
struction of  the  city  wall  was  noted  in  1949,  a  Rortian  fort 
was  located  by  the  Roman  and  Mediaeval  Excavation 
council,  directed  by  W.  F.  Grimes.  The  area  of  the  fort  was 
about  11  ac.,  its  date  probably  late  in  the  1st  century  A.D. 
The  destruction  of  the  city  by  Boadicea  in  A.D.  61  was  thought 
to  have  shown  the  need  for  some  military  protection  when  the 
city  came  to  be  rebuilt:  as  the  civil  buildings  gradually 
spread  to  the  neighbourhood  of  the  fort,  the  fort  was,  it 
seemed,  eventually  incorporated  in  the  later  city  defences. 
Certain  peculiarities  of  the  outline  and  street  plan  of  Roman 
London  were  thus  now  explained. 

On  Hadrian's  wall  I.  A.  Richmond  completely  excavated 
the  newly  found  Mithraeum  outside  Carrawburgh  (Pro- 
colitia),  a  wall-fort  4  mi.  E.  of  Housesteads  and  6  mi.  N.W. 
of  Hexham,  Northumberland.  The  temple,  built  just  south 
of  the  well  dedicated  to  the  local  goddess  Coventina  (found 
in  the  19th  century),  had  three  periods,  which  corresponded 
with  the  2nd-,  3rd-  and  early  4th-century  occupations  of  the 
wall.  The  building,  in  its  last  phase,  is  one  of  the  most 
complete  ever  found  in  Britain  or  Europe:  it  consisted  of  a 
main  rectangular  room  with  a  vestibule,  by  which  the  building 
was  entered;  at  the  north,  or  sanctuary  end,  were  three 
inscribed  altars,  one  of  which  bore  a  painted  relief  of  Mithras; 
along  the  side  walls  were  substantial  remains  of  post-and- 
wattle  stall-work,  in  front  of  which  were  set  a  number  of. 
small  uninscribed  altars;  statues  of  the  two  dadophori  stood 
near  the  entrance  to  the  vestibule,  which  contained  a  recess 
for  ritual  burial  or  initiation  in  its  floor.  The  building  was 
placed  under  the  care  of  the  Ministry  of  Works. 

Apart  from  London,  the  main  work  on  Roman  towns  was 
at  Canterbury  and  Chichester.  At  Canterbury  traces  were 
found  of  a  large  public  building  of  massive  construction: 
it  was  thought  to  have  been  a  theatre,  but,  if  so,  it  was  of 
classical  rather  than  of  Romano-Celtic  type.  At  Chichester 
it  was  established  that  the  embankment  of  the  walls  was 
raised  late  in  the  1st  century  A.D.  and  heightened  in  the  2nd, 
and  part  of  a  house  with  a  tesselated  floor  was  found.  Among 
a  large  number  of  other  places  excavated  may  be  mentioned: 
Brockley  hill,  Middlesex  (traces  of  industrial  activity  at  the 
site  of  the  town  of  Sulloniacae);  Brough-by-Bambridge, 


50 


ARCHAEOLOGY 


Some  of  the  jewels  and  ornaments  found  on  April  J4,  7950,  in  a 
2 \500~year-old  tomb  near  At  rib  village,  north  of  Cairo. 

Yorkshire  (a  fort);  Great  Casterton,  Rutland  (a  town 
destroyed  in  the  Pictish  war  of  369);  Lullingstone,  Kent 
(a  villa);  and  Whittington,  Gloucestershire  (a  villa  with 
tesselated  pavements).  The  Ordnance  Survey  discovered  and 
traced  a  Roman  road  running  northwards  from  Chichester. 
In  the  Scilly  Isles  excavations  by  the  Ministry  of  Works 
showed  the  extent  of  Roman  influence  there:  pottery  of  the 
Roman  period  was  found  on  St.  Martin's  and  St.  Mary's  in 
houses  of  native  type  similar  to  those  in  Cornwall. 

Europe.  Austria.  H.  Vetters  reported  on  work  at 
Magdalensberg,  10  mi.  N.W.  of  Klagenfurt.  The  town  may 
have  been  the  capital  of  Noricum,  which  was  absorbed  into 
the  Roman  empire  in  15  B.C.  Structural  'finds  included  a 
large  hall,  standing  about  30  ft.  to  the  wall  plate  and  having 
traces  of  iron  reinforcement,  mosaics  and  wall  paintings. 
Beneath  the  remains  of  the  city  were  found  remains  of  earlier 
occupations  of  the  middle  bronze  age  and  later.  An  account 
of  the  border  fortifications  of  the  Roman  provinces  of 
Noricum  and  Pannonia  was  given  by  G.  Pascher  in  Der 
Romische  Limes  in  Oesterreich,  vol.  xix,  Vienna,  1950: 
it  contains  a  catalogue  of  sites  and  finds  and  a  classification 
of  the  Roman  roads. 

Greece.  In  Athens,  the  plan  matured  to  restore  the  stoa 
built  by  Attalus  II  of  Pcrgamum  (159-138  B.C.)  as  a  museum 
for  the  material  excavated  in  the  Agora.  The  work  was  to  be 
carried  out  for  the  Greek  government  (the  owner  of  the  finds) 
by  the  American  School  of  Classical  Studies,  with  some 
financial  help  under  the  European  Recovery  programme. 
In  1949  traces  were  found  in  the  northwest  corner  of  the  Agora 
of  a  mid-5th-century  limestone  building  which  was  identified 
as  the  stoa  poikile  of  Peisianax.  Further  work  in  the  area 
was  described  in  Hespena  (Princeton)  by  Homer  A.  Thomp- 
son, who  gave  an  account  of  the  examination  of  the  Odeion 
mentioned  by  Pausanias  in  his  account  of  the  Agora.  This 
great  theatre  lay  in  a  dominating  position  immediately  north 
of  the  middle  stoa  (2nd  century  B.C.);  built  towards  the  end 
of  the  1st  certury,  it  was  perhaps  connected  with  Agrippa's 
visit  to  Athens  in  16  or  14  B.C.  The  original  structure  com- 


prised a  central  complex  of  auditorium,  dressing  rooms  and 
lobby,  surrounded  by  a  balcony,  which  was  in  effect  an 
extension  of  the  terrace  of  the  middle  stoa.  The  building 
is  important  in  the  development  of  ancient  theatre  design, 
not  least  for  its  combination  of  Greek  and  Roman  features. 
The  auditorium  was  square  and  of  considerable  extent,  a 
factor  which  probably  led  to  a  collapse  in  A.D.  150.  There- 
after the  building  was  re-modelled  and  re-roofed,  with  the 
scena  turned  into  a  colonnade,  the  piers  of  which  bore 
monumental  figures  of  giants  and  tritons.  The  building  was 
thenceforward  devoted  to  rhetorical  rather  than  to  dramatic 
performances  until  its  sack  by  the  Heruli  in  267.  Some 
continuity  of  use  may  be  associated  with  the  use  of  the  site 
as  a  gymnasium  during  the  5th  century,  after  which  it  was 
abandoned  and  silted  up. 

In  Samothrace  it  was  reported  that  excavations  by  the 
Institute  of  Fine  Arts  of  New  York  university,  conducted  by 
K.  Lehmann,  had  secured  further  evidence  for  the  date  and 
setting  of  the  famous  figure  of  the  Winged  Victory  (now  in 
the  Louvre),  together  with  a  fragment  of  Parian  marble 
which  was  thought  to  be  part  of  the  right  hand.  The  fingers, 
except  the  third,  were  gone;  but  enough  remained  to  suggest 
that  the  hand  had  held  some  light  object;  e.g.,  a  golden  fillet. 
Pottery  evidence  suggested  a  date  c.  200  B.C. 

Italy.  In  a  grotto  on  Levanza  in  the  Egadi  archipelago 
P.  Graziosi  investigated  some  latterly  found  neolithic  cave- 
paintings.  Further  exploration  revealed  an  inner  cave,  with 
figures  described  by  Graziosi  as  of  a  naturalistic,  palaeolithic 
style  and  including  many  representations  of  deer,  some  of 
bulls  and  of  stylized  human  figures  and  one  of  a  horse. 
G.  Jacopi  investigated  Sybaris  in  Calabria,  a  city  of  Magna 
Graecia:  founded  late  in  the  8th  century  B.C.  and  destroyed 
by  the  citizens  of  Croton  in  510,  it  rose  again  but  was  finally 
destroyed  by  the  Bruttii  in  the  middle  of  the  4th  century  B.C. 
Further  researches  in  the  plain  of  Foggia  in  northern 
Apulia  were  conducted  by  J.  P.  S.  Bradford,  whose  work  was 
based  primarily  on  aerial  surveys,  though  selected  examples 
were  tested  by  excavation.  Discoveries  included  some  200 
ditched  and  enclosed  neolithic  settlements,  of  which  those 
examined  on  the  ground  yielded  large  quantities  of  pottery, 
stone  axes  and  bone  implements.  The  survey  also  showed 
remarkable  details  of  the  Roman  system  of  centuriation, 
with  its  associated  farmsteads,  especially  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  colonia  of  Lucera.  Later  earthworks  and  their 
associated  field  systems  also  were  plotted,  as  well  as  what 
might  have  been  the  emperor  Frederick  ll's  hunting  palace  at 
San  Lorenzo.  The  further  investigation  of  a  chance  wartime 
discovery  at  Castelseprio,  20  mi.  N.  of  Milan,  was  reported. 
In  the  ancient  church  of  Santa  Maria  there  was  found  a 
well-preserved  cycle  of  wall  paintings  of  the  Infancy  of 
Christ  of  the  highest  quality,  in  treatment  and  subject  not 
unlike  the  work  on  the  ivory  throne  of  Maximian  at  Ravenna. 
It  was  suggested  that  they  might  be  the  work  of  a  7th-century 
refugee  artist  from  the  Levant.  (G.  P.  Bognetti,  G.  Chierici 
and  A.  dc  C.  d'Arzago,  Santa  Maria  di  Castelseprio,  Milan). 
Near  and  Middle  East.  North  Africa.  A  British  expedition 
surveyed  Syrtica  and  Cyrenaica  for  the  Map  of  Roman 
Libya  committee.  Attention  was  mainly  directed  to  the 
Roman  road  and  frontier  system;  and  the  latter  was  found  to 
be  strongest  towards  the  Syrtica  region,  the  main  direction 
of  barbarian  attack. 

Cyprus.  C.  F.  A.  SchaefTer,  director  of  the  French  Centre 
of  Scientific  Research,  Paris,  described  further  work  at  the 
Mycenaean  site  of  Enkomi  near  Famagusta:  in  addition  to 
examining  the  lower  Mycenaean  levels,  he  was  able  to  show 
that  the  upper  levels  were  to  be  associated  with  the  period  of 
Philistine  occupation.  The  work  was  expected  to  throw  much 
light  on  the  birth  and  growth  of  the  iron  age  in  the  eastern 
Mediterranean. 


ARCHAEOLOGY 


51 


Turkey.  Tahsin  Ozguc  reported  on  further  excavations 
directed  by  him  (for  the  Turkish  Historical  foundation)  at 
the  Karum;  i.e.,  the  Assyrian  trade-enclave,  near  the  great 
mound  of  Kultepe  in  central  Anatolia.  The  settlement 
belonged  to  the  early  part  of  the  2nd  millenium  B.C.  and  came 
to  a  sudden  end  before  the  main  Kultepe  site.  Of  four 
occupation  levels  found,  the  second  highest  had  ended  in  a 
disastrous  fire  so  rapid  in  its  effect  that  the  inhabitants  had 
been  unable  to  salve  their  belongings,  which  now  constituted 
an  archaeological  find  of  remarkable  completeness. 

The  British  school  at  Athens  continued  work  at  Old 
Smyrna  and  encountered  occupation  levels  contemporary 
with  the  reign  of  Croesus.  They  produced  black  and  white 
pottery  of  Eastern  Greek  origin  and  some  imported  pieces 
from  Attica. 

Syria.  C.  F.  A.  Schaeffer  reported  on  his  work  on  the 
Canaanite  city  of  Ugarit  (Ras  Shamra),  near  Latakia.  The 
massive  fortifications,  50  ft.  across,  had  been  further  defended 
by  a  great  gate  tower,  masking  the  approach.  The  palace, 
near  this  entrance,  was  fronted  by  a  portico  with  two  rows  of 
wooden  columns  on  heavy  stone  bases;  inside,  Schaeffer 
discovered  a  large  audience  chamber  and  three  royal  tombs, 
long  since  robbed.  Near  the  way  into  the  palace,  but  not 
directly  connected  with  it,  were  several  rooms  containing  a 
large  number  of  inscribed  clay  tablets,  mostly  relating  to 
administrative  matters.  One  of  these  rooms,  thought  to 
have  been  a  schoolroom  for  scribes,  contained  a  tablet  (and 
a  fragment  of  another)  bearing  an  alphabet :  a  discovery  which 
carries  back  to  the  14th  century  B.C.  the  order  of  letters  of 
our  alphabet.  The  city  was  damaged  in  an  earthquake  of  1365 
and  sacked  about  1350;  but  some  occupation  continued  for 
the  next  two  centuries. 

Iraq.  M.  E.  L.  Mallowan  directed,  for  the  British  School 
of  Archaeology  in  Iraq  and  for  the  Department  of  Antiquities 
of  Iraq,  the  excavation  at  Nimrud  of  the  9th  century  palace 
of  Assur-nasir-pal  II,  the  source  of  the  famous  Assyrian 
sculptures  found  by  A.  H.  Layard  in  the  19th  century  and  now 


in  the  British  Museum.  Nimrud,  an  Assyrian  city  and  army 
centre,  lies  some  20  mi.  S.  of  Mosul.  Part  of  the  area  dug  by 
Layard  was  re-examined;  and  some  impressive  sculptures, 
comparable  to  his  finds,  as  well  as  some  inscriptions,  were 
discovered.  Excavation  of  the  south  wing  of  the  palace 
showed  it  to  be  a  plain  brick  structure:  it  was  assigned  to 
officials,  to  the  royal  bodyguard  and  to  servants  and  con- 
tained stores  of  arms  and  food.  Three  inscriptions  were  found 
there,  recording  the  campaigns  of  Assur-nasir-pal.  At  a 
new  site,  in  the  east  part  of  the  great  mound,  a  block  of 
offices  was  discovered,  including  a  repository  for  archives 
containing  many  8th-century  inscribed  tablets.  Among  other 
buildings  was  a  block  of  similar  date,  planned  with  a  central 
courtyard  surrounded  with  ranges  of  rooms  and  a  group  of 
barracks.  The  site  was  rich  in  finds  of  all  classes,  but  probably 
most  notable  for  its  carvings,  among  which  were  an  8th- 
century  chalcedony  seal  bearing  a  mythological  scene,  a 
magico-medical  plaque  and  many  small  animals  in  ivory. 

D.  E.  McCown  dug  near  the  temple  of  Enlil,  an  early 
paramount  god  of  Sumer.  Beneath  the  remains  of  a  Parthian 
fortress  and  Kassite  temple  was  an  occupation  of  the  3rd 
dynasty  of  Ur  (early  2nd  millenium  B.C.).  The  latest  excava- 
tion of  the  temple  settlement  and  cemetery  at  Eridu,  directed 
by  Firad  Safar,  gave  a  remarkably  complete  picture  of  the 
pre-Sumerians  of  the  4th  and  5th  millenia  B.C.:  discoveries 
included  evidence  of  a  culture  earlier  than  that  of  al-Ubaid, 
with  pottery  resembling  that  of  Halap  and  Samarra  in 
northern  Iraq:  many  prehistoric  temples  which  contribute  to 
the  typology  of  temple  building;  and  an  al-Ubaid  cemetery  of 
great  size  and  richness.  Tell  Hamal  continued  to  produce  a 
flood  of  documents  of  the  beginning  of  the  2nd  millenium 
B.C.,  the  latest  being  a  mathematical  text. 

Persia.  The  work  of  the  French  archaeological  mission  at 
Susa  fell  into  two  parts.  In  the  "  Royal  Town,"  beneath  two 
Islamic  occupations  and  one  6th-century,  was  found  a  brick- 
built  town,  which  had  been  inhabited  by  Christian  Persians 
but  was  destroyed  with  its  inhabitants  by  Shapur  II  in  the 


Arab  workers,  under  the  supervision  oj  J.  L.  Keiso,  oj  Pittsburgh,  U.S.,  clearing  earth  from  the  site  of  an  ancient  fortress  fa  the  ruined  city 

of  Jericho,  Palestine. 


52 


ARCHAEOLOGY 


middle  of  the  4th-century.  West  of  the  main  site  an  extensive 
necropolis  was  excavated.  The  tombs  took  the  form  of  deep 
vaulted  burial  chambers,  approached  by  shafts  or  steps; 
dated  by  R.  Ghirshman  as  belonging  to  the  period  300  B.C.- 
A.D.  300,  they  contained  clay  sarcophagi  with  associated 
pottery  and  alabaster  vessels  and  figurines  of  both  Hellenistic 
and  oriental  styles. 

Afghanistan.  M.  D.  Schlumberger  reported  on  excavations 
at  one  of  three  Ghaznavid  palaces  of  Lashkari-Bazar,  first 
located  in  1948,  near  the  great  Ghaznavid  fortress  and  city 
of  Bust,  about  90  mi.  W.  of  Kandahar.  Of  considerable 
importance  in  the  study  of  Moslem  secular  architecture,  the 
palace  examined  was  probably  built  by  Mahmud  of  Ghazni, 
who  began  the  Moslem  drive  on  India  early  in  the  llth 
century;  covering  about  35  ac.  and  rectangular  in  outline, 
it  was  symmetrically  planned  round  a  great  central  courtyard 
with  a  large  open  bay  in  the  middle  of  each  side.  In  addition 
to  suites  of  private  apartments,  the  discoveries  included  a 
large  banqueting  hall  and  an  audience  chamber  decorated 
with  human  figures  (contrary  to  orthodox  Moslem  tradition) 
and  stucco  medallions. 

Pakistan.  The  government  of  Pakistan  established  a 
national  museum  at  Karachi.  The  new  Department  of 
Antiquities  began  work  (under  R.  E.  Mortimer  Wheeler)  on 
the  great  prehistoric  city  of  Mohenjo-daro  in  Sind.  The 
brick-built  walls  of  the  granary  of  the  citadel,*  standing  to  a 
considerable  height,  showed  the  use  of  timber  reinforcement,  a 
feature  not  hitherto  encountered  in  buildings  rf  the  Indus 
civilization.  (R.  E.  Mortimer  Wheeler,  Five  Thousand  Years 
of  Pakistan,  Karachi,  1950.)  (J.  CHN.) 

North  America.  W.  F.  Libby  and  James  Arnold  of  the 
University  of  Chicago,  having  completed  the  testing-phase  of 
the  radioactive  carbon  isotope,  Carbon14,  for  securing  dates 
of  prehistoric  organic  materials,  made  available  in  1950  a  list 
of  samples  dated  by  this  means  within  the  previous  two  years. 
The  dates  were  to  be  correlated  with  archaeological  and 
geological  evidence,  and  statements  as  to  the  probable  validity 
of  the  results  obtained  were  expected  from  the  investigators 
who  provided  the  samples.  Two  additional  Carbon14  dating 
laboratories  were  being  prepared  for  operation  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Michigan  and  Columbia  university. 

The  problems  of  early  cultures  in  the  New  World,  particu- 
larly in  North  America,  received  considerable  attention.  The 
apparent  gap  between  the  chronologies  of  the  later  Indian 
cultures  that  could  be  connected  with  the  historic  period  and 
early  remains  such  as  Folsom  and  Yuma  was  being  closed. 
New  dating  techniques  indicated  that  archaeologists  had  been 
too  conservative  in  estimating  recent  chronologies,  while 
geologists  had  over-estimated  the  age  of  late  Pleistocene 
phenomena. 

George  F.  Carter  continued  work  at  La  Jolla,  California,  on 
problems  of  terraces,  valley  fill,  soils  and  sea-level  and  their 
relations  to  evidences  of  human  occupation.  One  grinding 
stone,  a  core  tool  and  two  flint  flakes  found  beneath  the  soils 
of  the  Scripps  cliff  came  from  formations  that  suggested  that 
they  had  been  deposited  during  a  period  of  high  sea-level  and 
that  man  might  have  been  there  in  interglacial  times. 

Near  Port  Arthur,  Ontario,  Richard  MacNeish  of  the 
National  Museum  of  Canada  discovered  a  site  which  offered 
additional  information  on  Palaeo-Indian  culture.  Plain  view- 
type  projectile  points,  large  crude  choppers  and  a  variety  of 
flint  scrapers,  some  very  delicately  chipped,  were  found  in  an 
old  beach  deposit  now  235  ft.  above  the  level  of  Lake  Superior. 

J.  L.  Gidaings  of  the  University  of  Alaska  continued  work 
at  the  remarkable  early  site  at  lyatayet  on  Cape  Denbigh  in 
Norton  sound.  Additional  artifacts  from  the  sealed  basal 
layer  of  the  deposit  further  demonstrated  the  relationship  of 
this  microlithic  complex  to  the  Folsom  and  Yuma  cultures  of 
western  Nortli  America  and  to  the  Mesolithic  of  northern 


Europe  and  Asia.  This  site  is  extremely  important  in  that  it 
has  given  the  first  clear  evidence  relating  early  cultures  of  the 
Old  and  New  Worlds. 

The  cave  in  the  Trail  creek  region  of  Seward  peninsula 
discovered  in  1949  was  completely  excavated  and  1 1  additional 
caves  discovered,  one  of  which  proved  to  contain  cultural 
material.  In  the  surface  layers  Eskimo  artifacts  were  found; 
but  beneath  these,  separated  by  a  layer  of  accumulated  rock 
dust,  was  discovered  a  complex  of  flint  artifacts  very  similar 
to  that  found  by  Giddings  at  lyatayet. 

Large-scale  excavation  took  place  on  outstanding  sites 
discovered  by  surveys  of  areas  destined  to  be  covered  by  the 
waters  of  reservoirs.  Nearly  all  the  fieldwork  was  done  in 
co-operation  with  the  River  Basin  Surveys  project  of  the 
Smithsonian  institution:.  Robert  L.  Stephenson  excavated  a 
variety  of  sites  in  the  Whitney  reservoir  area  on  the  Brazos 
river  in  Texas.  Most  interesting  were  some  unexplained  large 
pits  60  to  70  ft.  in  diameter  discovered  near  Lavon.  Jack 
Hughes  and  Alex  Krieger  surveyed  the  Falcon  Reservoir  area 
on  the  lower  Rio  Grande  and  discovered  a  number  of  sites 
both  historic  and  prehistoric. 

The  Wisconsin  Archaeological  survey  worked  primarily  at 
the  Aztalan  site.  Two  houses  were  found  and  new  data  added 
on  stockade  features  and  burials.  The  University  of  Michigan 
began  a  five-year  survey  and  excavation  programme  in  the 
central  Mississippi  valley  between  the  mouths  of  the  Illinois 
and  Ohio  rivers  under  the  direction  of  James  B.  Griffin. 
Excavations  were  made  at  the  Cahokia  mound-group  in  an 
effort  to  define  more  closely  the  two  Mississippian  cultural 
levels  found  there;  and  surface  surveys  were  extended  down 
the  Missouri  side  of  the  Mississippi  to  Cape  Girardeau,  out- 
lining a  sequence  from  Eastern  Archaic  to  Mississippian. 
The  Ohio  state  museum  excavated  an  Archaic  site  near 
Oxford,  Ohio,  and  found  a  series  of  trough-like  refuse  pits, 
heavy  stemmed  projectile  points,  scrapers,  bone  awls  and 
needles.  A  post-mould  pattern  was  worked  out. 

The  University  of  Kentucky  partially  excavated  a  large 
Adena-culture  burial  mound  in  Mason  county.  The  summer 
field  school  of  the  University  of  Georgia  under  the  direction  of 
A.  R.  Kelly  continued  survey  and  salvage  in  the  projected 
reservoir  areas  of  the  lower  Flint  and  Chattahoochee.  William 
Sears  excavated  a  burial  mound  at  the  Kolomoki  site  and 
found  ceramics  and  other  artifacts  of  the  Weeden  Island 
period.  Ripley  Bullen  of  the  Florida  Park  service  excavated  at 
the  Madirs  Bickel  Mound  state  monument  and  worked  out 
the  chronology  of  the  site.  John  Goggin  conducted  the 
summer  field  session  of  the  University  of  Florida  at  the 
Zetrouer  site  (17th-century  Spanish-Indian)  and  briefly 
investigated  Fort  Pupa  (a  slightly  earlier  Spanish  fort)  on  the 
St.  Johns  river.  A  large  collection  of  European  and  aborig- 
inal artifacts  was  secured. 

The  University  and  the  Museum  of  New  Mexico  co-oper- 
ated with  the  National  Park  service  in  excavating  sites  that 
were  to  be  flooded  by  the  Chamita  reservoir  on  the  Chama 
river.  A  pueblo  dating  c.  A.D.  1300  with  some  unusual 
semi-subterranean  structures  was  one  of  the  sites  investigated. 
Paul  Martin  and  John  Rinaldo  of  the  Chicago  Natural 
History  museum  continued  their  work  in  the  Pine  Lawn  valley 
in  southwestern  New  Mexico,  this  season's  efforts  being 
particularly  directed  to  the  excavation  of  several  dry  caves. 

Central  America.  Jorge  Acosta  excavated  at  Tula  and  some 
of  the  smaller  surrounding  sites  in  Mexico.  Most  of  the  work 
at  Tula  was  concentrated  on  the  Quetzalcoatl  structure.  The 
Museo  Nacional  of  Mexico  continued  work  at  the  remarkable 
site  of  Tlatilco.  Numerous  additional  burials  were  found, 
adding  considerably  to  the  collection  of  Middle  Culture  and 
Olmec-like  grave  furnishings. 

From  the  Rio  de  La  Pasi6n  in  Guatemala  Barnum  Brown 
reported  the  discovery  of  a  fragment  of  fossil  bone,  possibly 


ARCHERY— ARCHITECTURE 


53 


sloth,  which  has  three  V-shaped  cuts  that  appear  to  have  been 
made  in  fresh  bone  by  man.  This  specimen,  associated  with 
other  Upper  Pleistocene  faunal  remains,  gave  the  first  direct 
suggestion  of  very  early  occupation  of  Guatemala. 

Linton  Satterthwaite  of  the  Museum  of  Pennsylvania  began 
a  programme  of  investigation  of  house  mounds  in  British 
Honduras.  At  Caracoi  he  found  a  number  of  previously 
undiscovered  monuments  including  stelae  with  dates.  At 
Benque  Viejo  a  part  of  a  magnificent  stucco  facade  was 
uncovered  in  very  good  condition.  Stanley  Boggs  continued 
work  at  Tazumal  for  the  government  of  Salvador  (this  was 
the  tenth  season  of  work  at  this  complex  site,  and  considerable 
information  was  gathered  on  the  relations  of  the  Tohil 
plumbate  horizon  to  the  local  equivalents  of  Maya  classic). 

South  America.  In  Chile  a  party  headed  by  Greta  Mostny 
of  the  Museo  Nacional  de  Historia  Natural  conducted  an 
ethnographic  survey  in  the  region  near  the  town  of  Peine  in 
the  Atacama  desert:  small  protohistoric  stone  buildings  with 
some  cut  stone  at  the  corners  and  in  door  jambs  were  dis- 
covered, and  the  culture  was  related  to  the  modern  occupation. 

Wendell  C.  Bennett  of  Yale  university  made  a  survey  of  the 
Montaro  basin  in  the  central  highlands  of  Peru  and  excavated 
at  the  extensive  prehistoric  site  of  Huari.  This  latter  work 
suggests  strongly  that  Huari  was  the  highland  centre  from 
which  the  coastal  Tiahuanaco  culture  spread.  M.  and  Mme. 
Henry  Reichlen  of  the  Mus6e  de  I'Homme,  Paris,  completed 
their  work  in  the  Cajamarca  region  of  the  northern  highlands 
and  continued  in  Lima,  working  up  the  material.  Richard 
Schaedel  of  the  University  of  Trujillo,  Peru,  conducted  a  study 
of  prehistoric  architecture  on  the  north  coast  between  Casma 
and  Leche  valleys.  (J.  A.  F.) 

ARCHERY.  The  1950  world  championships  were  held 
in  Copenhagen  in  July.  Hans  Deutgen  (Sweden)  won  the 
men's  title  for  the  fourth  time  with  a  score  of  3,141.  E.  Tang 
Holbek  (Denmark)  was  second  with  2,878,  Russ  Reynolds 
(U.S.A.)  third  with  2,854  and  Frantisek  Hadas  (Czecho- 
slovakia), the  1949  runner-up,  fourth  with  2,801.  The  men's 
team  results  were:  Denmark  first,  Sweden  second,  Czecho- 
slovakia third.  The  ladies'  title  was  won  by  Jean  Lee  (U.S.A.) 
with  3,254  points.  Jean  Richards  (U.S.A.)  was  second  with 
2,919,  and  R.  Windahl  (Sweden)  third.  The  ladies'  team 
results  were:  Finland  first,  Sweden  second,  England  third. 

At  Oxford  in  August  the  British  National  championship 
results  were,  ladies:  first,  Mrs.  George  Arthur  (Edgware, 
Middlesex)  with  1,336;  second,  Mrs.  A.  W.  Burton  (Ports- 
mouth) with  1,326;  third,  Mrs.  T.  H.  Fisher  (Portsmouth) 
with  1,191.  The  gentlemen's  results  were  :  first,  Russell 
J.  Beal  (Portsmouth)  with  1,376;  second,  B.  McNaughton 
(Portsmouth),  1,256;  third,  George  Brown  (London),  1,232. 
Hampshire  teams  won  both  the  ladies'  and  gentlemen's 
county  championships. 

In  the  United  States  championships,  at  Lancaster,  Pennsyl- 
vania, Jean  Lee  (Massachusetts)  won  with  3,812  points; 
Ann  Weber  (New  Jersey)  was  second  with  3,584  and  Mrs.  J. 
Richards  (California)  third  with  3,556.  The  first  three  men 
were  Stan  Overby  (California),  3,249,  Russ  Reynolds  (Ohio), 
3,1 1 5,  and  William  Sterner  (New  York),  3,027.  (C.  B.  E.) 

ARCHITECTURE.  The  completion  of  the  new  House 
of  Commons  was  without  doubt  the  architectural  event  which 
attracted  most  attention  during  1950.  The  "  Tudor  Domestic'* 
style  of  the  new  chamber  inevitably  aroused  controversy. 
There  were  those  who  would  have  preferred  a  conjectured 
reconstruction  of  St.  Stephen's  chapel,  the  first  permanent 
home  of  the  House  of  Commons,  those  who  had  wanted  a 
faithful  reconstruction  of  Sir  Charles  Barry's  Gothic-revival 
chamber,  and  those  who  believed  that  each  age  should  have 
the  courage  of  its  own  architectural  convictions  and  could 


see  no  reason  why  the  new  chamber  was  not  frankly  contem- 
porary. In  his  planning  it  was  generally  agreed  Sir  Giles 
Gilbert  Scott  (q.v.)  had  exercised  considerable  ingenuity. 
With  only  a  slight  addition  in  total  height  three  extra  floors 
had  been  fitted  in.  Two  were  in  the  vertical  space  of  27  ft. 
below  the  floor  of  the  old  chamber,  where  its  heating  and 
ventilating  apparatus  had  been  housed;  these  provided  space 
for  committee  and  ministers'  rooms,  for  secretaries  and  for 
interviewing.  The  third  extra  floor,  for  the  clerk  of  the  House 
and  his  staff,  was  over  the  top  of  the  new  House.  Accom- 
modation in  the  chamber  itself  was  increased  from  802  to 
939,  chiefly  by  replanning  and  extending  the  galleries.  The 
new  floor  of  the  House  was  not  made  larger  since  it  was 
thought  important  to  retain  that  sense  of  intimacy  in  debate 
which  is  characteristic  of  the  House  of  Commons.  An 
elaborate  and  advanced  system  of  air-conditioning  was 
designed  by  Oscar  Faber.  In  view  of  the  varying  conditions 
in  different  parts  of  the  House  at  different  times,  eight  separate 
air-conditioning  plants  were  provided.  The  wood  used  for 
the  roof  and  for  the  major  part  of  the  panelling  was  oak 
and  the  floor  of  Queensland  maple. 

The  main  structural  work  was  completed  on  two  of  the 
largest  buildings  on  the  South  Bank  site  of  the  1951  Festival 
of  Britain.  On  the  Dome  of  Discovery  building,  the  last 
sheet  of  aluminium  for  the  roof  was  laid  in  October.  The 
building  would  incorporate  three  platforms,  supported  on  a 
concrete  podium.  The  dome  was  supported  on  eight  cigar- 
shaped  steel  struts,  consisting  of  3-in.  tubes.  The  installation 
of  the  internal  equipment  for  the  permanent  concert  building, 
to  be  known  as  the  Royal  Festival  hall,  was  well  under  way 
by  the  end  of  the  year  and  was  to  be  completed  in  time  for 
the  opening  on  May  3,  1951.  On  Nov.  9  the  King  and 
Queen  visited  the  site  of  the  ^Festival  of  Britain's  "  Live 
Architecture  "  exhibit,  a  new  neighbourhood  to  be  known 
as  Lansbury.  The  scheme  would  finally  form  part  of  the 
London  County  council's  long-term  scheme  for  the  compre- 
hensive redevelopment  of  the  Stepney-Poplar  reconstruction 
area  and  would  cover  an  area  of  30  ac.  It  was  planned  in  the 
town  planning  division  of  the  department  of  the  architect 
to  the  L.C.C.,  Robert  H.  Matthew,  under  the  planning 
officer  Arthur  Ling.  A  number  of  private  architects  were 
invited  to  design  the  various  buildings  that  would  form  the 
neighbourhood.  . 

In  the  City  oS  Westminster  the  housing  problem  was  still 
very  acute  and  drastic  measures  were  needed  to  deal  with  it. 
The  Westminster  City  council  decided  to  concentrate  on 
alleviating  the  shortage  in  one  large  area  rather  than  several 
small  ones.  In  1945-46  a  competition  had  been  held  to 
provide  designs  for  a  large  number  of  dwellings  on  a  site 
which  covered  30  ac.  and  stretched  600  yd.  along  the  north 
bank  of  the  Thames  at  Pimlico.  The  winners  were  the  firm 
of  Powell  and  Moya,  and  the  first  block  of  flats  in  the  scheme 
was  completed  in  Oct.  1950.  Density  would  be  at  200  persons 
an  acre  and,  apart  from  the  flats,  there  would  be  about  30 
shops,  laundries,  a  mortuary,  a  restaurant,  public  lavatories 
and  a  service  station  with  an  underground  garage  for  200 
cars.  The  scheme  was  to  be  carried  out  in  four  sections, 
the  first  consisting  of  495  flats  and  the  second  of  300  dwellings 
some  of  which  would  be  three-storey  houses.  When  all 
sections  were  finished  there  would  be  a  total  of  approximately 
1,600  dwellings.  Space  heating  and  domestic  hot  water 
were  provided  by  a  district  heating  system  utilizing  waste 
heat  from  Battersea  power  station  which  faced  the  site 
across  the  river.  It  was  estimated  that  the  scheme  would 
save  10,000  tons  of  coal  each  year. 

Commonwealth.  Australia.  Designs  were  published  for 
the  new  National  university  at  Canberra.  The  architect  was 
Professor  Brian  B.  Lewis,  of  the  University  qf  Melbourne. 
His  designs  were  based  on  a  main  axis  which  followed  a 


54 


ARCHITECTURE 


well-defined  ridge  of  ground.  At  one  end,  above  a  future 
lake,  there  would  be  an  open-air  auditorium  and  along  the 
ridge,  ranged  at  each  side  of  a  central  lawn,  the  library 
administrative  offices  and  public  lecture  rooms.  University 
house,  at  the  other  end  of  the  axis,  would  be  the  social  focus 
of  the  university  and  provision  was  made  for  employing  the 
best  Australian  artists  and  sculptors  to  decorate  it.  The 
Institute  of  Physical  Sciences  would  be  the  first  faculty 
building  to  be  completed,  and  this  would  later  be  followed 
by  those  for  the  Medical  institute,  and  for  the  social  sciences 
and  Pacific  studies  departments.  A  housing  scheme,  sited 
on  a  steep  slope  overlooking  the  lake,  formed  part  of  the 
layout.  The  house  types  were  designed  in  collaboration  with 
Roy  Grounds. 

Canada.  The  most  interesting  new  building  in  Canada 
during  1950  took  place  in  British  Columbia.  Sharing,  as  it 
does,  many  similarities  of  climate  and  geography  with 
California,  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  influence  of  San 
Francisco's  Bay  Region  architecture  should  have  been  so 
marked.  Among  the  most  noteworthy  buildings  were  Ridge- 
view  Elementary  school,  the  Vocational  institute  and  a 
public  library,  all  at  Vancouver  and  all  designed  by  the 
firm  of  Sharp  and  Thompson,  Berwick,  Pratt.  An  air- 
conditioned  Gospel  hall,  was  built  in  Vancouver  to  the 
designs  of  Robert  R.  McKee  for  the  Plymouth  Brethren; 
it  comprised  an  auditorium  to  seat  600  and  an  insulated 
cry-room  for  babies  and  a  cafeteria.  A  house  overlooking 
the  sea,  also  by  McKee,  was  constructed  of  six-foot  module 
fir  posts  and  beams,  faced  with  glass  and  cedar  board.  It 
had  a  large  "  Indian  "  mural  by  thf*  architect,  depicting  a 
whale,  painted  on  a  screen  wall  outside  the  front  door. 

South  Africa.  The  first  three  floors  of  a  building  in 
Johannesburg,  designed  by  J.  C.  Cook  and  Cowen  for  the 
South  African  Blood  Transfusion  services,  were  completed. 
A  further  seven  floors,  containing  flats  and  professional 
suites,  would  be  added  later.  The  building  would  have  a 
reinforced  concrete  frame  structure;  panel  infillings  and 
facings  would  be  of  brick  and  terrazo.  In  order  to  provide 
accommodation  for  the  rapidly  growing  population  of 
Salisbury,  the  capital  of  Southern  Rhodesia,  the  city  council 
inaugurated  a  scheme  for  a  block  of  flats  which  would  be 
the  highest  building  in  Rhodesia.  Designed  by  the  firm  of 
Ross  Mackenzie,  van  Heerden  and  Hartford,  it  would 
comprise  108  one-room  and  84  two-room  flpts  on  12  floors. 
The  foundations  would  be  a  reinforced  concrete  rait  and 
spreader  beams  and  the  main  structure,  a  series  of  parallel 
spine  walls,  would  be  carried  at  ground  floor  level  on  piers 
similar  to  those  of  Le  Corbusier's  Unite  d' Habitation  near 
Marseilles.  Windows  would  be  continuous,  and  protected 
by  hoods  against  the  midday  sun.  Finishes  would  be  of 
brick  and  fair-faced  concrete,  with  aluminium  cladding  for 
the  projecting  fins  of  the  spine  walls  and  a  polished  stone 
veneer  round  the  main  entrances.  The  flat  reinforced  concrete 
roof  would  be  surfaced  with  bitumen,  screed  and  a  light 
44  umbrella  "  of  corrugated  asbestos.  Vertical  expansion 
joints  would  divide  the  building  into  seven  separate  structures. 

Europe.  Denmark.  One  of  the  best  office  buildings  in 
Copenhagen  was  completed  for  the  Shell  company.  Designed 
by  Wilhelm  Lauritzen  (architect  also  of  the  excellent  broad- 
casting building)  it  had  a  reinforced  concrete  frame  and  was 
faced  with  black  slate,  the  outlines  of  the  framework  being 
in  white  plaster.  At  Klampenborg,  north  of  Copenhagen, 
a  terrace  of  houses  was  built  to  the  designs  of  Arne  Jacobsen. 
Built  of  yellow  brick,  the  south  facades  were  mostly  of  glass. 
The  roofs  were  low-pitched  and  covered  with  asbestos 
tiles. 

France.  The  results  were  announced  of  an  important 
competition  launched  in  April  1949  by  the  French  Ministry 
of  Reconstruction  and  Town  Planning.  The  aims  of  the 


competition,  which  was  concerned  with  the  design  ar 
construction  of  flats  and  houses,  were  threefold:  to  stimula 
new  ideas;  to  provide  a  means  of  assessing  under  comparab 
conditions  various  building  methods  old  and  new;  to  arrr 
at  new  solutions  of  the  housing  problem  that  were  bo 
economically  feasible  and  aesthetically  pleasing.  The  cor 
petitors  formed  groups  consisting  of  architects,  engineers  ar 
builders,  and  entered  schemes  for  any  one  of  the  thr 
suggested  sites:  (1)  nine-  to  twelve-storey  flats  at  Villeneuv 
Saint-George;  (2)  two-  to  four-storey  flats  at  Creil-Cori 
piegne;  and  (3)  bungalows  or  two-storey  houses  at  Chartre 
The  three  winning  designs,  which  it  was  intended  to  execu 
were  (1)  by  Marc  and  Leo  Solotareflf,  architects,  and  Lajoini 
builders;  (2)  by  Gravereaux,  architect,  and  Societe"  Cogetravo 
builders;  and  (3)  by  Camelot,  Sainsaulieu  and  Rivet,  arch 
tects,  and  Societe*  Nouvelle  de  Construction  et  de  Travau 
builders. 

Germany.  The  building  that  temporarily  housed  the  fir 
parliament  of  the  German  federal  republic  was  inaugurate 
in  1950.  Originally  erected  by  the  Prussian  government  i 
1930  as  part  of  Bonn  university,  it  occupied  a  fine  site  on  tf 
banks  of  the  Rhine.  Alterations  and  additions  were  mac 
under  the  direction  of  Professor  Hans  Schwippert  to  pro  vie 
a  large  hall  for  the  Bundestag  (lower  house),  a  restaurant  t 
seat  all  members  of  both  houses  and  additional  offices.  , 
great  deal  of  ingenuity  was  shown  in  the  construction  whic 
had  to  be  completed  in  four  months  during  which  the  existir 
building  continued  in  use.  The  impersonal  simplicity  of  tf 
earlier  building  was  carried  successfully  through  into  the  ne 
wings. 

Italy.    In  Rome  the  important  extensions  to  the  ne 
railway  station  were  nearing  completion.  They  were  designe 
by  two  groups  of  architects  who  shared  first  prizes  in 
competition  held  shortly  after  World  War  II.   The  first  pa 
of  the  new  station  was  completed  just  before  the  war,  in  tfc 
style  popular  under  Mussolini,  with  facades  resembling 
Roman  aqueduct.     The  exceptionally  elegant  new  extensior 
of  glass  and  reinforced  concrete  provided  a  marked  contra; 
with  the  original  work. 

Switzerland.  Two  notable  buildings  were  both  in  Genev; 
One  was  a  block  of  flats,  by  Marc  T.  Saugey.  The  othe 
a  Protestant  church  and  assembly  hall  by  W.  M.  Moser,  < 
Haefeli,  Moser  and  Steiger,  with  an  exposed  reinforce 
concrete  frame,  had  walls  of  specially  designed  concrel 
blocks  and  circular  sheets  of  glass. 

Eastern  Europe.  In  both  Hungary  and  Czechoslovakia 
number  of  good  modern  buildings  were  completed,  apparent! 
still  free  from  the  stultifying  grip  of  Stalinist  aesthetic  theor 
This  could  not  be  due  to  ignorance  of  the  party  line  since  th 
architectural  magazines  of  both  countries  devoted  a  larj 
amount  of  space'in  an  attempt  to  elucidate  it.  In  Hungai 
the  most  interesting  buildings  were  the  new  school  fc 
apprentices  attached  to  the  Matyas  Rakosi  metal  foundr 
and  the  clinic  at  Ujpcst  by  Ferenc  Kiss.  In  Czechoslovak!; 
a  central  post  office  at  Bratislava  was  built  by  Krama 
The  structural  framework  was  of  steel  with  a  brick  infillinj 
faced  with  Slovak  sandstone.  A  1 3-storey  block  of  flats  fc 
factory  workers  was  completed  at  Horni  Litvinov.  Tt 
design,  by  E.  Linhart  and  V.  Hylsky,  won  first  prize  in 
competition  held  in  1947.  The  flats  provided  accommodatic 
for  single  people  and  families  and  included  day  nurseries, 
nursery  school  and  a  central  kitchen  with  canteen.  The  stru< 
ture,  of  steel  with  brick  infilling,  was  faced  with  prefabricate 
panels.  (I.  R.  M.  M.) 

United  States.  The  general  effect  of  the  Korean  war  o 
the  U.S.  architectural  profession  had  some  immediate  effec 
in  1950.  Credit  controls  at  once  curtailed  building  i 
the  small  house  field.  The  directive  on  credit  controls  wi 
followed  by  restrictive  order  M-4  of  the  National  Productio 


ARCHITECTURE 


55 


MODERN    HOUSING    ami 
PUBLIC     BUILDINGS 

A  single- storey  hou.se  in 
Denmark  by  E.  Hoff  and 
B.  Winding?  (2)  and  flats  in 
Geneva  by  Marc  T.  Saugey  (4) 
arc  examples  of  housing  in 
1950.  The  Parliament  building 
(l)al  Bonn,  Western  Germany, 
which  wax  inaugurated  in  1950. 
In  Geneva,  a  new  Protestant 
church  by  W.  M.  Moser  (3) 
was  completed,  while  in  Rome 
progress  was  made  on  the  new 
railway  station  (5)  which  was 
started  before  World  War  11. 


56 


AREAS  AND  POPULATIONS 


authority.  This  banned  amusement  and  recreational  building. 
Its  effect  was  immediate,  especially  as  it  was  apparently  the 
forerunner  of  further  restrictive  orders  to  come. 

The  slight  panic  nevertheless  quickly  evaporated.  The 
reluctance  on  the  part  of  contractors  to  submit  firm  bids 
appeared  to  be  lessening  toward  the  end  of  the  year.  Curiously 
enough  there  arose  an  interesting  stimulation  of  immediate 
planning  in  various  non-military  fields.  This  was  the  result 
of  a  desire  to  get  planning  work  under  way,  and  if  possible 
construction  also,  before  the  country  found  itself  in  a  serious 
predicament.  As  the  year  closed,  the  outlook  for  the  pro- 
fession was  more  stable  that  it  had  been  six  months  earlier. 

Residential.  Considerable  interest  was  focused  in  1950 
upon  the  public  housing  programme.  At  the  close  of  the 
year  this  programme  was  almost  entirely  in  the  planning 
stage,  and  the  rise  in  prices  was  causing  a  drastic  change  in 
the  planning  phases.  It  was  obvious  that,  under  existing 
authorizations  and  appropriations,  the  programme  could  not 
be  carried  out  as  originally  foreseen.  The  official  remedy  had 
been  the  cutting  down  of  space  allotments  and  the  elimination 
of  any  superfluity  in  architectural  design. 

In  the  private  residential  field  there  was  in  some  areas  a 
marked  falling  off  in  construction  of'what  are  loosely  termed 
**  luxury  houses.*'  Houses  well  out  of  the  low-cost  range 
were  being  built  in  Texas,  Nebraska  and  other  places  which 
hitherto  had  not  been  especially  noteworthy  in  this  field. 
An  interesting  manifestation  was  the  building  of  fine  homes 
for  well-to-do  farmers  and  ranchers  in  remote  p^.rts  of  the 
middle  west.  Very  often  in  these  houses  the  architects  had 
the  opportunity  to  develop  completely  contemporary  and 
up-to-date  structures. 

Many  interesting  smaller  modern  houses  were  designed  and 
built,  and  modern  architecture  seemed  to  be  passing  through 
its  growing  stages  and  arriving  at  maturity.  In  many  of 
these  houses  the  modernistic  cliches  had  been  eliminated 
except  where  the  design  of  modern  houses  had  fallen  into 
less  capable  hands,  or  in  some  instances  had  fallen  outside 
the  hands  of  the  profession  completely. 

Techniques  and  Materials.  There  was  an  increasing  con- 
centration on  research,  in  which  the  American  Institute  of 
Architects  was  taking  a  leading  role,  as  was  the  Building 
Research  Advisory  board,  set  up  under  the  National  Research 
council  and  supported  entirely  by  the  construction  industry. 

The  construction  industry  also  established  a  project  to 
explore  and  advocate  modular  co-ordination.  This  was 
being  carried  out  under  the  immediate  direction  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Architects  and  was  expected  to  have 
a  profound  effect  on  architectural  design  in  general.  Weather 
conditions  which  affected  the  design  of  buildings  were  also 
being  studied. 

Commercial.  The  general  tendency  toward  decentralization 
throughout  the  country  gave  the  architect  a  chance  to  develop 
a  new  field  of  design,  principally  of  the  shopping  centre  and 
of  the  supermarket,  a  peculiarly  American  institution. 

Further  studies  were  made  in  the  field  of  indoor  and  out- 
door car-parking  facilities,  and  new  and  ingenious  develop- 
ments were  being  carried  out  in  public  garages.  The  open-air 
cimena  which,  in  its  initial  development,  seemed  to  offer 
little  opportunity  to  the  architect,  had  progressed  to  a  point 
where  architectural  service  was  demanded,  and  some  archi- 
tects had  become  experts  in  this  field.  No  longer  was  the 
open-air  cinema  simply  a  screen  set  up  on  a  piece  of  waste 
land:  it  had  become  an  architecturally  planned  centre  of 
amusement. 

In  1950  office  building  design  was  characterized  by  greater 
simplicity  bordering  on  barrenness,  except  in  the  case  of 
the  U.N.  building  in  New  York  city,  which  was  a  special- 
purpose  building.  The  year  saw  a  breaking-away  from  the 
skyscraper  per  se.  There  no  longer  appeared  to  be  a  striving 


for  a  building  higher  than  its  fellows  for  the  sake  of  the 
owner's  prestige. 

Governmental.  In  governmental  architecture  there  was, 
too,  a  trend  toward  simplicity.  Great  attention  was  paid  to 
functional  suitability  and  to  the  lowering  of  maintenance 
cost.  That  these  objectives  could  be  achieved  with  a  corres- 
ponding improvement  in  the  architectural  appearance  of  a 
building  was  shown  in  Louis  Justement's  courthouse,  under 
construction  in  Washington. 

To  sum  up  the  architectural  progress  of  1950,  there  was  an 
intelligent  concentration  on  study  and  research,  an  adapta- 
bility to  the  national  economic  pattern  and  a  steady  advance, 
despite  a  momentary  uncertainty  brought  about  by  the 
disturbed  international  situation.  (See  also  BUILDING  AND 
CONSTRUCTION  INDUSTRY;  HOUSING;  INTERIOR  DECORATION; 
TOWN  AND  COUNTRY  PLANNING.)  (ED.  R.  P.) 

AREAS  AND  POPULATIONS  OF  THE 
COUNTRIES  OF  THE  WORLD.  The  political  entities 
of  the  world  are  listed  here  with  their  areas,  populations  and 
number  of  persons  per  square  mile.  The  latest  census  or 
official  estimates  are  given  for  each  country.  Areas  in  square 
miles  are  in  accordance  with  the  boundaries  for  the  year  of 
the  population  figure  unless  otherwise  noted. 


Name  of  continent  and  state             Area 

Population 

(sq.mi.) 

COOO)       per  sq.mi. 

WORLD  TOTAL     .         .         .     58,062,977 

2,388,939        45-9* 

AFRICA    11,611,409 

191,410        16-5 

Belgian  colony  and  trusteeship        .         925,094 

14,811             — 

British  colonies,  dependencies,  etc.       3,046,063 

67,038            — 

Egypt          383,000 

20,045        52-3 

Ethiopia      350,000 

10,000        28-6 

French  overseas  territories            .      4,270,896 

50,037            — 

Italian  trusteeship  and  condominium        194,000 

955          4-9 

Liberia        43,000 

1,648        38-3 

Libya           679,183 

1,177          1'7 

Portuguese  colonies       .         .         .         794,959 

11,480            — 

South-West    Africa    (mandate    of 

Union  of  South  Africa)       .         .          317,725 

374          1-2 

Spanish  colonies  and  protectorate   .          134,763 

1,587            — 

Tangier,  International  Zone  of        .                232 

150      646-6 

Union  of  South  Africa            .         .         472,494 

12,108        25-6 

ANTARCTICA     ....      6,000,000 

Uninhabited 

ASIA  (exclusive  of  U.S.S.R.)         .     10,575,583 

1,274,211       120-5 

Afghanistan          ....          270,000 

12,000        44-4 

Arabian  desert     ....          193,000 

Uninhabited         — 

Bhutan        18,000 

300        16-7 

British  colonies,  dependencies,  etc.           245,932 

10,577            — 

Burma         261,749 

18,200        69-5 

Ceylon         25,332 

7,500      296-1 

China  (including  Formosa,  Kwan- 

tung,  Manchuria  and  Tibet)         .       3,876,956 

475,000      122-5 

French  overseas  territories            .         285,987 

27,777            — 

India           .         .                            .       1,220,099 

347,340      284-5 

Indonesia    . 

583,479 

79,260      135-8 

Iraq    . 

116,600 

4,990        42-8 

Israel 

7,800 

1,247      159-9 

Japan  (1949) 

146,690 

83,074      566  •  3 

Jordan 

37,110 

400;       — 

Korea 

85,225 

29,291       343-2 

Kuwait 

9,000 

120        13-3 

Lebanon 

3,470 

1,238      356-8 

Mongolia    . 

606,000 

2,000          3-3 

Nepal 

54,000 

6,910      128-0 

Netherlands  New  Guin< 

,a 

151,789 

1,000          6-6 

Oman  and  Masqat 
Pakistan 

65.000 
3371524 

830        12-8 
75,000      222-2 

Persia 

634,413 

18,387        29-0 

Philippines  . 

115,600 

19,356       167-4 

Portuguese  colonies 

8,876 

1,487            — 

Qatar 

4,000 

16          4-0 

Ryukyu  Is.  (U.S.  occup 

ied  tc 

rr.)    -                935 

909      972-2 

Saudi  Arabia 

597,000 

6,000        10-1 

Sikkim 

2,745 

122        44»4 

Syria 

72,560 

3,407        47-0 

Thailand  (Siam)  . 

198,272 

17,987        90-7 

Trucial  Sheikhdoms 

16,000 

105          6-6 

Turkey 

296,185 

20,903        70-6 

Yemen 

31,000 

1,600        51-6 

ARGENTINA 


57 


Name  of  continent  and  state                 Area 

Population 

(sq.mi.) 

('000)    (per  sq.mi.) 

AUSTRALIA  AND  OCEANIA  .        .      3,304,507 

12,759 

3-9 

Australia    2,974,581 

8,179 

2-7 

Australian  dependencies       .         .         183,553 

1,313 

British  colonies,  dependencies,  etc.            24,700 

552 

— 

French  colonies    ...                     9,199 

109 

— 

New  Zealand 

103,416 

1,881 

18-2 

New  Zealand  dependencies 

1,656 

93 

— 

United  States  possessions    . 

7,402 

632 

— 

EUROPE  (exclusive  of  U.S.S.R.§) 

1,903,369 

391,902 

205-9 

Albania       .... 

10,629 

1,300 

122-3 

Andorra      .... 

191 

5 

26-2 

Austria       .... 

32,375 

7,090 

218-9 

Belgium      .... 

11,783 

8,614 

731-1 

British  colonies  and  dependencies 

124 

337 

— 

Bulgaria      .... 

42,796 

7,160 

167-3 

Czechoslovakia  (1950)  . 

49,330 

12,463 

252-6 

Denmark   (excl.    Greenland,    incl 

Faeroe  Islands) 

17,109 

4,261 

249-1 

Estonia       .... 

18,357 

854 

46-5 

Finland  (including  Aland  islands) 

130,159 

4,015 

30-8 

France        .... 

213,010 

42,000 

197-2 

Germany  (1950,  including  Saar) 

138,017 

69,382 

505-2 

Greece  (including  Dodecanese) 

51,182 

7,960 

155-5 

Hungary     .... 

35,893 

9,201 

256-3 

Iceland       .... 

39,768 

140 

3-5 

Ireland        .... 

26,602 

2,991 

112-4 

Italy  (1950) 

116,224 

46,001 

395-8 

Latvia         .... 

25,395 

1,650 

65-0 

Liechtenstein 

61 

13 

213-1 

Lithuania    .... 

25,173 

2,353 

93-5 

Luxembourg 

1,010 

295 

292-1 

Monaco      .... 

0-6 

23 

—  . 

Netherlands 

12,868 

9,955 

773-6 

Norway  (including  Spitsbergen) 

149,161 

3,237 

21-7 

Poland  (1950)       . 

120,359 

25,036 

208-0 

Portugal  (incl.  Azores  and  Madeira 

35,413 

8,491 

239-8 

Rumania     .... 

91,654 

15,873 

173-2 

San  Marino 

38 

13 

342-1 

Spain  (including  Canary  Islands) 

194,945 

28,023 

143-7 

Sweden       .... 

173,390 

6,986 

40-3 

Switzerland 

15,940 

4,696 

294-6 

Trieste,  Free  Territory  of 

293 

381 

— 

United  Kingdom 

94,205 

49,919 

529-9 

Vatican  City 

0-5 

1 

— 

Yugoslavia  (after  Sept.  15,  1947)    .            98,826 

16,040 

162-3 

U.S.S.R.  (1950  area,  1946  pop.  est.)    8,436,188 

193,000 

22-9 

NORTH  AMERICA       .         .         .      9,375,934 

217,192 

23-2 

British  colonies  and  dependencies   .           2  1  ,060 

2,751 

— 

Canada       3,843,144 

13,845 

3-6 

Costa  Rica  19,238 

851 

44-2 

Cuba           44,217 

5,400 

122-1 

Danish  colony  (Greenland)  .         .         840,000 

23 

— 

Dominican  Republic     .         .         .            19,129 

2,400 

125-5 

French  territory  and  departments    .             1  ,206 

553 

— 

Guatemala  .                  ...           45,452 

3,784 

83-3 

Haiti           .                  ...            10,748 

3,750 

348-9 

Honduras    .                   ...            59,160 

1,534 

25-9 

Mexico        .                  ...          760,373 

25,368 

33-4 

Netherlands  Anti  Ics     .         .         .                403 

165 

409-4 

Nicaragua  .                  .         .         .           57,145 

1,503 

26-3 

Panama      .                 ...           28,575 

764 

26-7 

Salvador,  El                  .         .         .           13,176 

2,  150 

163-2 

United  States                 .         .         .       3,022,387 

150,697 

50-6 

United  States  possessions       .         .         590,521 

2,418 

._ 

SOUTH  AMERICA       .        .         .      6,856,054 

108,465 

15-8 

Argentina    1,079,965 

17,098 

15-8 

Bolivia        416,040 

3,990 

9-6 

Brazil          3,286,170 

50,000 

15-2 

British  colonies  and  dependencies    .           90,68  1 

410 

— 

Chile  286,323 

5,761 

20-1 

Colombia    439,714 

11,015 

25-1 

Ecuador      104,510 

3.404 

32-6 

French  Guiana     ....           34,740 

35 

1-0 

Netherlands  territory  (Surinam)     .           54,291 

192 

3-5 

Paraguay    157,047 

1,304 

8-3 

Peru  482,258 

8,204 

17-0 

Uruguay     72,172 

2.353 

32-6 

Venezuela  352,143 

4,697 

13-3 

*  In  computing  the  world  density  the  area  of  Antarctica  is  omitted, 
t  Includes  Eritrea  as  military  trustee  area. 
t  Population  of  former  Tramjordan  only. 

I  Areas  and  populations  of  Estonia,  Latvia  and  Lithuania  included  in  1950 
and  1946  U.S.S.R.  totals. 


ARGENTINA.  Second  largest  South  American  republic, 
occupying  the  southeastern  portion  of  the  continent.  Area 
(excluding  the  so-called  "  Zona  Austral "  which  is  supposed 
to  comprise  the  "Malvinas";  i.e.,  Falklands,  and  other 
islands  or  territory  in  Antarctica):  1,079,965  sq.mi.  Pop.: 
(May  10, 1947,  census)  16,108,573;  (mid-1948  est.)  16,300,000. 
The  population  is  overwhelmingly  European  in  origin  (mostly 
Spanish  and  Italian,  with  Irish,  German,  Croat  and  Polish 
admixtures);  in  1940  about  9%  were  of  mixed  blood,  the 
dwindling  Indian  population  was  estimated  at  262,600  and  the 
total  of  foreign-born  population  was  2,355,900.  The  distri- 
bution of  the  population  is  uneven:  the  federal  capital  and  the 
four  provinces  of  the  littoral  (La  Plata,  Corrientes,  Parana 
and  Sante  F6)  cover  only  one-fifth  of  the  total  area  but  have 
two-thirds  of  the  country's  population;  urban  population  is 
estimated  at  75%.  Language:  Spanish.  Religion:  mainly 
Roman  Catholic;  Jewish  360,000.  Chief  towns  (pop.  1947 
est.):  Buenos  Aires  («/.v.)  (capital  and  leading  port,  3,000,371); 
Avellaneda,  a  Buenos  Aires  suburb  (279,572);  Rosario 
(464,688);  C6rdoba  (351,644);  La  Plata  (271,738);  Lanus 
(242,760);  Santa  F6  (168,01 1);  Tucuman  (152,508).  President 
of  the  republic,  General  Juan  Domingo  Peron. 

History.  The  Argentine  national  hero,  General  Jos6  de  San 
Martin,  died  in  exile  in  France  in  1850.  The  year  1950  was 
officially  dedicated  to  his  memory,  and  it  was  decreed  that  on 
every  day  throughout  the  centennial  year  the  words  Afro  del 
Libertador  General  San  Martin  were  to  be  added  to  the 
calendar  date  at  the  head  of  all  newspapers  and  other  printed 
matter.  In  January  one  hundred  or  more  newspapers  in 
Buenos  Aires  and  the  provinces  were  closed  for  varying 
periods  by  order  of  a  congressional  committee,  on  the  pretext 
that  they  had  failed  to  print  the  prescribed  legend  in  their 
date-lines.  Most  of  these  publications  happened  to  be  news- 
papers which  were  known  to  be  in  some  degree  critical  of 
President  Per6n's  regime.  The  committee  which  performed 
this  indirect  censorship  had  been  appointed  originally  to 
investigate  "  anti-Argentine  activities  "  and  was  headed  by 
Jos6  Emilio  Visca.  By  taking  control  of  the  country's  chief 
newsprint  stock,  Visca  obtained  almost  complete  power  over 
the  Argentine  press,  though  La  Prensa,  in  spite  of  considerable 
obstruction,  managed  to  preserve  its  traditionally  independent 
outlook.  Visca's  intolerance  aroused  indignation  in  the 
United  States  at  a  time  when  Argentina  was  badly  in  need  of 
economic  assistance  from  Washington.  In  March  the  U.S. 
assistant  secretary  of  state,  Edward  G.  Miller,  visited  Buenos 
Aires  and  indicated  that  if  certain  concessions  were  made  to 
U.S.  susceptibilities  a  dollar  credit  might  be  forthcoming.  A 
few  days  later  the  Argentine  minister  of  the  treasury,  Ramon 
A.  Cereijo,  concluding  a  two  months'  visit  to  North  America, 
assured  U.S.  businessmen  that  Argentina  would  welcome 
private  U.S.  capital  and  would  treat  it  fairly.  In  May  it  was 
announced  that  the  Export-Import  Bank  of  Washington  would 
be  willing  to  grant  a  credit  of  $125  million  to  a  group  of 
Argentine  banks  for  the  purpose  of  cancelling  the  debts  which 
Argentine  importers  owed  to  U.S.  firms.  At  the  beginning  of 
June  the  Argentine  congress  pointedly  did  not  re-nominate 
Visca  to  his  post  on  the  committee  of  investigation. 

To  improve  the  balance  of  dollar  payments  the  Argentine 
government  also  restricted  imports  from  the  United  States 
and  made  a  big  effort  to  increase  exports  to  that  country.  In 
the  first  half  of  the  year  exports  to  the  U.S  rose  from  the  1949 
figure  of  107  million  pesos  to  467-8  million,  while  imports 
from  the  U.S.  were  reduced  from  the  1949  figure  of  372-8 
million  pesos  to  321  -6  million.  The  subsequent  outbreak  of 
war  in  Korea  stimulated  U.S.  demand  for  Argentine  products. 

On  July  17  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  published 
Argentina's  reply  to  the  appeal  of  the  secretary  general  of  the 
United  Nations  for  support  in  connection  with  the  Korean 
war  The  reply  declared  Argentina's  willingness1  to  fulfil  her 


58 


ARMIES  OF  THE  WORLD 


obligations  and  added:  "We  are  waiting  for  the  unified 
command  to  enter  into  direct  communication  with  the 
Argentine  government."  The  publication  of  this  message 
immediately  provoked  public  demonstrations  against  Argen- 
tina's participation  in  hostilities.  People  marched  through 
the  streets  of  Buenos  Aires  and  Rosario  shouting  "  We  want 
peace  !  ", "  Keep  our  children  out  of  war  !  "  On  the  following 
day  the  Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs  explained  that  the  reply 
to  the  United  Nations  did  not  commit  Argentina  to  send 
troops  to  Korea  as  that  would  require  the  sanction  of  congress. 

For  the  national  economy  it  was  unfortunate  that  the  far 
eastern  war  began  in  a  year  when  Argentina's  agricultural 
production  was  suffering  from  the  effects  of  a  serious  drought 
and  from  the  effects  of  the  government's  previous  policy  of 
encouraging  urban  industry  at  the  expense  of  agriculture. 
Before  the  outbreak  of  hostilities  it  had  already  become 
apparent  that  Per6n's  industrialization  projects  still  depended 
on  the  importing  of  equipment  and  fuel  which,  because  of  the 
evaporation  of  foreign  currency  reserves,  could  now  only  be 
paid  for  by  increasing  the  export  of  Argentina's  traditional 
pastoral  and  agricultural  products.  In  April,  therefore,  the 
president  launched  a  campaign  for  an  increase  in  the  sowing 
of  cereals  and  announced  the  higher  prices  which  the  I.A.P.I. 
(Institute  Argentine  de  Promoci6n  de  Intercambio)  would 
pay  for  the  forthcoming  crops.  On  June  7  Peron  raised  the 
official  price  of  steers  by  23  %.  In  September  and  October 
further  increases  were  announced  in  the  prices  at  which 
I.A.P.I.  would  purchase  cereals. 

Throughout  the  year  Anglo- Argentine  commercial  and 
financial  negotiations  were  periodically  broken  off  and  resumed. 
Although  trade  between  the  two  countries  was  substantial, 
there  was  great  dissatisfaction  on  both  sides.  Because  of  the 
devaluation  of  sterling,  Argentina  now  asked  for  £140  a  ton 
for  meat,  whereas  the  United  Kingdom  offered  £90.  The 
Argentine  authorities  demanded  compensation  on  their 
sterling  balances  existing  at  the  time  of  the  1949  devaluation  of 
the  pound,  but  the  British  contended  that  no  such  balances 
existed  at  that  date.  The  British  negotiators  complained  that 
the  Argentine  government  had  only  issued  import  licences  for 
an  insignificant  quantity  of  non-essential  manufactures  and 
that  there  were  enormous  arrears  of  commercial  and  other 
debts  owing  to  Great  Britain  for  which  remittance  permits  had 
not  been  granted.  The  Argentines  replied  that  they  had  no 
sterling  available  for  those  purposes.  On  Jijly  21,  as  no  price 
agreement  had  been  reached,  I.A.P.I.  instructed  the  local 
meat-packing  organizations  to  cease  shipping  meat  to  the 
U.K.  On  Aug.  21  the  Ministry  of  Economic  Affairs  announced 
new  and  higher  minimum  prices  for  light  steers  in  preference 
to  the  heavy  steers  traditionally  bred  in  Argentina  for  the  U.K. 
market.  The  ministry  stated  that  Argentine  stock-breeders 
must  now  cater  for  European  and  South  American  markets 
where  light  steers  were  preferred,  and  that  they  must  no  longer 
cater  only  for  the  U.K.  The  suspension  of  shipments  to  the 
U.K.,  coupled  with  the  difficulty  of  finding  alternative 
markets,  caused  a  great  accumulation  of  meat  in  the  packing 
houses,  and  on  Oct.  18  the  Ministry  of  Economic  Affairs 
therefore  authorized  the  packers  to  use  their  stocks  of  frozen 
meat  for  canning.  At  the  end  of  November  negotiations 
between  the  U.K.  and  Argentina  were  once  again  resumed  in 
London  and  Buenos  Aires. 

On  Aug.  28  the  Ministry  of  Finance  announced  a  simpli- 
fication in  the  Argentine  system  of  multiple  exchange  rates. 
The  new  system  and  rates  represented  a  substantial  devalua- 
tion of  the  peso.  It  was  anticipated  that  this  devaluation 
would  assist  the  export  of  Argentine  products  and  thereby 
enable  Argentina  to  purchase  from  abroad  the  essential 
supplies  which,  under  the  influence  of  the  Korean  war,  were 
becoming  scarcer  and  more  expensive. 

The  cost  o*f  living  continued  to  rise  during  1950,  and  many 


strikes  occurred.  The  higher  wages  demanded  by  the  strikers 
were  invariably  granted,  and  the  popularity  of  the  regime  did 
not  diminish.  Provincial  congressional  elections  took  place  in 
March,  with  satisfactory  results  for  Per6n's  party.  Colonel 
Domingo  Mercante,  a  supporter  and  close  friend  of  the 
president,  was  re-elected  governor  of  the  province  of  Buenos 
Aires.  His  Radical  opponent,  Ricardo  Balbin,  was  arrested 
on  polling  day. 

In  September  Per6n  made  a  speech  in  which  he  defined  his 
policy  as  being  ideologically  "  on  the  left,  on  the  right,  or  in 
the  centre,  according  to  events."  He  said: "  We  are  altogether 
anti-sectarian.  We  are  anti-Communist  because  the  Com- 
munists are  sectarian,  and  we  are  anti-capitalist  because  the 
capitalists  are  sectarian  too."  The  president  stated  that  he 
had  raised  three  great  banners:  "  Economic  independence, 
social  justice  and  national  sovereignty,"  and  he  named  his 
policy  Justicialismo,  the  policy  of  justice.  (G.  P.) 

Education.  Schools  (1945):  primary  14,294,  pupils  2,064,464,  teachers 
79,741;  secondary  (1946)  1,145,  pupils  221,409,  teachers  28,360; 
universities  (1943)  8,  students  62,870. 

Agriculture.  Main  crops  ('000  metric  tons,  1948-49;  1949-50  in 
brackets):  wheat  5,170  (5,720);  barley  610  (600);  oats  700  (650);  rye 
250  (240);  maize  4,600  (2,000);  potatoes  850  (1,210);  linseed  490  (600); 
sunflower  seed  1,100  (800);  groundnuts  100  (110);  tobacco  26  (27); 
cotton,  ginned  91  (93);  rice  120  (HO);  sugar,  raw  value,  565  (549). 
Livestock  ('000  head):  cattle  (1947)  41,268;  sheep  (1949)  45,000; 
pigs  (1949)  3,500;  horses  (1949)  7,238;  asses  and  mules  (1949)  501; 
poultry  (1949)  20,000.  Meat  production  ('000  metric  tons,  1949): 
beef  1,814.  Wool  production  ('000  metric  tons,  greasy  basis,  1948-49; 
1949-50  in  brackets):  209  (200). 

Industry.  Industrial  establishments  (1947)  101,884;  persons  employed 
in  manufacturing  industries  (1949)  1,169,000.  Fuel  and  power:  coal 
('000  metric  tons,  1947)  32-9;  crude  oil  ('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950, 
six  months,  in  brackets)  3,200  (1,655);  electricity  consumption  (million 
kwh.,  1948;  1949,  six  months,  in  brackets)  3,072  (1,588).  Raw  materials 
('000  metric  tons,  1949):  lead  18;  zinc  19;  sulphur  9;  iron  ore  22. 
Manufactured  goods  (main  products,  '000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950, 
six  months,  in  brackets):  iron  and  steel  products  154;  cement  1,440 
(776);  paper  pulp  37;  rubber  types  ('000  units)  820. 

Foreign  Trade.  (Million  pesos,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets) 
import  4,645-4  (2,278-1);  export  3,717-5  (2,566-7).  Main  sources  of 
imports  (1949):  Italy  16%;  U.K.  15-6%;  U.S.  14-8%;  France  10-0%. 
Main  destinations  of  exports:  U.K.  22-8%;  Brazil  10-9%;  U.S. 
10-7%.  Main  imports  (1949):  machinery  and  vehicles  21-5%;  textiles 
18-6%;  iron  and  steel  goods  16-3%;  fuel  and  lubricants  10-7%.  Main 
exports :  meat  and  animal  products  50  •  5% ;  agricultural  products  45  -0%. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Roads  (1949):  20,082  mi.  Licensed 
motor  vehicles  (Dec.  1949):  cars  250,000;  commercial  160,000.  Rail- 
ways (1948):  26,568  mi.; freight  carried  (1948)  43  million  tons;  passengers 
carried  (1947)  335  million.  Shipping  (July  1949):  number  of  merchant 
vessels  over  100  gross  tons  403;  total  tonnage  834,840.  Air  transport 
(1949,  six  months):  mi.  flown  3,996,721;  passengers  flown  132,538; 
cargo  carried  302,004  tons;  air  mail  carried  51,779  tons.  Telephones 
(1949):  subscribers  650,058.  Wireless  licences  (1949):  2  million. 

Finance  and  Banking.  (Million  pesos)  budget:  (1950  est.)  revenue 
4,870-0,  expenditure  5,040-9;  (1951  est.)  revenue  4,844-1,  expenditure 
4,844-0.  Budget  of  autonomous  agencies  (1950;  1951  in  brackets): 
balanced  at  5,022-7  (5,987-9).  National  debt  (Dec.  1948;  Dec.  1949 
in  brackets):  12,940  (15,408).  Currency  circulation  (July  1949;  July 
1950  in  brackets):  7,018  (9,174).  Gold  reserve  (million  U.S.  dollars, 
July  1949;  July  1950  in  brackets):  167  (216).  Monetary  unit:  peso  with 
a  free  market  rate  (pre-devaluation,  1949;  Nov.  1950  in  brackets)  of 
19-38  (38-22)  pesos  to  the  pound  and  4-81  (13-65)  pesos  to  the  U.S. 
dollar. 

See  J.  C.  J.  Melford,  San  Martin:  The  Liberator  (Oxford,  1950). 

ARMIES  OF  THE  WORLD.  Three  outstanding 
developments  affected  the  armies  of  the  world  during  1950: 
on  June  25  the  army  of  North  Korea  invaded  South  Korea; 
the  United  States  abandoned  attempts  to  economize  in  its 
defence  expenditure,  passed  a  new  draft  law  and  began 
major  shipments  of  arms  to  North  Atlantic  treaty  nations 
while  greatly  expanding  its  own  ground  forces;  and  Chinese 
Communist  troops  intervened  in  Korea,  and  China  launched 
an  invasion  of  Tibet  and  built  up  forces  in  Kwangtung  for 
a  possible  amphibious  thrust  at  Formosa  or  support  of  the 
Communist  forces  in  Indo-China. 

The  major  changes  in  the  disposition  of  the  armies  of  the 


ARMIES   OF  THE  WORLD 


59 


world  during  1950  resulted  from  the  Korean  war.  Nearly 
all  of  the  U.S.  forces  of  occupation  in  Japan  were  sent  to 
Korea,  while  most  of  the  regular  army  troops  in  the  United 
States  were  also  sent  to  the  far  east.  Within  the  United 
States  the  troops  being  sent  overseas  were  replaced  by  con- 
scripts and  the  activation  of  four  national  guard  divisions. 
France  continued  to  send  additional  troops,  mostly  colonials, 
to  Indo-China.  At  the  same  time  a  gradual  build-up  of 
strength  commenced  among  the  North  Atlantic  treaty 
nations.  There  was  little  change  in  the  disposition  of  the 
Soviet  and  satellite  armies. 

Great  Britain.  The  international  crisis  forced  Great  Britain 
to  modify  its  programme  for  economic  recovery  and  concen- 
trate on  building  up  its  armed  forces.  In  July  a  three-year 
defence  plan  was  announced,  involving  an  expenditure  of 
£3,400  million.  Military  service  for  men  from  18  to  26  was 
extended  from  18  months  to  two  years  and  service  pay  was 
increased  by  as  much  as  75  %  for  some  ranks.  Increases  in 
pay  would  add  another  £200  million  to  defence  expenditure. 
Great  Britain  was  to  expand  its  forces  in  Germany,  and  pro- 
duce tanks,  transport  and  heavy  artillery  for  the  Atlantic 
treaty  army. 

Disposition.  Steps  were  taken  during  1950  to  increase  the 
army  by  55,000.  This  was  to  bring  the  6^  divisions  overseas  to 
full  strength.  A  new  division,  the  1  Hh  Armoured,  was  moved 
to  Germany,  joining  the  7th  Armoured  and  2nd  Infantry 
which  were  already  in  the  British  Army  of  the  Rhine.  British 
troop  strength  of  about  50,000  was  maintained  in  the  middle 
east  with  a  concentration  in  the  Suez  canal  zone  and  with 
troops  in  Eritrea  and  Cyprus.  There  was  the  equivalent  of 
two  divisions  in  Malaya  together  with  about  70,000  police  of 
all  types.  Strength  in  Hong  Kong  was  40,000.  In  Korea  the 
28th  and  29th  brigades  and  supporting  troops,  including 
armour,  fought  as  part  of  the  United  Nations  forces. 

Equipment.  The  60-ton  Centurion  tank,  which  saw  some 
service  in  Korea,  was  one  of  the  best  heavy  tanks  in  the  world, 
along  with  the  Soviet  Stalin  Mark  III.  However,  British 
production  of  the  Centurion  was  only  slightly  more  than  100 
a  year.  (See  BRITISH  ARMY.) 

United  States.  At  the  beginning  of  1950  the  U.S.  army 
faced  an  economy  programme,  by  which  the  number  of  troops 
would  be  reduced  from  677,000  to  630,000.  At  this  time  about 
20%  of  the  strength  of  the  army  was  allocated  to  "  house- 
keeping "  duties  normally  performed  by  civilian  employees 
who  had  been  dismissed  during  the  economy  drive.  Conse- 


quently, when  hostilities  broke  out  in  Korea  the  army  had 
only  about  596,000  men. 

With  the  bulk  of  the  regular  army  committed  in  Korea,  the 
trend  was  completely  reversed.  The  rate  of  military  appro- 
priations indicates  the  development  of  plans  for  U.S.  rearma- 
ment. The  appropriation  for  the  army  for  the  fiscal  year  1950 
was  $4,407  million.  With  economy  in  mind  the  initial 
appropriation  for  the  fiscal  year  1951  (beginning  July  1,  1950) 
was  $4,018  million,  a  reduction  of  $389  million.  The  over-all 
defence  appropriation  for  this  period  was  $13,000  million. 
However,  during  1950  congress  passed  two  supplementary 
defence  appropriations— the  first  for  $1 1,000  million  and  the 
second  for  $15,000  million,  bringing  defence  appropriations 
to  more  than  $42,000  million  or  three  times  the  original 
figure  by  the  end  of  the  calendar  year.  Of  this  amount  approxi- 
mately half  was  for  the  army  and  provided  for  a  strength  of 
1,263,000  men. 

At  the  outbreak  of  the  Korean  war  in  June  1950  the  U.S. 
army  had  only  ten  active  divisions.  Of  these,  four  were  on 
occupation  duty  in  Japan,  one  was  in  Germany  and  the  rest 
were  in  the  U.S.  Two  of  the  divisions  in  the  U.S.,  the  2nd 
and  3rd  Infantry,  were  sent  to  Korea  and  four  National 
guard  divisions— the  28th  (Pennsylvania),  40th  (California), 
43rd  (Connecticut,  Rhode  Island  and  Vermont)  and  45th 
(Qklahoma) — were  called  to  active  duty.  In  addition  the 
196th  (South  Dakota)  and  278th  (Tennessee)  Regimental 
Combat  teams  were  called  up,  These  units  were  to  be  brought 
to  full  strength  with  drafted  men.  Some  non-divisional 
National  guard  units  were  mobilized  to  replace  units  of 
regular  divisions  sent  overseas.  The  strength  of  the  National 
guard  at  the  start  of  the  Korean  conflict  was  325,976  and 
included  27  divisions  and  20  regimental  combat  teams.  At 
that  time  the  organized  reserve  had  a  strength  of  185,000  and 
the  volunteer  reserve  337,000.  By  the  end  of  1950  more  than 
200,000  men  had  been  inducted  into  the  army  under  selective 
service,  bringing  the  over-all  ground  strength  to  nearly  a 
million.  Plans  called  for  the  equivalent  of  24  divisions  to  be 
organized  by  June  1951. 

Disposition.  Approximately  half  the  U.S.  troops,  314,000, 
were  in  the  United  States  during  the  first  half  of  1950,  and 
about  100,000  in  Europe  and  150,000  in  the  Pacific  area.  At 
the  end  of 'the  year  U.S.  troop  strength  in  the  Pacific  was 
considerably  greater,  the  forces  stationed  in  Europe  increasing 
only  slightly. 

Steps  were  taken  to  transform  the  occupation  forces  in 


Tanks  of  the  French  tinny  taking  part  in  manoeuvres,  Aug.  30  to  Sept.  /,  7950 


60 


ARMIES  OF  THE  WORLD 


Germany  into  a  component  part  of  the  Atlantic  treaty  army. 
The  7th  U.S.  army  was  put  on  an  active  service  footing  with 
headquarters  at  Stuttgart.  The  first  combat  forces  assigned 
to  this  army  included  the  1st  U.S.  Infantry  division  and 
constabulary  units  which  were  to  be  reorganized  into  an 
armoured  division. 

Training,  The  U.S.  army  began  to  put  its  stations  on  an 
active  basis  and  modernize  training  areas  necessary  for 
handling  an  army  of  two  to  three  times  the  size  of  the  regular 
army  in  1950.  Initial  plans  called  for  the  induction  of  about 
80,000  men  a  month  during  the  early  part  of  1951. 

During  1950  three  major  training  exercises  were  conducted. 
In  February  "  Sweetbriar  "  was  held  in  Alaska  jointly  with 
the  Canadian  army  to  test  arctic  equipment  and  technique. 


Fifty-ton  Centurion  tanks  oj  the  British  army,  each  carrying  a 
20-pdr.  gun  seen  at  Catterick  camp,  Yorkshire. 

About  5,300  troops  participated  in  a  "  mechanized  march  " 
across  difficult  Alaskan  terrain  to  attack  an  airstrip  held  by 
an  "aggressor*'  force.  The  U.S.  14th  Regimental  Combat 
team  and  elements  of  Princess  Patricia's  Canadian  Light 
infantry,  with  some  airborne  troops,  participated.  "  Portex," 
held  in  March,  was  the  largest  peacetime  amphibious-airborne 
joint  operation  held  up  to  the  end  of  1950.  With  about 
80,000  U.S.  army,  navy,  marine  and  air  force  personnel 
participating  this  exercise  was  designed  to  provide  training 
in  joint  operations  including  airborne-amphibious  techniques, 
to  test  under  service  conditions  and  to  train  the  defence 
forces  of  the  Caribbean  command.  In  May  "  S warmer  " 
put  to  test  a  purely  aerial  invasion.  Conducted  with  about 
63,000  men  and  375  planes,  including  the  bulk  of  the  1  Ith  and 
82nd  Airborne  divisions,  this  operation  tested  the  practicality 
of  capturing  and  supporting  completely  from  the  air  a  foothold 
in  enemy-held  territory.  The  operation  proved  that  capture 
of  an  airhead  was  feasible  and  that  airborne  operations  of  a 
greater  scope  than  any  attempted  in  World  War  II  could  be 
mounted.  The  principal  lesson  from  this  exercise  was  that 
paratroopers  needed  to  be  protected  from  enemy  tank 
attacks.  Another  training  problem  which  received  attention 
in  1950  was  that  of  close  support  of  ground  units  by  tactical 
aircraft.  An  army  air-support  centre  was  established  at  Fort 
Bragg,  North  Carolina,  to  train  air-ground  teams. 
Equipment.  New  tanks  put  into  production  during  1950 
included  a  light  tank,  the  T-41,  weighing  28  tons,  mounting 
a  76-mm.  gun,  with  a  speed  of  35  m.p.h.  The  T-41  was  stated 
to  be  superior  to  anything  in  its  class,  including  the  thinly 
armoured  M-24  light  tank  which  mounted  a  75-mm.  gun.  An 
improved  medium  tank,  the  M-47,  was  also  put  into  produc- 
tion. A  development  of  the  General  Patton,  the  new  tank  had 
similar  characteristics,  such  as  a  weight  of  48  tons,  a  90-mm. 
gun  and  a  speed  of  33  m.p.h. 

A  new  anti-tank  weapon  was  also  produced  in  1950,  a 
105-mm.  jeep-mounted  recoilless  rifle.  This  weapon  was 
designed  for  infantry  units,  to  be  used  with  5  •  5-in.  bazookas 
and  the  75-mm.  recoilless  rifle  against  armour. 


U.S.S.R.  There  was  little  evidence  of  change  in  the  over-all 
strength  of  the  Soviet  army  in  1950.  With  about  100  divisions 
at  full  strength,  and  another  100  in  cadres,  the  U.S.S.R.  was 
maintaining  about  2-5  million  men  on  active  service  in  the 
army.  Because  the  proportion  of  administrative  and  supply 
troops  was  smaller  in  the  Russian  army  than  in  the  western 
armies,  this  number  gave  the  U.S.S.R.  a  higher  proportion 
of  effective  combatants  than  would  usually  be  the  case  for 
this  number  of  men  in  an  army.  The  published  defence 
appropriations  for  1950  amounted  to  19%  of  the  total 
budget. 

Disposition.  No  major  changes  in  disposition  of  the  Soviet 
army  took  place  in  1950.  About  30  to  35  divisions  were 
maintained  in  Germany  at  full  strength  (1 1,000  for  the  infantry 
units).  These  divisions  included  six  armoured  formations 
and  there  were  some  unattached  tank  regiments.  In  addition 
there  were  six  Soviet  divisions  in  Hungary  and  Rumania  and 
two  in  Austria.  The  exact  number  of  units  in  Poland  was 
unknown  and  it  was  apparent  that  a  great  concentration  of 
strength  could  take  place  there  almost  unobserved.  Bridges 
in  the  eastern  zone  of  Germany  were  strengthened  to  carry 
the  very  heavy  Stalin  Mark  III  tanks.  The  strength  maintained 
in  the  far  east  was  650,000  men. 

Training.  At  least  one  special  task  force  was  trained  during 
1950  in  arctic  warfare  technique.  Large-scale  exercises  were 
held  in  Germany,  although  tank  manoeuvres  were  believed 
to  be  restricted  because  of  the  deterioration  of  equipment. 
An  analysis  of  the  state  of  training  and  equipment  in  the 
Soviet  army  showed  the  following  conditions:  (1)  Main- 
tenance of  mechanized  equipment  and  armour  was  at  its 
lowest  ebb  since  World  War  II  because  of  an  extreme  shortage 
of  technicians.  It  was  deduced  that  Soviet  industrial  expan- 
sion had  received  first  priority  for  technicians  and  that  the 
army  was  required  to  train  its  own  mechanics.  (2)  There  was 
a  shortage  of  all  forms  of  mechanized  equipment.  Tanks  were 
old,  trucks  were  scarce  and  in  bad  condition  and  there  was 
a  scarcity  of  self-propelled  guns.  (3)  Armoured  divisions 
lacked  good  radio  equipment.  (4)  The  physical  condition, 
training  and  discipline  of  the  troops  were  excellent.  (5)  Des- 
pite shortcomings  the  Soviet  army  was  an  extremely  effective 
fighting  force. 

France.  The  length  of  military  service  was  increased  from 
18  months  to  two  years  as  part  of  the  programme  to  expand 
the  army  to  fulfil  France's  commitments  under  the  Atlantic 
treaty.  Plans  called  for  the  expansion  of  the  army  in  Europe 
to  a  total  of  ten  divisions  in  1951  and  at  least  five  more  in 


An  anti-aircraft  gun  crew  of  the  United  States  army  taking  part 

in  combined  U.S. -Canada  army  manoeuvres  in    Yukon  Territory, 

Canada. 


ARMIES   OF  THE  WORLD 


61 


Mute-train  artillery  of  the  bodyguard  of  the  Dalai  Lama  of  Tibet  seen  during  field  exercises  in  Lhasa,  Oct.  1950,  as  the  Chinese  forces 

began  their  invasion  of  Tibet. 


1952  and  a  further  five  in  1953.  The  defence  budget  totalled 
Fr.  740,000  million  (28-5%  of  budget). 

Additional  financial  support  was  promised  by  the  United 
States,  as  well  as  arms  and  equipment. 

Disposition.  Three  French  divisions  were  engaged  in 
occupation  duties  in  Germany  and  Austria.  Four  additional 
divisional  cadres  were  available  in  France  and  were  to  be 
fully  manned  in  1951.  Reinforcements  were  sent  from  France 
and  north  Africa  to  Indo-China  during  the  year.  These 
included  an  armoured  regiment  equipped  with  Sherman 
tanks  and  an  infantry  regiment  composed  of  battalions  from 
the  French  Foreign  legion  and  from  Morocco  and  Senegal. 
French  strength  in  Indo-China  amounted  to  150,000,  of 
which  about  one-third  was  French,  one-third  colonial  and 
the  balance  Vietnamese.  About  half  the  Vietnamese  troops 
were  well-trained;  less  than  10,000  were  under  Vietnamese 
officers,  the  rest  having  French  officers. 

Opposing  the  French  and  Vietnam  forces  in  Indo-China 
were  150,000  Vietminh  troops,  a  large  proportion  of  whom 
had  been  armed  and  trained  at  the  principal  depot  and 
supply  centre  of  Nanning  in  southern  China.  Ho  Chi  Minh 
maintained  53  well-armed  battalions  and  50  lightly  armed 
units'  of  battalion  strength  in  the  vital  Tongking  area,  where 
French  communications  to  Hanoi  and  Haiphong  were 
harassed. 

The  French  continued  to  hold  the  vital  areas  around 
Hanoi,  but  expected  a  major  drive  to  capture  this  rice- 
producing  region.  General  de  Lattre  de  Tassigny  was  named 
commanding  general  in  Jndo-China  late  in  the  year. 

Equipment.  France  depended  heavily  on  U.S.  equipment 
both  in  Indo-China  and  metropolitan  France.  Production 
of  armoured  vehicles  was  increased  but  was  still  insufficient. 

China.  The  strength  of  the  Chinese  Communist  armies, 
like  that  of  most  Chinese  armies,  was  very  indefinite.  There 
were  probably  about  3  million  men  under  arms,  of  whom 
nearly  half  were  in  central  Manchuria  and  North  Korea. 
Mobilization  was  publicly  decreed  on  Dec.  12,  1950,  and 
there  were  indications  that  the  Chinese  Communists  were 
apprehensive  of  a  general  war  in  Asia.  In  addition  to  the 
regular  army,  there  was  the  People's  militia  of  2  million  men. 

Most  of  the  remaining  forces  of  Chiang  Kai-shek  were 
concentrated  on  the  island  of  Formosa,  although  some 
guerrilla  bands  continued  to  harass  the  Communist  forces, 
particularly  in  southwest  China.  Chiang's  forces  numbered 


about  400,000,  although  most  of  these  had  received  only  six 
to  eight  weeks'  training  and  very  few  were  properly  equipped. 

Disposition.  There  was  an  important  shift  in  the  dis- 
position of  the  Chinese  armies  following  the  intervention  of 
Chinese  Communist  units  in  the  Korean  war.  The  4th  Field 
army,  with  a  strength  of  more  than  500,000  men  and  one 
of  the  best  in  China,  was  moved  from  the  south  to  Korea. 
To  fill  the  gap  left  by  this  movement  the  3rd  Field  army 
moved  to  cover  the  Indo-China  border  and  the  coast  opposite 
Formosa.  The  2nd  Field  army  was  reported  to  be  in  south- 
west China  and  there  was  some  indication  that  the  1st  Field 
army  was  in  central  Manchuria. 

Organization.  The  strength  of  the  Chinese  divisions  was 
7,000  to  10,000  men  each.  These  were  organized  into  three 
infantry  regiments.  The  Chinese  divisions  had  few  supporting 
services  suclj  as  engineers,  communications,  reconnaissance, 
etc.  Artillery  support  was  limited.  Three  divisions  were 
grouped  into  each  arjny,  and  three  armies  into  each  group  of 
armies.  A  field  army  usually  had  several  groups  of  armies. 

Equipment.  Most  small  arms  were  old  and  of  Soviet  or 
U.S.  origin.  The  Chinese  had  field  artillery  up  to  155  mm. 
There  were  some  U.S.  light  and  medium  tanks,  and  some 
Soviet  small  arms  and  medium  tanks. 

The  Korean  War.  Military  observers  noted  the  following 
facts  in  the  Korean  war.  The  training  of  both  North  Korean 
and  Chinese  troops  was  good,  with  a  strong  emphasis  on 
guerrilla  and  infiltration  tactics.  The  strategy  was  similar 
to  that  used  in  the  civil  war  in  China — sudden  attacks  which 
faded  away  into  the  hills  when  they  encountered  opposition 
that  was  too  strong.  The  leadership  of  the  North  Korean 
and  Chinese  forces  was  excellent  and  showed  an  ability  to 
exploit  any  weakness  and  to  take  advantage  of  terrain. 
Soviet  equipment  stood  up  well  under  adverse  conditions. 
Such  equipment  included  a  sub-machine  gun  with  a  drum- 
type  magazine  and  high  rate  of  fire,  a  120-mm.  mortar, 
jeeps  and  anti-tank  guns.  The  T-34  tank  had  the  field  to 
itself  until  the  U.S.  General  Patton  tank  with  its  90-mm.  gun 
arrived.  (See  KOREA;  KOREAN  WAR.) 

The  North  Atlantic  Army.  Agreement  was  finally  reached 
in  1950  among  the  powers  of  the  Atlantic  area  over  the 
details  of  establishing  an  international  army  for  the  defence 
of  western  Europe.  This  followed  the  creation  in  1948  of 
Western  Union  (q.v.)  with  its  five-power  defence  treaty  for 
50  years,  and  the  signing  in  1949  of  the  12-nation  North 


62 


ARMIES  OF  THE  WORLD 


Atlantic  treaty.  Although  all  the  Atlantic  treaty  nations 
passed  greatly  augmented  defence  budgets  in  1950,  agree- 
ment on  the  individual  contributions  and  the  composition 
of  the  army  was  not  reached  until  late  in  the  year.  Even  then 
the  rearmament  of  Western  Germany  continued  to  be  a 
controversial  subject  among  the  North  Atlantic  treaty  powers, 
and  a  final  solution  concerning  Western  Germany  was  not 
reached  in  1950. 

The  following  is  a  general  indication  of  the  number  of 
divisions  from  the  Atlantic  treaty  countries  and  Western 
Germany  which  were  to  be  stationed  in  western  Europe 'by 
1953  (number  of  divisions  in  western  Europe  in  1950  in 
brackets):  the  Benelux  countries,  9(2);  France,  25(5);  Italy, 
18(8);  United  Kingdom,  7(2);  United  States,  10(2);  total, 
69(19).  To  support  these  units  the  U.S.  appropriated  $6,000 
million  in  1950  for  equipment  to  be  sent  to  the  treaty  nations. 

On  Dec.  19,  1950,  General  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  (q.v.), 
United  States,  was  appointed  commander  in  chief  of  the 
forces  of  the  North  Atlantic  treaty  powers. 

Belgium.  The  army  was  reorganized  to  fit  into  the  Atlantic 
treaty  force.  Three  commands  were  established,  one  for  the 
troops  forming  part  of  the  treaty  army,  one  for  the  defence 
of  the  national  territory  and  one  for  maintenance  and  trans- 
port. Plans  were  made  to  send  a  full  division  to  Germany 
to  strengthen  the  Belgian  corps,  which  consisted  of  two 
brigades  in  1950.  Compulsory  service  was  extended  from 
1 8  months  to  two  years.  Strength  of  the  armed  forces  was 
75,000  but  was  to  be  raised  to  150,000. 

Italy.  During  the  year  Italy  maintained  about  100,000  men 
in  the  army;  in  addition  there  were  70,000  carabinieri.  To 
build  up  sufficient  forces  for  defence,  the  8  existing  divisions 
would  be  increased  to  12;  there  would  also  be  2  armoured 
brigades.  The  development  of  the  army  was  hindered  by 
lack  of  equipment,  which  would,  however,  be  forthcoming 
under  the  Atlantic  treaty. 

Netherlands.  With  the  disbandment  of  the  Netherlands 
Indies  army,  the  Dutch  commenced  to  build  up  their  ground 
forces  for  the  North  Atlantic  army.  Supplies  to  .arm  one 
infantry  division  were  to  be  received  from  Canada. 

Eastern  Europe.  Bulgaria.  One  of  the  most  advanced  of 
the  armies  in  the  Soviet  orbit,  the  Bulgarian  army  was 
reported  to  have  195,000  men  under  arms,  although  the 
treaty  limit  set  a  maximum  figure  of  55,000.  The  Bulgarian 
army  was  well-equipped  with  Soviet  T-34  tanks.  About 
3,000  Soviet  military  advisers  assisted  with  the  training  and 
organization  of  the  army. 

Czechoslovakia.  The  "  Sovietization  "  of  the  Czechoslovak 
army  was  accelerated  during  1950.  Much  emphasis  was 
placed  on  discarding  so-called  French  theories  of  defence 
and  adopting  so-called  Soviet  theories  of  the  offensive. 
Most  of  the  schooling,  however,  was  based  on  the  German 
tactics  of  armoured  wedges  and  pocket  fighting  and  the 
usual  Soviet  theory  of  mass  attack.  The  army  consisted  of 
135,000  men  and  had  several  hundred  T-34  tanks. 

Eastern  Germany.  The  "  People's  Readiness  squads " 
reached  a  strength  of  about  60,000  in  1950,  but  there  were 
many  desertions  from  these  units.  These  troops  were  known 
to  be  given  arms  only  during  training  periods.  There  was 
still  evidence  that  the  Soviet  plan  was  to  train  the  officers 
and  enlisted  cadres  of  the  People's  police  to  be  used  as  the 
basis  for  a  greatly  expanded  German  army. 

Hungary.  The  Hungarian  army  received  considerable 
Soviet  equipment  in  1950.  Measures  were  taken  during  the 
year  to  increase  armament  production.  Army  strength  was 
reported  to  be  well  above  the  treaty  maximum  of  65,000. 
Military  service  was  extended  from  two  to  three  years. 
There  were  approximately  30,000  Soviet  troops  in  Hungary. 

Poland.  1>e  '*  Sovietization  "  of  the  Polish  army  neared 
completion  as  many  new  officers  were  commissioned  from 


the  ranks  of  agricultural  and  industrial  workers  and  former 
officers  dismissed  as  politically  unreliable.  The  draft  age 
was  dropped  from  21  to  20  and  the  length  of  service  in  the 
army  increased  to  two  years,  followed  by  reserve  service 
to  the  age  of  50.  The  army  numbered  250,000  men  and 
included  16  infantry  divisions.  (See  also  POLAND.) 

Rumania.  One  of  the  first  satellite  armies  to  be  re-organized 
on  the  Soviet  pattern,  the  Rumanian  army  consisted  of 
approximately  200,000  men,  well  over  the  treaty  limit  of 
120,000.  In  addition  there  were  30,000  Soviet  troops  in  the 
country. 

Yugoslavia.  The  strength  of  the  army  was  600,000, 
organized  into  25  divisions.  Its  training  was  the  best  in 
Europe,  but  emphasized  guerrilla  tactics  and  mountain 
fighting  to  compensate  for  the  lack  of  heavy  equipment. 
Although  fairly  well  equipped  with  small  arms,  the  army 
lacked  anti-tank  guns,  mortars,  artillery  and  heavy  weapons. 
Its  armour  consisted  of  a  pot-pourri  of  tanks  collected  during 
World  War  II.  A  mountain  guerrilla  campaign,  to  be  carried 
on  by  about  a  million  men,  was  planned  in  the  event  of  an 
attack. 

Other  European  Countries.  Spain.  Although  Spain  took 
steps  to  modernize  its  army,  including  the  weeding  out  of 
incompetent  officers,  the  calibre  of  the  force  did  not  improve. 
Plans  put  into  effect  in  1950  included  the  training  of  a  large 
number  of  soldiers  and  non-commissioned  officers  to  form  a 
cadre  for  a  larger  army  in  the  event  of  mobilization.  The 
strength  of  the  army  in  1950  was  250,000,  organized  into 
22  divisions,  but  the  mobilization  goal  was  2  million.  For 
everything  except  small  arms,  Spain  would  be  dependent 
on  outside  help.  The  existing  equipment  included  artillery 
dating*  from  1938  and  French  and  German  tanks  of  pre- 
World  War  II  types. 

Sweden.  A  new  record  defence  budget  was  planned  at  the 
end  of  1950.  This  would  increase  expenditures  from  17% 
to  19  •  4  %  of  the  budget.  Full-scale  manoeuvres  were  planned 
for  1951.  On  immediate  mobilization,  the  strength  of  the 
army  would  be  700,000. 

Commonwealth.  Canada.  An  appropriation  of  $800  million 
for  defence  in  addition  to  $300  million  for  new  equipment 
supported  not  only  the  Canadian  defence  establishment  and 
the  expeditionary  force  to  Korea  but  also  forces  of  some  of 
the  Atlantic  treaty  nations.  The  army  was  maintained  at 
22,000  and  a  force  of  10,000  was  sent  to  Korea. 

India.  Although  relations  with  Pakistan  improved  a 
little,  the  Kashmir  situation  continued  to  strain  Indian 
defences.  Approximately  50%  of  the  budget  was  allocated 
to  defence. 

Pakistan.  The  army  was  maintained  at  the  same  level  as 
in  1949,  while  defences  were  strengthened. 

Middle  East.  Egypt-  The  reorganization  of  the  army, 
begun  after  the  disastrous  fighting  against  Israel,  continued 
in  1950.  A  new  armoured  division  was  formed  and  equipment 
ordered  from  western  Europe  and  Great  Britain. 

Israel.  During  1950  Israel  turned  more  and  more  to 
western  Europe  for  training  and  equipment,  because  requests 
to  the  United  States  were  refused.  Although  lacking  modern 
arms,  Israel  could  mobilize  200,000  men  in  an  emergency. 

Persia.  Faced  with  an  increasingly  tense  situation  along  the 
Soviet-Persian  border,  the  Persian  army  cancelled  all  leaves 
at  the  end  of  1950.  In  the  event  of  an  attack  it  was  planned 
to  conduct  a  defence  in  depth  with  the  150,000-man  army 
and  to  fall  back  to  the  mountains  for  the  main  battle. 

Turkey.  Army  strength  was  reduced  to  400,000,  but  com- 
bat strength  was  maintained  by  economies  in  manpower. 
The  general  staff,  command  and  supply  systems  were  re-organ- 
ized on  U.S.  lines,  and  about  10,000  Turkish  military  person- 
nel completed  courses  under  U.S.  instructors.  Approximately 
one-third  of  the  budget  was  for  defence.  During  1950  a 


ART   EXHIBITIONS 


63 


brigade  was  sent  to  Korea  and  proved  to  be  extremely 
effective  in  combat.  (See  also  BRITISH  ARMY;  KOREAN 
WAR;  MUNITIONS  OF  WAR;  NORTH  ATLANTIC  TREATY 
POWERS.)  (E.  L.  S.) 

ART  EXHIBITIONS.  The  wealth  of  French  art 
of  over  four  centuries  seen  in  London  in  1950  was  made 
available  by  the  relaxation  of  import  restrictions.  French 
19th-century  painting  was  well  represented:  at  Burlington 
house,  by  a  part  of  the  Burrell  collection  selected  for  circu- 
lation; by  the  first  comprehensive  assembly  of  Berthe  Mori- 
sot's  paintings  (55  in  all)  to  be  seen  in  London;  and  at  several 
private  galleries.  The  Lefevre  gallery  opened  its  new  premises 
in  Bruton  street,  London,  with  an  exhibition  of  Raoul 
Dufy's  work,  followed  by  one  of  Edgar  Degas's.  Many 
French  contemporaries  could  also  be  studied,  the  best  repre- 
sented being  the  veteran  Fernand  Leger,  to  the  phases  of 
whose  painting  (cubist,  "  planes-in-space  "  and  mechanistic) 
the  Tate  gallery  devoted  considerable  space  in  the  spring. 

Also  at  the  Tate  gallery,  "  Modern  Italian  Art "  was 
outstanding  among  exhibitions  of  contemporary  art  from 
overseas.  Arranged  by  the  Arts  Council  of  Great  Britain,  the 
Italian  institute  and  the  Amici  di  Brera,  this  offered  (with  the 
important  exception  of  that  of  Gino  Severini)  a  fair  repre- 
sentation of  Italian  art  as  far  as  concerned  two  sides  of 
Futurist  development:  the  Scuola  metafisica  (Giorgio  de 
Chirico,  Carlo  Carra,  Amadeo  Modigliani,  etc.)  and  the 
novecento  group  (Arturo  Tosi,  Mario  Sironi,  etc.)  but  stopped 
short  of  the  more  recent  Fronte  Nuova  deW  Arte.  This  latter 
it  was  hoped  to  represent  later.  Contemporary  Italian 
sculpture  was  seen  at  the  Italian  institute  in  the  autumn. 

The  opportunity  of  studying  an  aspect  of  modern  American 
painting  was  afforded  when  the  Institute  of  Contemporary 
Arts  held  in  its  new  premises  an  exhibition  of  "  Symbolic 
Realism  in  American  Art  1940-50  " — a  collection  of  minutely 
painted  illustrations,  surrealist  or  illusionist  in  character. 
Others  whose  work  was  shown  in  London,  in  some  cases  for 
the  first  time,  were  Max  Ernst,  Constant  Permeke,  Lovis 
Corinth,  Claude  Venard,  Marc  Chagall  and  Pablo  Picasso 
whose  recent  Provencal  works  included  his  extraordinarily 
inventive  ceramics. 

Exhibitions  of  old  masters  and  antique  works  of  art 
hardly  rivalled  those  of  1949.  Nevertheless  "  William  and 
Mary  and  their  Time,"  to  which  the  King  lent  three  tapestries, 
and  which  was  the  first  considerable  fruit  of  the  Anglo-Dutch 
Cultural  convention,  provided  an  excellent  portrait  of  an  age. 
The  Arts  Council  was  responsible  for  the  circulation  of  two 
old  master  collections,  both  including  some  little-krfown 
masterpieces,  namely  those  lent  by  the  Duke  of  Bedford 
from  Woburn  abbey  and  those  from  the  Wellington  gift. 
Rembrandt  was  the  artist  chosen  by  the  Edinburgh  Festival 
society  for  1950,  and  36  paintings  were  exhibited,  including 
the  sumptuous  "  Family  Group  "  from  the  Count  Anton 
Ulrich  museum,  Brunswick,  later  shown  in  London.  In 
accord  with  the  current  romantic  mood  were  Wildenstein's 
important  and  revealing  exhibition  of  Rubens'  portraits, 
decorative  panels  and  drawings  (many  of  them  unfamiliar) 
illustrating  the  diversity  of  his  genius;  and  the  first  London 
exhibition  of  paintings  and  drawings  by  William  Blake's 
contemporary  Henry  Fuseli. 

In  "  Painters'  Progress,"  at  the  Whitechapel  Art  gallery, 
eight  painters  were  invited  to  exhibit  works  illuminating  the 
successive  phases  of  his  or  her  artistic  career.  Duncan 
Grant,  Ivon  Hitchens,  John  Piper,  John  Napper  and  Prunella 
Clough  were  among  those  selected.  "  The  Private  Collector," 
organized  by  the  Contemporary  Art  society  at  the  Tate 
gallery,  and  the  exhibition  before  dispersal  of  part  of  the 
private  collection  of  Howard  Bliss,  were  most  rewarding  and 
showed  the  trend  of  enlightened  collectors'  taste;  interesting 


also,  not  least  for  their  historical  associations,  were  the 
William  Rothenstein  and  D.  S.  McColl  memorial  exhibitions, 
also  at  the  Tate. 

The  Royal  Academy  of  1950,  chiefly  memorable  for 
variations  by  Stanley  Spencer  (^.v.)  on  the  theme  of  the 
Resurrection,  reflected,  in  the  greater  influx  of  serious  works 
and  the  dwindling  of  outworn  features,  the  liberal  policy  of 
the  new  president,  Sir  Gerald  Kelly  (q.v.).  The  latter's  one- 
man  show  at  the  Leicester  galleries  showed  that  his  scrupulous 
craftsmanship  was  hardly  paralleled  in  contemporary  art. 
Two  instances  of  overdue  revival  deserve  mention:  that  of 
mural  painting,  by  the  constitution  of  the  Society  of  Mural 
Painters;  and  of  tapestry  by  the  Edinburgh  Tapestry  society. 

The  25th  Venice  Biennale  was  the  highlight  of  the  year's 
exhibitions  of  modern  art,  coming  near  to  providing  a  cross- 
section  of  the  contemporary  achievement  not  only  of  Europe 
but  of  the  western  world.  Twenty-one  nations  participated, 
five  (Colombia,  the  republic  of  Ireland,  Portugal,  Brazil  and 
South  Africa)  for  the  first  time.  John  Constable,  Matthew 
Smith  and  Barbara  Hepworth  were  selected  to  represent 
Great  Britain.  The  choice  of  35  of  Constable's  works  was 
generally  acclaimed;  that  of  36  of  Matthew  Smith's  with 
reserve,  since  many  fell  below  the  standard  of  his  best. 
Barbara  Hepworth's  austerely  formal  sculptures  were 
retrospectively  arranged;  her  drawings  were  mostly  recent. 

If  the  British  pavilion  suffered  from  over-simplification,  an 
embarras  de  rlchesse  characterized  the  Italian.  There  were 
not  only  substantial  assemblies  of  work  by  the  signatories  of 
the  first  Futurist  Manifesto,  memorial  exhibitions  honouring 
the  sculptor  Medardo  Rosso,  the  engraver  Cino  Bozzetti 
and  the  painters  Mario  Broglio  and  Lorenzo  Viani  and 
shows  of  the  painters  Carra,  Pio  Semeghini  and  Alberto 
Magnelli,  as  well  as  a  section  of  modern  sculpture,  but  also 
numerous  contributions  by  less-known  artists.  The  general 
effect  was  one  of  nervous  vitality  requiring  self-discipline. 
The  Swedish  pavilion  exhibited  work  of  the  painters  Carl 
Hill  and  Ernst  Josephson  and  the  sculptors  Sven  Erixson 


the  Oath  oj  tnc  Kutii,     shown  in  JMJ  in  an  exhibition  of  the 
works  of  Henry  Fuseli  at  the  New  Burlington  galleries,  London. 


64 


ART   EXHIBITIONS 


and  Bror  Hjorth.  Herbert  Boeckl's  one-man  exhibition  was 
the  mainstay  of  the  Austrian  pavilion,  while  in  the  Belgian 
the  work  of  Paul  Delvaux,  Edgard  Tytgat  and  Constant 
Permeke  supported  the  splendid  memorial  exhibition  of 
James  Ensor's  painting.  The  French  pavilion,  carefully 
balanced,  drew  partly  from  the  magnificent  tradition  which 
nurtured  Pierre  Bonnard,  Henri  Matisse,  Maurice  Utrillo, 
and  Henri  Rousseau  (with  a  one-man  show  of  each  of  these, 
and  drawings  by  Georges  Seurat)  and  partly  from  notable 
contemporaries  such  as  Othon  Friesz,  Maurice  de  Vlaminck 
and  others  who  passed  through  a  Fauve  period,  with  cubist 
paintings  by  Marcel  Gromaire,  Georges  Braque,  Juan  Gris, 
Le"ger  and  Picasso,  and  the  abstract  sculptor  Henri  Georges 
Adam.  The  German  pavilion  concentrated  on  the  "  Blaue 
Reiter  "  group  (of  which  such  members  as  Was§ily  Kandin- 
sky,  Paul  Klee  and  Franz  Marc  exercised  a  profound  influence 
throughout  the  first  half  of  the  20th-century)  with,  for 
sculpture,  an  impressive  array  of  Ernst  BarJach's  carved 
wooden  figures. 

In  Germany  itself,  though  British  drawings  were  seen  in 
Berlin,  exhibitions  consisted  mainly  of  mediaeval  art  and  of 
that  produced  by  important  native  movements,  particularly 
the  4*  Blaue  Reiter  "  and  the  Weimar-Dessau  Bauhaus  groups 
(Lyonel  Feininger,  Oskar  Schlemmer,  Laszlo  Moholy-Nagy, 
etc.).  The  "Great  Art  Exhibition,  Munich  1950"  included 
800  pictorial  items,  emphasizing  the  "  Secession  "  and  the 
Neuc  Gruppe.  Switzerland  (where  too  a  Rembrandt  exhibition 
was  held  at  Schaffhausen)  and  Austria  paid  magnificent 
homage  to  the  art  of  the  middle  ages. 

The  national  galleries  and  museums  made  further  progress 
towards  recovery  from  the  effects  of  World  War  II.  At  the 
Victoria  and  Albert  museum,  London,  six  more  galleries, 
including  the  Islamic,  were  reopened.  The  famous  Raphael 
cartoons  (the  surviving  seven  of  the  original  ten)  were  again 
on  view.  Foremost  of  the  individual  acquisitions  was 
Giovanni  Lorenzo  Bernini's  baroque  masterpiece  "  Neptune 
and  Glaucus."  The  museum  opened  Ham  house  (consigned 
to  its  care)  to  the  public  and  extended  its  scheme  of  loan 
exhibitions.  Further  rooms  were  opened  at  the  National 
gallery  and  special  air-conditioning  in  one  gallery  allowed  the 
showing  of  masterpieces  without  glass.  An  important 
accession  was  a  large  composition  by  Bartolome  Esteban 
Murillo  presented  through  the  National  Art  Collections  fund. 


**  The  Family  Group  "  by  Rembrandt, 

from  the  Count  Anton  Ulrich  museum, 

Brunswick,  exhibited  during  1950  at 

the  National  Gallery,  London. 

In  Paris  the  reorganization  of 
the  Petit  Palais  proceeded  apace, 
and  at  the  Louvre  an  exhibition 
of  the  Madonna  in  French  art 
was  held  after  the  rearrangement 
of  the  French  paintings.  Exhib- 
itions of  drawings  from  the 
Albertina,  Vienna,  of  Yugoslav 
mediaeval  art,  of  the  first  of  the 
work  of  Eva  Gonzales  (a  neglected 
Impressionist)  and  of  paintings  by 
the  Mexican  Rufino  Tamayo,  were 
among  those  held  in  France.  The 
Palais  d'Art  Moderne  initiated  a 
Marc  Chagall  room.  Throughout 
Europe,  indeed,  museums  and 
galleries  too  numerous  to  record 
individually  reopened  in  whole  or 
in  part,  often  after  much  recon- 
struction. New  ideas  in  museum 
display  generally  demanded  re- 
arrangement, excellent  British 
examples  being  provided  at  the  Victoria  and  Albert,  London, 
and  at  Brighton.  Not  only  was  large-scale  reconstruction 
achieved  in  areas  badly  affected  by  the  war  (e.g.*  Namur, 
Tournai,  Bonn,  Barmen  and  the  Hamburg  print-room)  but 
new  museums  were  installed  and  opened,  such  as  the  gallery 
of  contemporary  art  at  C6ret  and  museums  at  Antwerp  and 
Pisa.  (See  MUSEUMS.) 

There  was  evidence  of  increasing  interest  in  art  generally, 
reflected  in  Great  Britain  in  the  acquisition  of  new  premises 
by  the  Arts  Council  and  the  Institute  of  Contemporary  Arts. 
Acquisitions  of  modern  art  by  the  Tate  gallery  included  a 
Fauve  Matisse,  examples  of  Picasso's  "  Negro "  and  early 
cubist  periods,  and  sculpture  and  drawings  by  Alberto 
Giacometti.  The  "  native  "  part  of  this  gallery's  double  role 
was  nobly  supported  by  the  accession  of  John  Constable's 
"  Marine  Parade  and  Chain  Pier,  Brighton  "  and  of  a  group 
of  William  Blake's  paintings  and  watercolours. 

(N.  A.  D.  W.) 

United  States.  During  the  summer  of  1950  the  Philadelphia 
museum  again  brought  before  the  public  some  250  items 
from  the  rich  private  collections  of  the  vicinity.  The  most 
important  exhibits  were  "  The  Family  "  by  El  Greco  from 
the  Pitcairn  collection;  "  Jose  Romero "  by  Francisco 
Goya  from  the  Tyson  collection;  and  "On  the  Balcony" 
by  Mary  Cassatt  from  the  Scott  collection.  Notable  canvases 
by  Paul  Cezanne,  Vincent  Van  Gogh  and  Pablo  Picasso  were 
also  included. 

In  the  autumn  of  1950  the  museum  celebrated  its  diamond 
jubilee  with  a  loan  exhibition  called  "  Masterpieces  in 
America,"  comprising  102  paintings  and  119  drawings 
covering  eight  centuries.  They  ranged  from  a  "  Crucifixion  " 
by  Fra  Angelico  to  "  The  Three  Musicians "  by  Pablo 
Picasso.  A  feature  of  the  exhibition  was  "  St.  Peter  Denying 
Christ "  by  Rembrandt  lent  by  the  Rijksmuseum,  Amsterdam. 
Also  included  was  the  only  work  in  the  U.S.  by  Michelangelo, 
a  red  chalk  study  for  the  Sistine  "  Libyan  Sibyl,"  lent  by  the 
Metropolitan  museum,  New  York. 

A  special  event  at  the  National  gallery,  Washington,  was 
the  showing  of  40  paintings,  normally  on  loan  to  the  National 
gallery,  London,  from  the  collection  of  C.  S.  Gulbenkian. 
Rembrandt's  "  Pallas  Athene "  was  outstanding  in  the 
group  as  well  as  several  important  French  19th-century 
pictures. 


ARTHRITIS— ART  SALES 


65 


The  Corcoran  Gallery  of  Art  in  Washington  featured 
44  American  Processional "  to  celebrate  the  150th  anniversary 
of  Washington  as  the  U.S.  capital.  Important  events  in 
American  history  and  life  from  1492  to  1900  were  depicted 
in  paintings,  drawings  and  a  few  prints.  The  portrait  of 
Christopher  Columbus  by  Sebastiano  del  Piombo  formed 
the  introductory  note  to  the  exhibition.  Beginning  with  the 
end  of  the  17th  century  events  were  depicted  by  artists 
working  in  America. 

New  York's  Museum  of  Modern  Art  held  three  notable 
retrospective  exhibitions  of  the  work  of  three  highly  diversi- 
fied artists.  The  first  was  of  the  work  of  Paul  Klee,  the 
fanciful  and  highly  imaginative  Swiss  artist  who  had  much 
influence  on  contemporary  art.  Another  was  Charles  Demuth, 
a  sensitive  American  artist  and  facile  water  colourist.  Finally, 
it  gathered  from  collectors  in  Paris  and  in  the  United  States,  a 
comprehensive  survey  of  the  painting  of  Chaim  Soutine,  the 
French  expressionist. 

A  whole  gallery  at  the  25th  Venice  Biennale  was  devoted 
to  the  work  of  John  Marin,  doyen  of  American  water 
colourists,  and  the  work  of  six  avant  garde  painters,  Arshile 
Gorky,  William  de  Kooning,  Jackson  Pollock,  Hyman 
Bloom,  Lee  Gatch  and  Rico  Le  Brun,  was  also  shown. 

The  Carnegie  institute  in  Pittsburgh  resumed  its  famous 
International  exhibition  after  a  lapse  of  11  years.  The  jury 
was  made  up  of  Marcel  Gromaire  (Paris),  Sir  Gerald  Kelly 
(London),  the  American  artists  Charles  Burchfield  and 
Franklin  Watkins  and  the  retiring  Carnegie  director,  Homer 
Saint-Gaudens.  First  prize  of  $2,000  went  to  Jacques  Villon 
(France)  for  "The  Thresher,"  second  prize  of  $1,000  went 
to  Lyonel  Feininger  for  "  Houses  by  the  River  "  and  third 
prize  of  $800  to  Priscilla  Robert's  "  Self-Portrait." 

New  York's  Metropolitan  museum  put  on  a  handsome 
sampling  of  its  American  paintings  ranging  from  John  Singer 
Sargent's  frothy  and  deftly  painted  4*  Wyndham  Sisters " 
and  Winslow  Homer's  vigorous  44  Gulf  Stream  "  to  work 
by  contemporary  artists.  (See  also  ART  SALES;  ARTS  COUNCIL 
OF  GREAT  BRITAIN;  DRAWING  AND  ENGRAVING;  MUSEUMS; 
PAINTING;  SCULPTURE.)  (F.  A.  Sw.) 

ARTHRITIS.  During  1950  Cortisone  and  ACTH  con- 
sistently demonstrated  an  anti-rheumatic  effect  on  many 
types  of  arthritis,  especially  those  of  inflammatory  nature 
and  particularly  rheumatoid  arthritis. 

New  developments  in  the  manufacture  of  Cortisone  and 
ACTH  during  the  year  resulted  in  a  substantially  increased 
supply  at  a  considerably  lower  cost.  The  practical  application 
of  these  hormones  in  the  treatment  of  rheumatic  patients 
was  accomplished  in  some  acute  rheumatic  illnesses  such 
as  rheumatic  fever  and  gouty  arthritis.  Their  use  in  chronic 
illnesses  such  as  rheumatoid  arthritis  was  still  problematical. 
It  was  found  that  this  disease  is  not  eliminated  by  a  short 
period  of  administration  of  Cortisone  or  ACTH,  although 
it  may  be  completely  suppressed.  When  the  hormone  is 
discontinued  the  disease  almost  invariably  recurs  and  usually 
presents  the  same  problems  that  existed  before  treatment. 
In  an  effort  to  obtain  more  permanent  benefits,  trials  of 
repeated  short  periods  of  hormone  treatment,  separated  by 
periods  without  the  hormone,  were  made.  Such  treatment 
failed.  Many  medicines  were  used  immediately  following 
Cortisone  or  ACTH  with  the  hope  that  they  would  sustain 
the  benefits  of  the  hormone,  but  none  was  successful. 
Studies  of  long  periods  of  continuous  Cortisone  or  ACTH 
therapy  for  rheumatoid  arthritis  were  being  made.  The 
results  indicated  that  in  some  patients  it  seemed  reasonable 
and  possibly  desirable,  in  others  it  was  impractical  because 
effects  of  the  hormone  other  than  the  anti-rheumatic  effect 
sometimes  produce  complications  and  make  the  treatment 
unsafe.  These  other  effects  include  hormonal  and  metabolic 

B.B.Y.— 6 


changes  which  may  result  in  diabetic  changes,  oedema, 
hypertension,  central  nervous  system  changes  which  result 
in  depression  or  excitement,  and  bleeding  tendencies  which 
may  cause  severe  haemorrhage.  Also,  long  use  of  the  hor- 
mones may  decrease  the  functioning  of  the  patient's  adrenal 
or  pituitary  glands.  This  may  cause  undesirable  glandular 
changes  when  the  hormone  is  discontinued,  resulting  in 
withdrawal  symptoms  of  weakness,  stiffness  and  depression; 
this  is  in  addition  to  the  worsening  in  the  arthritis  which 
usually  occurs  even  after  long  use  of  the  hormones.  These 
complications  are  important  factors  which  make  prolonged 
use  of  Cortisone  and  ACTH  difficult  and  sometimes 
impossible. 

Cortisone  is  effective  by  mouth  and  in  general  has  the 
same  effects  as  when  given  by  intramuscular  injection,  as 
formerly  required.  Tablets  of  Cortisone  became  available 
during  the  year,  making  treatment  simplified  and  less 
expensive. 

A  principal  difficulty  in  the  use  of  ACTH  was  the  require- 
ment of  injections  of  this  hormone  several  times  each  day; 
this  was  necessary  because  of  the  short  period  of  effectiveness 
of  available  preparations.  Efforts  were  being  made  to 
develop  a  form  of  this  hormone  which  could  be  slowly  and 
uniformly  absorbed  so  as  to  require  injection  only  every 
48  or  72  hr.  and  thus  facilitate  its  use  in  ambulatory  patients. 
The  developments  were  encouraging. 

Many  steroids  were  produced,  chemically  similar  to 
Cortisone.  These  were  intensively  studied,  and  investigation 
was  continued  with  the  hope  of  developing  an  effective 
substitute  for  Cortisone,  a  substitute  which  would  have  few 
complicating  subsidiary  effects.  An  outstanding  example  of 
these  drugs  was  pregnenolone.  Reports  concerning  its 
effectiveness  varied  widely.  It  seemed  to  have  much  less 
anti-rheumatic  effect  than  Cortisone.  Many  investigators 
found  this  drug  to  be  of  little  or  no  value  in  the  majority  of 
trials,  but  because  it  had  little  toxicity,  efforts  were  con- 
tinued to  determine  if  this  steroid  could  be  made  more 
effective. 

Intensive  research  into  the  cause  and  mechanism  of 
rheumatoid  arthritis,  and  in  ways  to  improve  physical 
measures  of  treatment,  pain-relieving  drugs  and  other  well- 
established  forms  of  treatment  was  also  being  carried  forward. 
(See  also  ENDOCRINOLOGY.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  E.  W.  Boland  and  N.  E.  Headley,  "  Management  of 
Rheumatoid  Arthritis  with  Smaller  (Maintenance)  Doses  of  Cortisone 
Acetate,"  J.A.M.A.,  144,  365-372,  Sept.  30,  1950;  R.  H.  Freyberg, 
M.  Patterson,  C.  H.  Adams,  J.  Durivage  and  C.  H.  Traeger,  "  Practical 
Considerations  of  the  Use  of  Cortisone  and  ACTH  for  Rheumatoid 
Arthritis,"  to  be  published ;  R.  H.  Freyberg,  C.  T.  Traeger,  C.  H.  Adams, 
T.  Nuscu,  H.  Wainerdi  and  I.  Bonomo,  "  Effectiveness  of  Cortisone 
Administered  Orally,"  Science,  112, 429,  Oct.  13, 1950.  (R.  H.  FRO.) 

ART  SALES.  The  year  1949  had  ended  at  Christie's 
with  the  sale  of  four  remarkable  drawings,  one  by  Pisanelio 
(2,300  guineas),  one  by  Brueghel  (1,800  gns.),  one  by  Fra 
Bartolommeo  (540  gns.)  and  the  last  by  Boucher  (480  gns.). 
The  first  spectacular  sale  of  1950  was  at  Christie's  in  February 
when  some  important  Dutch  paintings  from  the  collection 
of  the  late  Colonel  H.  A.  Clowes  were  sold:  "  A  Girl  at  her 
Toilet"  by  Metsu  brought  4,000  gns.  and  a  fine  beach 
scene  by  Jacob  van  Ruysdael  5,900  gns.  In  March  Sotheby's 
offered  an  interesting  pair  of  panels  of  St.  Sebastian  and 
St.  Roch  by  Lucas  Cranach,  the  outer  sides  of  a  destroyed 
triptych,  which  realized  1,000  gns.  In  March  also  Christie's 
sold  a  Wilson  Steer,  "  View  of  Shoreham  "  for  20  gns.,  a 
Charles  Spencelayh  for  200  gns.  and  a  Utrillo  for  £183  15*. 
On  April  3  a  14th-century  Parisian  missal  reached  £5,000  at 
Sotheby's  and  at  the  same  sale  1 77  letters  from  Charles  Darwin 
were  sold  for  £5,200  and  a  draft  of  Acts  I  and  II  of  Wilde's 
The  Importance  of  Being  Earnest  for  400  gns.  A  surprise  item 
in  the  sale  of  April  26  was  a  half-length  portrait  of  a  Carmelite 


66 


ARTS  COUNCIL  OF  GREAT  BRITAIN 


monk  attributed  to  Rubens.  This  brought  £4,000  and  another 
portrait,  attributed  to  Lorenzo  Lotto,  brought  £600. 

At  Christie's  on  May  12  a  small  landscape  on  panel 
attributed  to  Rembrandt  provoked  a  lengthy  struggle  among 
the  dealers  and  was  knocked  down  for  6,200  gns.  A  double 
portrait  by  Ferdinand  Bol  was  sold  for  850  gns.  and  1,950  gns. 
was  paid  for  a  Samuel  Scott  view  of  the  Thames  at  West- 
minster. In  May  some  modern  masters  at  Sotheby's  made 
interesting  contrasts;  the  highest  price  (£300)  was  paid  for  a 
Vuillard  gouache  and  oil  on  panel  but  drawings  by  Modigliani 
(£68),  Matisse  (£66)  and  Rodin  (£22)  showed  the  more  general 
level  of  the  year  for  works  of  this  kind.  On  June  7  a  painting 
of  the  Capel  family  by  Cornelius  Johnson  realized  the  very 
respectable  price  of  2,000  gns.  A  fortnight  later  a  number  of 
important  paintings  and  drawings  came  up  for  sale  at 
Sotheby's.  These  included  a  double  sheet  of  drawings  by 
Goya  which  had  been  sold  in  1935  for  £145  and  now  brought 
£680,  a  Valasque/  portrait  of  Queen  Isabella  (£1,500),  an 
Emmanuel  de  Witte  of  the  synagogue  at  Amsterdam  (£1,200), 
and  a  Hogarth  portrait  of  Dr.  Hoadley  (£450). 

Two  days  later  a  sale  at  Christie's  produced  some  curious 
results:  a  Gainsborough  portrait  realized  650  gns.,  a  Samuel 
Scott  220  gns.  and  two  views  of  Dresden  by  Bernardo  Belotto 
3,800  gns.,  though  they  had  been  bought  four  years  ago  for 
nearly  a  thousand  pounds  more.  An  early  Munnings  "  The 
Gravel  Pit  "  secured  a  purchaser  at  80  gns.  Early  in  July  "  A 
Street  Scene  "  by  Utrillo  brought  620  gns.  and  t'^ree  Fantin- 
Latours  together  realized  nearly  £3,000.  A  Corot  woodscape 
was  sold  for  2,100  gns.  The  big  event  of  this  month  was  the 
Clinton  sale  at  Sotheby's.  Rembrandt's  "  The  Flight  into 
Egypt "  was  sold  cheaply  at  £10,000.  A  fine  Zuccarelli 
brought  £700  and  a  Jan  van  Goyen  view  of  Arnhem  £1,500. 
At  Christie's  the  sale  of  pictures  from  the  collection  of  Alan 
G.  Fenwick  produced  some  very  high  and  some  very  low 
prices.  Mabuse's  "  Madonna  and  Child  "  brought  £3,400 
and  a  Simone  Memmi  £70. 

When  the  season  opened  again  in  late  September  a  sketch 
by  Constable  was  sold  at  Christie's  for  16  guineas  and  an 
early  18th-century  Italian  drawing  for  6  gns.  The  disposal  of 
238  lots  from  the  collection  of  the  late  Henry  Harris  at 
Sotheby's  a  few  weeks  later  realized  more  than  £28,000. 
Outstanding  items  were  a  fountain  head  by  Giovanni 
Francesco  Rustici  bought  by  a  private  collector  for  £3,200 
after  the  Victoria  and  Albert  museum' had  underbid  for  it. 
Many  early  Italian  paintings  went  back  to  their  homeland.  A 
week  before,  at  the  same  saleroom,  a  Jan  van  Goyen  had 
been  bought  for  3,000  gns.  and  a  Fantin-Latour  for  £2,600. 
The  most  important  items  in  November  sales  were  a 
Rembrandt  belonging  to  the  late  Lord  Holford  which  Sotheby's 
sold  for  £21,000  to  a  Dutch  collector  and  a  small  panel  at 
Christie's  of  a  young  man  attributed  to  Rogier  van  der  Weyden 
but  thought  to  have  been  the  work  of  another  artist, 
possibly  Fouquet. 

Europe.  In  the  European  market  sales  were  not  as  brisk 
as  in  England.  In  France,  in  June,  1,170,000  francs,  a  record 
price,  was  paid  for  a  pair  of  chairs  at  the  Hotel  Drouot.  An 
important  and  unusual  sale  was  that  of  the  contents  of  the 
Chateau  de  Tourronde,  near  Lugnin:  paintings  by  Murillo 
and  a  series  of  royal  portraits  were  among  the  most  important 
items,  and  many  of  these  were  acquired  by  the  Prince  of 
Monaco. 

In  Milan,  at  the  Galleria  del  Bramante  in  July,  a  Guard! 
sold  for  220,000  lire,  a  sign  of  the  general  weakening  of  prices. 
One  of  the  curious  things  was  that,  in  spite  of  the  concern 
about  the  "  forged  "  Utnllos,  that  artist's  works  continued  to 
command  high  prices.  In  July  one  which  had  been  bought  a 
few  months  previously  in  England  for  175  gns.  was  sold  in 
Paris  for  240,000  francs  and  some  time  later  another  was  sold 
for  800,000  Yrancs. 


Many  prices  rose:  a  Boudin  sold  for  910,000  French  francs, 
ten  times  as  much  as  it  cost  50  years  earlier;  a  Seurat  sold  in 
Paris  for  191,000  francs  in  1949  and  was  sold  12  months  later 
for  450,000  francs;  Picassos  of  all  periods  were  selling  very 
well;  Renoir  was  a  good  steady  seller;  Gris,  Vuillard,  Roger 
de  la  Fresnaye  (one  sold  for  700,000  francs)  were  markedly 
successful.  One  of  the  most  marked  features  of  the  year  was 
the  improvement  in  the  sale  of  those  19th-century  masters 
who  do  not  come  within  any  of  the  well  defined  movements. 

There  were  several  sales  of  important  collections:  at 
Brunswick  in  March  80  paintings  from  the  collection  of  the 
Duke  of  Brunswick-Luneberg  were  disposed  of  at  prices 
which  were  not  remarkable,  and  the  following  month  saw 
the  sale  at  Brussels  of  several  important  items  from  the 
collection  of  M.  Burthoul.  In  Brussels  also,  a  month  earlier, 
a  Rubens,  "  The  African  Magi,"  sold  for  the  equivalent  of 
£1,700.  (See  also  ART  EXHIBITIONS).  (B.  DR.). 

ARTS     COUNCIL     OF     GREAT     BRITAIN. 

The  Arts  Council  in  1950  was  concerned  increasingly  with 
preparations  for  the  Festival  of  the  Arts,  a  part  of  the  Festival 
of  Britain  195 1 .  By  the  end  of  the  year  most  of  the  detailed 
plans  had  been  made  and  the  programmes  of  the  individual 
festivals  in  different  parts  of  the  country  had  been  distributed 
to  the  press  all  over  the  world.  In  addition,  the  outline 
programme  for  the  London  Season  of  the  Arts,  which  was 
designed  as  a  concentration  of  the  finest  national  productions 
in  music,  theatre,  opera  and  ballet,  and  the  visual  arts,  in 
May  and  June  1951,  had  been  given  its  main  shape. 

There  was  some  valuable  co-operation  between  local 
authorities  and  the  Arts  Council  during  the  year.  The  most 
encouraging  example  was  that  of  the  Bristol  corporation 
which  undertook,  for  the  first  time,  financial  support  for  the 
city's  Theatre  Royal,  the  oldest  theatre  in  the  country,  which 
the  Arts  Council  had  managed  since  1942.  The  trustees  who 
own  the  theatre,  the  Arts  Council  as  managers,  and  the 
corporation  representing  the  citizens  of  Bristol  thus  came 
together  for  the  first  time  in  active  co-operation  for  the 
running  of  the  theatre,  which  was  now  also  the  home  of  an 
Old  Vic  company. 

In  Jan.  1950,  the  report  was  published  of  the  House  of 
Commons  Select  Committee  on  Estimates,  which  had 
enquired  into  the  council's  work  on  the  basis  of  evidence 
submitted  during  the  autumn  of  1949.  The  conclusions  and 
recommendations  of  the  committee  were  positive  and 
encouraging,  although  they  suggested  that  overheads  were 
higher  than  they  need  be  and  they  queried  the  amount  of 
money  spent  in  grants  to  metropolitan  ventures  as  opposed 
to  provincial  ones.  Both  these  points  were  answered  in  a 
reply,  published  later  in  the  year,  where  it  was  explained  that 
the  council's  administrative  costs  were  incurred  by  no  means 
only  for  the  machinery  of  giving  financial  help  but,  to  a  very 
large  extent,  for  the  purpose  of  providing  technical  help  and 
advice  apart  from  money  to  the  many  enquirers,  corporate 
and  individual,  who  approach  the  council  for  help.  It  was 
also  explained  that  the  subsidies  given  for  London  theatre 
companies,  orchestras  and  art  exhibitions  must,  in  the  nature 
of  things,  be  larger  in  amount  than  the  grants  given  to  corres- 
ponding bodies  in  the  provinces,  and  the  following  figures 
were  given  to  show  the  actual  number  of  ventures  financed 
outside  London  during  the  previous  year:  111  Arts  Council 
exhibitions  in  257  places  outside  London,  156  music  societies 
guaranteed  against  loss,  63  arts  clubs  associated  with  the 
council  and  receiving  help  of  some  kind  and  417  plays  given  with 
the  council's  support  by  28  different  companies.  (M.  C  G.) 

ARUBA:  see  NETHERLANDS  OVERSEAS  TERRITORIES. 
ASCENSION  ISLAND:  see  SAINT  HELENA. 


ASSASSINATIONS    ASTRONOMY 


67 


ASSASSINATIONS.  Actual  or  attempted  assassina- 
tions during  1950  included  the  following: 

Feb.  20.  Mexico  City.  Jose  Gallostra,  Spanish  minister 
to  Bolivia,  was  shot  dead. 

March  3.  Saigon,  Indo-China.  Do  Van  Nang,  leader  of 
the  Vietnamese  youth  movement,  was  assassinated. 

March  9.  Beirut,  Lebanon.  Tewfik  Hamdan,  a  Syrian 
Nationalist,  fired  several  shots  at  Riad  Bey  es  Sulh,  Lebanese 
prime  minister,  at  a  banquet.  Riad  Bey  escaped  injury,  but 
several  of  the  other  guests  were  killed  or  wounded.  The 
assailant  was  condemned  to  death  on  May  23. 

April  28.  Singapore.  A  grenade  thrown  at  Sir  Franklin 
Gimson,  the  governor,  exploded  harmlessly. 

April  28.  Saigon,  Indo-China.  Marcel  Bazin,  deputy  chief 
of  security  services  in  southern  Vietnam,  was  shot  dead  by  a 
Vietminh  rebel. 

June  5.  Saigon,  Indo-China.  Vuong  Quang  Nhuong, 
Vietnam  minister  of  education,  was  wounded  when  an 
assailant  fired  at  his  car. 

July  3.  Saigon,  Indo-China.  Truong  Van,  editor  of  the 
Vietnamese  nationalist  newspaper  Anh  Sang,  was  shot  by  a 
terrorist  at  his  home. 

July  18.  Saigon,  Indo-China.  Henri  Bonvicini,  editor  of 
Saigon  Presse,  was  shot  and  seriously  wounded. 

July  31.  Damascus,  Syria.  Lieut.  Colonel  Mohammed 
Nasser,  c.  in  c.,  Syrian  air  force,  was  shot  by  unidentified 
assailants;  he  died  in  hospital. 

Aug.  18.  Seraing,  near  Liege,  Belgium.  Julien  Lahaut, 
Communist  leader,  was  shot  dead  by  two  unknown  persons. 

Oct.  30.  Beirut,  Lebanon.  General  Sami  Hinnawi,  who 
organized  the  coup  d'etat  in  Syria  on  Aug.  14,  1949,  was  shot 
dead  at  a  tram  stop.  A  Syrian  was  arrested. 

Nov.  1.  Washington,  D.C.  Two  Puerto  Rican  nationalists 
tried  to  shoot  their  way  into  Blair  house,  President  Truman's 
temporary  residence.  One  was  shot  dead  and  the  other 
wounded  by  the  guard. 

Nov.  13.  Caracas,  Venezuela.  Lieut.  Colonel  Carlos 
Delgado  Chalbaud,  acting  president,  was  shot  dead.  General 
Rafael  Urbina,  leader  of  the  assassins,  was  later  killed 
while  trying  to  escape  from  custody. 

ASSOCIATION  FOOTBALL  :  see  FOOTBALL. 

ASTRONOMY.  Solar  System.  For  times  of  expanding 
horizons  in  astronomy,  the  solar  system  received  unusual 
attention  in  1950.  As  the  first  discovery  regarding  the  system 
made  with  the  200  in.  Hale  telescope  at  Mount  Palomar, 
California,  G.  P.  Kuiper  found  the  diameter  of  Pluto,  the 
outermost  known  planet,  to  be  about  3,600  mi.  The  sur- 
prising consequence  was,  assuming  a  "  normal  "  density, 
that  Pluto's  mass  would  be  about  one-tenth  of  the  Earth's. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  perturbation  of  Neptune  which  had 
been  ascribed  to  Pluto  had  previously  given  the  mass  of 
Pluto  as  about  nine-tenths  the  Earth's.  Kuiper  also  announced 
that  observations  (at  the  McDonald  observatory,  Texas)  had 
yielded  a  diameter  of  27,700  mi.  for  Neptune,  the  long- 
accepted  value  having  been  3 1,000  mi.  The  asteroid  dis- 
covered in  1949  by  W.  Baade,  using  the  48  in.  Palomar 
Schmidt  camera,  was  given  the  name  Icarus.  Its  calculated 
orbit  showed  that  it  made  the  nearest  approach  to  the  Sun 
of  any  known  member  of  the  solar  system;  so  the  perturb- 
ations of  the  orbit  were  expected  to  yield  an  improved 
determination  of  the  mass  of  Mercury. 

Analysis  of  the  performance  of  a  number  of  quartz-crystal 
clocks  used  for  the  Greenwich  time  service  was  interpreted 
by  H.  F.  Finch  as  showing  an  annual  fluctuation  in  the  rate 
of  rotation  of  the  Earth  such  that,  relative  to  uniform  time, 
it  is  about  0  •  06  sec.  slow  in  spring  and  about  the  same  amount 
fast  in  autumn. 


A  30-ft. -aperture  steer  able  paraboloid  used  in  radio  astronomy  at 
the  Jodrell  Bank  Experimental  station^  Cheshire. 

A  fresh  discussion  by  G.  M.  Clemence  of  all  the  observa- 
tional evidence  showed  that  the  relativity  effects  in  planetary 
orbits  agreed  well  with  the  predictions  of  Einstein's  theory. 
This  was  important  because  other  predictions,  whose  agree- 
ment with  pbservation  was  still  in  doubt,  concerned  the 
behaviour  of  light;  it  was  more  understandable  that  Einstein's 
theory  might  be  deficient  in  this  regard,  than  in  its  treatment 
of  planetary  motion. 

J.  H.  Oort  gave  a  new  theory  of  the  origin  of  comets, 
briefly  as  follows.  At  some  time  in  the  past  a  planet  between 
Mars  and  Jupiter  exploded  into  fragments,  a  small  proportion 
forming  the  meteors  and  asteroids.  Of  the  main  bulk,  about 
90%  was  lost  into  interstellar  space,  but  some  3  %  was  thrown 
into  orbits  having  large  major  axes  up  to  about  200,000 
astronomical  units.  These  latter  constituted  a  store  of  some 
10U  comets  at  an  average  distance  of  about  150,000  astrono- 
mical units  from  the  Sun.  At  such  distances,  perturbations 
produced  by  other  stars  continually  give  some  of  them 
velocities  that  bring  them  into  the  vicinity  of  the  Sun  and  so 
form,  in  the  first  instance,  what  are  observed  as  long-period 
comets.  Some  of  these  are  in  turn  perturbed  by  the  planets 
so  as  to  become  short-period  comets. 

The  quantitative  results  agreed  with  observation  in  a 
satisfactory  way  and  accounted  for  some  hitherto  unexplained 
cometary  phenomena.  Oort  utilized  much  known  work,  his 
own  important  contribution  being  to  demonstrate  the 
significance  of  stellar  perturbations  of  cometary  orbits. 

Two  years  previously,  W.  H.  Ramsey  had  given  a  new 
theory  of  the  internal  constitution  of  the  Earth,  according  to 
which  the  existence  of  a  "  core  "  is  due  to  a  phase  change  of 
the  material  to  a  metallic  state,  brought  about  by  pressure, 
and  not  to  a  variation  of  chemical  composition.  He  had 
extended  the  theory  to  other  terrestrial  planets.  In  1950  he 


68 


ATHLETICS 


and  M.  J.  Ligh thill  elaborated  it  to  show  that  a  planet  in  a 
certain  mass-range  could  pass  catastrophically  from  one 
internal  configuration  to  another.  This  could  have  happened 
to  the  Earth  or  Venus  and  was  tentatively  suggested  as  the 
"  explosion  "  that  produced  the  meteors  in  the  solar  system 
(though  it  could  scarcely  have  been  sufficiently  energetic  for 
the  other  requirements  of  Oort's  work).  Ramsey  also  exten- 
ded his  treatment  of  the  behaviour  of  matter  under  pressure 
so  as  to  obtain  an  apparently  satisfactory  theory  of  the 
constitution  of  the  major  planets,  which  also  gave  fresh  light 
on  the  relation  between  the  planetary  and  white-dwarf 
states  of  "  cold  "  matter. 

Sun.  D.  H.  Menzel  gave  a  comprehensive  theory  of  the 
motion  of  ionized  matter  in  a  weak  general  magnetic  field  of 
the  Sun.  He  supposed  such  a  field  to  exist  and  derived  a 
rather  complex  picture  of  the  behaviour  of  the  Sun's  outer 
atmosphere.  This,  he  suggested,  is  being  continually  replen- 
ished by  material  ejected  near  the  poles  by  the  "  spicules  " 
discovered  by  W.  O.  Roberts,  the  material  returning  to  the 
Sun's  surface  along  paths  determined  by  electromagnetic 
forces.  Menzel  suggested  that  the  termination  of  some  of 
these  paths  produce  sunspots  and  that  the  downward 
moving  material  itself  forms  prominences  of  the  various 
sorts  that  he  had  re-classified  on  the  basis  of  the  cinema- 
tography of  solar  activity  carried  out  by  him  and  his  col- 
leagues at  Climax  (Colorado,  U.S.A.).  However,  besides 
the  difficulties  of  the  electromagnetic  theory,  there  was  that 
of  knowing  whether  all  the  material  of  the  prominences,  etc., 
was  being  observed,  or  only  a  part  v.hose  physical  condition 
happened  to  render  it  more  luminous. 

Theories  were  current  which,  contrary  to  earlier  ideas, 
tentatively  ascribed  cosmic  rays  to  a  solar  origin.  Also  some 
observations  showed  an  apparent  dependence  of  cosmic-ray 
intensities  upon  solar  activity.  If  substantiated,  this  might 
not,  however,  show  that  any  cosmic  rays  come  from  the 
Sun.  It  might  only  show  that  the  disturbance,  due  to  solar 
activity,  of  the  magnetic  field  near  the  Earth  affects  the  paths 
of  rays  coming  from  elsewhere. 

Stars.  The  huge  distension  of  red  giant  stars  had  long  been 
a  perplexity  to  astrophysicists.  F.  Hoyle  and  R.  A.  Lyttleton, 
Li  Hen  and  M.  Schwarzschild,  and  C.  M.  ai?d  H.  Bondi 
explained  it  by  a  non-uniformity  of  composition.  According 
to  their  calculations,  a  red  giant  has  an  oy  ter  region  containing 
a  small  percentage  of  the  mass  composed  mainly  of  hydrogen, 
the  rest  of  the  interior  having  a  large  helium  content,  and  this 
model  has  a  far  greater  radius  than  that  of  the  same  material 
if  uniformly  mixed.  The  helium  was  presumed  to  be  that 
produced  by  the  transmutation  of  hydrogen  in  the  energy- 
generating  process,  but  the  origin  of  the  two  regions  required 
further  investigation. 

H.  D.  Babcock,  who  in  1947  had  published  the  first 
measurement  of  the  magnetic  field  of  a  star  that  had  ever 
been  made,  was  able  by  1950  to  announce  that  he  had  detected 
a  general  magnetic  field  for  at  least  25  stars.  He  estimated 
the  fields  by  polarization  measurements  on  the  spectra.  It 
had  to  be  supposed  that  the  field  would  be  detected  only  if 
the  magnetic  axis  were  fairly  near  to  the  sight-line.  The  polar 
magnetic  fields  were  found  to  be  several  thousand  gauss  (that 
of  the  Earth  being  0  •  6  and  of  the  Sun,  if  any,  less  than  about 
50  gauss).  Babcock  found  the  field  to  be  usually  variable  and 
in  four  stars  to  be  periodically  reversed  in  polarity.  One 
suggestion  was  that  the  magnetic  axis  makes  a  large  angle 
with  the  axis  of  rotation,  so  that  the  **  magnetic  aspect "  of 
the  star  varies  during  rotation. 

The  spectra  of  the  stars  exhibiting  a  magnetic  field  showed 
certain  peculiarities.  Some  of  these  might  be  explained,  were 
it  possible  for  the  star,  as  it  rotates,  to  present  to  view  regions 
of  different  phemical  composition. 

Radio  Astronomy.  The  localized  sources,  discovered  a  few 


years  previously,  of  some  of  the  galactic  radio-noise  came  to 
be  called  **  radio-stars.'*  The  view  was  gaining  ground  that  a 
large  proportion  of  all  the  "  noise  "  came  from  such  sources, 
those  individually  recognized  being  the  nearest  or  most 
intense.  Australian  workers  obtained  possible  identifications 
of  three  such  sources  with  positions  of  certain  galactic 
nebulae,  but  the  majority  were  not  identifiable  with  any 
known  objects  in  the  sky. 

The  intensity  of  a  "  radio-star  "  observed  at  a  particular 
station  had  been  found  to  show  rapid  fluctuation.  Comparing 
simultaneous  observations  at  different  stations,  British 
workers  showed  that  this  is  some  form  of  "  twinkling  "  caused 
by  the  Earth's  atmosphere.  C.  G.  Little  gave  a  new  diffraction 
theory  of  twinkling  applicable  both  to  this  and  the  more 
familiar  optical  phenomenon. 

A.  Unsold  suggested  that  "  radio-stars  "  may  be  stars  of 
some  unusual  kind,  probably  of  low  luminosity  and  low  sur- 
face temperature,  but  with  disturbed  regions  in  their  surface 
layers.  Others  thought  that  they  may  be  normal  stars, 
emitting  radio  waves  in  the  same  way  as  the  Sun,  but  with 
much  greater  intensity.  Yet  others  suggested  that  the  radio 
waves  come  from  electrons  trapped  in  a  star's  magnetic  field 
and  not  from  a  star  itself. 

General.  The  progress  reported  in  an  article  like  this, 
which  is  only  a  selection  from  much  material,  tends  to  be 
that  depending  upon  special  observations  and  related  theories. 
In  general,  however,  the  special  observations  could  be  inter- 
preted only  by  using  the  results  of  the  basic  programmes  of 
work  being  carried  out  by  observatories  all  over  the  world, 
often  with  international  co-operation.  Though  these  results, 
comprising  tables,  catalogues,  spectroscopic  data  and  various 
standards,  receive  little  mention,  it  must  be  appreciated  that 
they  represent  a  large  proportion  of  any  year's  work  in 
astronomy.  To  cite  only  two  examples:  Yale  university 
observatory  announced  the  completion  in  1950  of  a  catalogue 
of  the  positions  and  proper  motions  of  about  128,000  stars 
in  particular  zones  of  the  sky;  the  work  had  taken  23  years 
and  had  utilized  about  500,000  measurements.  Charlotte  E. 
Moore,  in  continuation  of  previous  work,  published  an 
extensive  ultra-violet  multiplet  table  for  selected  spectra  of 
the  first  23  elements  in  the  periodic  table. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  A.  Armitage,  A  Century  of  Astronomy  (London, 
1950);  Martin  Johnson,  Astronomy  of  Stellar  Energy  and  Decay  (Lon- 
don, 1950);  W.  H.  McCrea,  Physics  of  the  Sun  and  Stars  (London,  1950); 
W.  M.  Smart,  Some  Famous  Stars  (London,  1950).  (W.  H.  McC.) 

ATHLETICS.  Two  great  athletic  gatherings,  both  of 
them  convened  only  once  in  the  four-year  span  of  an  Olym- 
piad, were  the  highlights  of  the  1950  season:  in  February 
the  fourth  Empire  Games  (</.v.)  were  staged  at  Auckland, 
New  Zealand;  and  in  August  more  than  400  athletes  from 

23  countries,  including  the  U.S.S.R.,  competed  in  the  fourth 
European  Games  at  the  Heysel  stadium  outside  Brussels. 

The  chief  surprise  at  the  European  championships  was 
the  failure  of  the  Swedes  in  events  such  as  the  1,500m.  and 
the  steeplechase,  which  had  long  been  regarded  as  their 
strongholds;  in  contrast  the  national  teams  of  Finland, 
France,  Italy  and  Great  Britain  acquitted  themselves  notably. 
Eleven  countries  between  them  supplied  the  victors  in  the 

24  men's  and  10  women's  titles  down  for  decision.    In  the 
men's  events  Czechoslovakia,  France  and  Italy  each  won 
three  titles,  and  Great  Britain  secured  six.    The  U.S.S.R. 
won  four  women's  titles,  the  Netherlands  four  (through  the 
individual  brilliance  of  F.  E.  Blankers-Koen),  Britain  two 
and  France  one.    On  a  combined  reckoning  Great  Britain, 
whose  representatives  also  won  three  silver  and  six  third-place 
medals,  came  out  in  front  with  eight  gold  medals  in  all, 
against  the  U.S.S.R.'s  six  and  France's  and  the  Netherlands' 
four  each. 


ATHLETICS 


69 


f  '  •• 


E.  McDonald  Bailey ',  Great  Britain,  (left)  winning  his  JOG  yd.  event  in  the  triangulur  athletic  context  between  Great  Britain,  the  Benelux 

countries  and  the  United  States  at  the  White  City,  London,  AUK.  1950. 


The  high  standard  of  competition  at  Brussels  was  well 
reflected  because  in  nine  events  the  winning  performances 
were  superior  to  the  Olympic  records.  There  were  signs  of  a 
coming  challenge  to  American  supremacy  in  events  which 
have  had  no  great  tradition  among  the  European  countries. 
Long-distance  track  events  and  javelin-throwing  have  always 
been  the  preserve  of  the  European;  but  it  now  seemed  that 
a  threat  was  developing  in  such  events  as  the  pole  vault  and 
the  400  m.  hurdles. 

The  outstanding  figure  of  the  European  championships  was 
the  prodigious  Czech  athlete,  Emil  Zatopek.  In  the  10,000  m. 
winning  by  almost  a  lap,  he  beat  his  own  listed  world's 
record  of  29  min.  21-2  sec.  by  9  •  2  sec.  The  next  day,  winning 
his  heat,  he  qualified  for  the  5,000m.  final;  and  there  he 
met  the  Olympic  champion,  Gaston  ReifT  of  Belgium. 
Reiff  had  to  give  up  the  unequal  struggle  when  Zatopek 
tore  past  him  in  the  penultimate  lap,  to  record  a  time  beaten 
only  by  G.  Hagg,  the  Swedish  world's  record-holder. 

E.  Bally  (France),  winner  of  the  100  m.,  was  deprived  of  a 
second  victory  in  the  200  m.  by  the  fine  sprinting  of  Britain's 


last-minute  substitute,  B.  Shenton.  This  unexpected  success  was 
supported  by  further  British  victories  in  the  400  m.  and  800  m. 
by  D.  C.  Pugh  and  H.  J.  Parlett,  who  made  records  of  47  •  3  sec. 
and  1  min.  50  •  5  sec.  In  the  1 ,500  m.  the  world  record-holder, 
L.  Strand  (Sweden),  was  overcome  by  nervousness  and  left  the 
track  when  only  300  m.  had  been  covered;  and  W.  F.  Slykhuis 
(Netherlands)  won  in  the  record  time  of  3  min.  47-2  sec. 

The  favourite,  A.  Marie  (France),  won  the  high  hurdles  in 
14  6  sec.  with  J.  Bulanchik  (U.S.S.R.),  who  had  reputedly 
returned  14 -2  sec.  in  his  own  country,  a  disappointing  fifth. 
The  longer  hurdling  event  over  400  m.  was  dominated  by  the 
Italian  A.  Filiput,  who  won  in  the  record  time  for  the  16 
years  of  the  championships,  51 '9  sec.  Two  months  later 
Filiput  broke  the  world's  hurdle  record  for  the  longer  440  yd. 
race  (52  •  2  sec.  jointly  held  by  the  Americans  L.  B.  Cochran 
and  R.  F.  Ault)  at  Milan  with  another  run  in  51-9  sees. 
The  standards  achieved  in  the  field  events  at  Heysel,  except 
in  the  long  jump,  were  excellent:  in  the  case  of  the  hammer- 
and  discus-throwing  they  surpassed  those  at  Wembley 
during  the  1948  Olympic  Games. 


Event 
100yd.    . 
220yd.    . 
440yd.    . 
880yd.    . 
One  mile 
Three  miles 
High  hurdles    . 
Quarter-mile  hurdles 
High  jump 
Pole  vault 
Long  jump 
Hop,  step  and  jump  . 
Shot-put 
Discus     . 
Hammer . 
Javelin     . 


BRITISH  ATHLETIC   PERFORMANCES,    1939  AND  1950 
Best  Performance 


Tenth  Best  Performance 


1939 
9-7  sec. 
21 -8  sec. 
47-6  sec. 
1  min.  52- 1  sec. 
4  min.  07-4  sec. 
14  min.  08-0  sec. 
14-7  sec. 
55  4  sec. 
6  ft.  2J  in. 
12ft.  7  in. 
23  ft.  10i  in. 
47  ft.  3  in. 
46ft.  IJin. 
144  ft.  6  in. 
165  ft.  7 
202  ft.  2 


Jin. 
im. 


1950 
9-5  sec. 
21-0  sec. 
47 -6  sec. 
1  min.  51-2  sec.* 
4  min.  06-8  sec. 
14  min.  1 1  -2  sec. 
14-7  sec. 
53-0  sec. 
6  ft.  7  in. 
13ft.0l  in. 
24  ft.  2J  in. 
48  ft.  5J  in. 
51  ft.  llj  in. 
154ft.  6i  in. 
180ft.  U  in. 
202  ft.  4^  in. 


1939 

10-1  sec. 
22 -2  sec. 
50 -4  sec. 
1  min.  57-0  sec. 
4 min.  21  -6  sec. 
14  min.  38-0  sec. 
15-9  sec. 
59 -2  sec. 
5  ft.  1 1  in. 
11  ft.  3  in. 
23  ft.  0|  in. 
44ft.  IJin. 
42  ft.  Oi  in. 
127  ft.  0  in. 
133ft.  7 Jin. 
166ft.  10  in. 


1950 
9-9  sec. 
22 -2  sec. 
49 -6  sec. 
1  min.  54 '7  sec. 
4min.  16-6  sec. 
14 min.  26-4  sec. 
15-6sec. 
57-2  sec. 
6  ft.  1  in. 
11  ft.  3  in. 
23  ft.  1  in. 
45  ft.  6  in. 
44  ft.  7  in. 
137ft.  5  in. 
'39  ft.  1  in. 
177  ft.  8i  in. 


70 


ATOMIC  ENERGY 


In  this  season  Great  Britain  complied  for  the  first  time 
with  the  standard  European  practice  of  extending  dual  inter- 
national meetings  over  two  days.  In  its  first  such  meeting 
Britain  defeated  France  in  Paris  by  106  points  to  99.  A  week 
later  Sweden  defeated  France  by  a  margin  of  three  points, 
thus  leaving  the  problem  of  current  European  supremacy 
unresolved.  The  Swedish  national  sporting  paper  Idrottsbladet 
however,  in  a  hypothetical  international  match  between 
Britain  and  Sweden,  acknowledged  a  defeat  by  14  points. 

Great  Britain's  athletic  recovery  may  perhaps  most 
succinctly  be  judged  by  comparing  the  achievements  of  1939 
with  those  of  1950.  (See  Table). 

The  table,  in  which  to  give  a  truer  picture  allowances  have 
been  made  for  performances  over  metric  distances,  clearly 
shows  that,  with  the  single  exception  of  the  best  1939  three 
miles,  every  other  one  of  that  season's  leading  performances 
were  equalled  or  surpassed  in  1950;  and  this  already  significant 
overall  trend  would  soon  receive  the  full  impact  of  the 
Amateur  Athletic  association  scheme  carried  out  under 
900  qualified  honorary  coaches.  (N.  McW.) 

United  States.  Jim  Fuchs,  Yale  university  and  New  York 
Athletic  club,  who  won  the  five  national  Amateur  Athletic 
union,  National  Collegiate  Athletic  association  and  Inter- 
collegiate A. A. A. A.  shot-put  titles  in  1950,  continued  to 
improve  on  the  world  record,  his  best  throw  of  58  ft.  lOf  in. 
being  made  in  Sweden  in  August. 

Dick  Attlesey,  University  of  Southern  California  and  Los 
Angeles  Athletic  club,  bettered  Harrison  Dillard's  world 
record  early  in  1950  when  he  was  tim^d  at  13-5  sec.  for  the 
120-yd.  event,  and  later  he  surpassed  Spec  Towns's  110-m. 
record  in  winning  the  national  A.A.U.  outdoor  title  in 
13  -6  sec. 

At  the  meeting  of  A.A.U.  officials  in  December,  Don 
Gehrmann  was  finally  declared  winner  of  the  Wanamaker 
mile  of  the  previous  Jan.  28.  Gehrmann  and  Fred  Wilt  had 
run  an  apparent  dead-heat.  Wilt  recorded  the  fastest  5,000-m. 
time  ever  put  up  by  an  American  when  he  won  in  14  min. 
26-8  sec.  overseas  after  capturing  the  A.A.U.  championship. 

Mai  Whitfield  of  the  U.S.  air  force  proved  to  be  the 
best  half-miler  for  the  third  consecutive  year  and  equalled 
the  world  record  of  1  min.  49  •  2  sec.  helc}  by  Sydney  Wooder- 
son  of  Great  Britain.  (See  also  EMPIRE  GAMES.)  (T.  V.  H.) 

ATOMIC  ENERGY.  President  f rupnan's  announce- 
ment in  January  that  the  United  States  Atomic  Energy 
commission  would  continue  to  work  upon  the  development 
of  the  so-called  hydrogen  bomb, aroused  strong  reaction. 
There  was  considerable  repugnance  at  the  thought  of  using 
a  weapon  variously  estimated  to  be  equivalent  in  explosive 
power  to  something  between  100  and  1,000  atomic  bombs. 
The  principal  objection  raised  was  that  it  was  difficult  to  con- 
ceive of  situations  in  which  the  use  of  so  powerful  a  bomb 
would  be  at  all  justifiable.  It  was,  however,  accepted  by  many 
people  that,  in  the  present  international  situation,  there  was 
no  real  alternative  to  developing  the  weapon  once  the 
possibility  of  its  existence  had  been  revealed.  The  war  in 
Korea  led  to  suggestions  from  various  quarters  that  atomic 
bombs  should  be  used  there.  The  U.S.  authorities,  however, 
announced  that  they  had  no  intention  of  doing  so. 

The  fourtjn  World  Power  conference  was  held  in  London  in 
July.  One  session  was  devoted  to  nuclear  power.  Sir  John 
Cockcroft,  director  of  the  British  Atomic  Energy  Research 
establishment,  outlined  the  scientific  and  technical  problems 
that  would  have  to  be  solved  before  any  nuclear  power  plants 
of  any  magnitude  could  be  constructed.  He  estimated  that 
the  building  of  the  necessary  experimental  nuclear  reactors 
would  probably  take  some  three  to  five  years.  A  further  five 
years  or  so  wpuld  probably  elapse  before  sufficient  experience 
had  been  gained  with  these  to  enable  any  large-scale  develop- 


ment of  nuclear  power  to  be  embarked  upon.  W.  F.  Davidson 
and  R.  Liljeblad  both  discussed  the  economic  aspects  of  the 
question  and  expressed  the  view  that,  at  least  for  several 
decades,  it  would  not  be  possible  for  nuclear  power  plants  to 
compete  in  cost  with  those  using  normal  fuels.  This  would 
mean  that  nuclear  power  plants  would,  in  the  first  instance, 
be  of  value  in  situations  which  made  full  use  of  their  extremely 
low  fuel  consumption.  Such  applications  would  be,  for 
example,  a  large  central  electrical  power  station  situated  in  a 
region  remote  from  supplies  of  other  kinds  of  fuel  in  which  the 
cost  of  transportation  of  fuel  would  be  abnormally  high,  or 
a  marine  propulsion  unit  where  the  increase  in  cruising 
radius  and  the  saving  in  space  normally  devoted  to  carrying 
fuel  supplies  would  be  of  value. 

In  December,  the  atomic  energy  authorities  of  Canada, 
the  United  Kingdom  and  the  U.S.  released  certain  informa- 
tion upon  low-power  nuclear  reactors,  including  those 
nuclear  properties  of  uranium  which  are  important  in  the 
design  and  operation  of  such  reactors.  Values  were  given 
for  the  cross  sections  for  fission,  capture  and  scattering  of 
uranium  235  and  238  for  low-energy  neutrons.  It  was  also 
stated  that  on  the  average  2-5  secondary  neutrons  are 
emitted  when  fission  occurs  as  a  result  of  the  absorption  of 
a  low-energy  neutron  by  uranium  235. 

Constructional  details  of  *"  Gleep,"  the  low-energy  reactor 
at  Harwell,  were  also  described. 

British  Technical  Developments.  In  1950  the  Ministry  of 
Supply  announced  the  selection  of  a  site  at  Aldermaston,  near 
Reading,  for  a  seventh  atomic  energy  establishment.  Those 
already  in  existence  were  the  central  research  establishment  at 
Harwell,  Berkshire,  the  radiochemical  centre  at  Amersham, 
Buckinghamshire,  the  production  headquarters  at  Risley, 
Derbyshire,  the  uranium  refinery  at  Springfields,  Stafford- 
shire, the  plutonium  production  centre  at  Sellafield,  Cumber- 
land, and  a  site  under  development  at  Capenhurst,  Cheshire. 
The  purpose  of  this  last  establishment  and  of  that  projected 
at  Aldermaston  had  not  been  announced  by  the  end  of  1950. 

At  Harwell,  the  production  of  radio-isotopes  in  "  Bepo," 
the  large  pile,  was  expanded  and  shipments  were  made  at  the 
rate  of  about  500  a  month.  Shipments  were  made  to  South 
Africa  by  loading  radio-isotopes  into  the  wingtips  of  an  air- 
craft. This  considerably  reduces  the  weight  of  shielding 
required  and  so  reduces  the  cost  of  transportation.  During 
the  year,  much  attention  was  devoted  to  increasing  the 
industrial  uses  of  radio-isotopes. 

Progress  was  made  in  the  chemical  engineering  and  metal- 
lurgical problems  associated  with  the  design  of  more  advanced 
types  of  nuclear  reactors.  It  was  announced  that  designs 
were  being  prepared  for  experimental  reactors  which  could 
serve  as  prototypes  for  nuclear  power  plants  and  in  particular 
for  a  possible  marine  propulsion  unit. 

In  April  a  linear  accelerator  capable  of  producing  electrons 
with  an  energy  of  3  •  5  million  electron-volts  was  brought  into 
operation.  It  consisted  essentially  of  a  hollow  metal  tube  of 
special  design.  Pulses  of  electro-magnetic  waves  of  very  short 
wavelength  were  sent  down  the  tube  simultaneously  with  a 
beam  of  electrons.  The  electro-magnetic  radiation  exerted 
a  force  on  the  electrons  which  were  accelerated  thereby  and 
attained  very  high  velocities.  This  type  of  instrument  was 
developed  as  a  result  of  the  great  advances  made  in  high 
frequency  techniques  during  the  development  of  radar. 

During  the  summer  a  large  electro-magneiic  isotope 
separation  plant  was  completed.  It  was  capable  of  producing 
gramme  quantities  of  separated  isotopes  of  the  heavy  elements. 
In  this  apparatus  a  beam  of  electrically  charged  atoms  of 
the  element  concerned  was  deflected  by  a  powerful  magnetic 
field.  The  deflection  depended  upon  the  mass  of  the  atom. 
Consequently,  different  isotopes  were  deflected  by  different 
amounts  and  could  be  collected  separately. 


ATOMIC   ENERGY 


71 


Commonwealth.  Reports  were  given  during  the  year  on 
the  work  that  was  being  done  by  the  Canadian  atomic  energy 
project.  In  addition  to  a  considerable  amount  of  research 
work  in  nuclear  physics,  a  new  radiochemical  laboratory 
was  completed.  It  was  capable  of  supplying  all  Canadian 
demands  for  radio-isotopes  and  in  1950  was  also  exporting 
to  foreign  firms  and  institutions. 


A  small  inexpensive  Geiger  counter  developed  in  1950  by  the  United 
States  Atomic  Energy  commission. 

In  Australia,  it  was  announced  that  mining  operations 
had  begun  at  the  extensive  uranium  deposits  which  had  been 
found  at  Radium  hill,  270  mi.  from  Adelaide. 

Europe.  In  France,  the  construction  of  a  second  pile  began 
at  Saclay,  near  Paris.  This  site  was  destined  to  become  the 
central  French  atomic  energy  research  establishment.  The 
new  pile,  expected  to  be  completed  in  1951,  was  to  consist  of 
uranium  metal  with  heavy  water  as  the  moderator.  It  was 
to  be  of  a  1,000-kw.  capacity,  which  is  comparable  with  the 
large  Harwell  pile,  but  would  have  a  rather  higher  neutron 
flux.  Various  other  instruments  for  nuclear  research  were 
being  built  at  Saclay,  in  particular  a  cyclotron  and  an  electro- 
static generator.  In  the  course  of  the  year  it  was  announced 
that  a  milligramme  of  pure  plutonium  had  been  isolated 
from  material  irradiated  in  the  low  energy  pile,  "  Zoe," 
at  Fort  le  Chatillon. 

In  Norway,  work  began  upon  the  construction  of  a  low- 
energy  pile  which  was  to  be  made  from  uranium  oxide  and 
heavy  water.  It  would  have  a  power  dissipation  of  about 
100  kw.  The  site  was  at  Kjeller,  15  mi.  from  Oslo.  It  was 
intended  to  use  the  pile  for  research  purposes  and  for  the 
production  of  radio-isotopes.  (J.  L.  Ms.) 

United  States.  The  Hydrogen  Bomb.  More  than  20  years 
before  the  discovery  of  uranium  fission  in  1939,  physicists 
realized  that  vast  amounts  of  energy  could  be  released  by 
the  synthesis  of  helium  from  hydrogen.  If  four  atoms  of 
hydrogen  were  combined  into  one  atom  of  helium  there 
would  be  a  loss  in  mass  of  0-0286  atomic  mass  units.  This, 
in  accordance  with  the  Einstein  equation  for  the  trans- 
formation of  matter  into  energy,  E  =  me2,  would  mean  the 
release  of  2,670,000  ev.  of  energy.  During  the  1930s  astron- 
omers came  to  the  conclusion  that  hydrogen  was  undoubtedly 
the  atomic  fuel  of  the  sun  and  stars  and  equations  were 
written  by  Hans  Bethe  for  the  probable  nuclear  reactions 
occurring  in  the  celestial  bodies.  But  scientists  despaired  of 
duplicating  these  processes  on  earth  since  apparently  they 
could  take  place  only  at  the  high  temperatures  existing  in 
the  interiors  of  the  sun  and  stars.  Because  of  their  dependence 
on  such  temperatures  they  were  named  thermo-nuclear 
reactions.  However,  with  the  discovery  of  uranium  fission  a 
new  possibility  developed.  Even  before  an  atomic  bomb 
had  been  achieved,  J.  Robert  Oppenheimer  and  his  associates 
at  the  United  States  national  scientific  laboratory  at  Los 
Alamos,  New  Mexico,  recognized  that  the  explosion  of  a 


uranium  bomb  would  generate  a  temperature  at  which 
thermo-nuclear  reactions  might  take  place.  It  occurred  to 
them  that  it  might  be  possible  to  build  a  hydrogen  bomb 
which  would  employ  an  atomic  bomb  as  the  detonating  fuse. 

After  World  War  II,  preliminary  studies  were  instituted 
at  Los  Alamos  to  explore  these  possibilities.  It  was  realized 
that  it  was  not  feasible  to  employ  ordinary  hydrogen,  which 
is  a  mixture  of  98%  lightweight  hydrogen  and  2%  deuterium 
or  double-weight  hydrogen.  It  did  appear,  however,  that  a 
hydrogen  bomb  could  be  made  with  deuterium;  or  with 
tritium  or  triple-weight  hydrogen;  or  with  a  combination  of 
deuterium  and  tritium.  Deuterium  could  be  separated  from 
ordinary  hydrogen  by  chemical  means.  However,  tritium 
occurs  in  nature  only  in  infinitesimal  amounts.  But  it  was 
known  that  tritium  could  be  produced  by  subjecting  lithium 
to  neutron  bombardment  in  a  nuclear  reactor  or  uranium 
pile.  It  was  estimated  that  a  given  weight  of  tritium  would 
release  seven  times  as  much  atomic  energy  as  an  equal 
weight  of  plutonium.  One  kilogram  of  tritium  would  be  the 
equivalent  in  explosive  violence  to  140,000  tons  of  T.N.T. — 
the  atomic  bomb  that  devastated  Hiroshima  was  the  equiva- 
lent of  20,000  tons  of  T.N.T. 

Unlike  the  uranium  or  plutonium  bomb,  the  hydrogen 
bomb  would  not  be  limited  in  size  to  any  critical  mass. 
Theoretically  it  appeared  possible  to  produce  a  hydrogen 
bomb  1 ,000  times  as  powerful  as  an  atomic  bomb.  Cost  of 
production  and  difficulties  of  transportation  appeared  to 
be  the  only  limiting  factors.  A  further  possibility  was  the 
construction  of  a  hydrogen  bomb  surrounded  by  some 
material  that  would  be  rendered  highly  radioactive  by 
the  neutrons  released  in  the  bomb  explosion.  The  substance 
most  suitable  for  this  purpose  appeared  to  be  cobalt,  so  that 
the  proposed  weapon  was  designated  a  hydrogen-cobalt  bomb. 
It  was  suggested  that  such  a  bomb  exploded  at  sea  would  release 
great  quantities  of  radioactive  dust  which  would  be  carried 
landward  by  prevailing  winds  to  devastate  vast  areas. 

On  Nov.  28,  1950,  the  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  commission 
announced  that  a  new  plant,  to  be  known  as  the  Savannah 
River  plant,  would  be  built  on  a  250,000  ac.  site  in  Aiken 
and  Barnwell  counties,  South  Carolina,  on  the  Savannah 
river.  It  was  generally  understood  that  the  primary  purpose 
of  this  plant  would  be  the  production  of  material  for  the 
hydrogen  bomb.  Congress  appropriated  $260  million  for 
construction  of  the  new  plant. 

Research.  The  largest  and  most  powerful  nuclear  reactor 
designed  exclusively  for  research  purposes  went  into  operation 
at  the  Brookhaven  National  laboratory  on  Aug.  22,  1950. 
It  was  an  air-cooled  graphite-uranium  pile  which  cost  $25 
million  to  build.  Columbia  university,  New  York  city, 
became  the  possessor  of  the  world's  most  powerful  atom 
smasher  when  its  new  synchro-cyclotron  began  operation 
on  May  2  at  Irvington-on-Hudson.  It  developed  energies 
of  400  million  ev. 

Propulsion  Units.  The  Westinghouse  Electric  corporation 
and  the  General  Electric  company  were  engaged  in  1950, 
under  contracts  with  the  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  commission, 
on  the  design  of  atomic  power  plants  for  use  in  submarines. 
Westinghouse  was  working  on  a  ship  thermal  reactor,  a 
nuclear  reactor  utilizing  slow  neutrons,  while  General  Electric 
was  working  on  a  ship  intermediate  reactor  employing 
neutrons  of  higher  speed.  Early  in  1950  a  technical  advisory 
board  to  the  Oak  Ridge  National  laboratory,  composed  of 
more  than  20  aeronautic  and  nuclear  physicists,  was  organ- 
ized to  accelerate  the  development  of  a  nuclear  power  plant 
for  aeroplanes. 

Radiological  Warfare.  It  had  been  realized  since  1945 
that  the  fission  products  formed  in  a  nuclear  reactor  could  be 
used  to  manufacture  particularly  vicious  forms  of  radio-active 
poison  gases  or  for  the  preparation  of  radio-active  dusts  and 


72 


ATOMIC   ENERGY 


sands.  These  could  be  released  in  various  ways  or  fired  in 
artillery  shells.  The  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  commission  an- 
nounced in  1950  that  it  was  continuing  its  studies  of  radio- 
logical warfare. 

United  States  Atomic  Strength.    The  entire  programme  of 
the  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  commission  was  accelerated  in 

1950.  Fissionable  materials  were  produced  at  the  highest 
rate  of  output  and  the  lowest  unit  cost  on  record.    Procure- 
ment of  both  foreign  and  domestic  ores  was  increased  and 
plans  were  made  to  expand  operations  on  the  Colorado 
plateau.     Planning  and  construction  were  carried  on  for 
new  weapons  tests  at  the  Eniwetok  proving  grounds  in  the 
Pacific.    The  U.S.  air  force  disclosed  that  hundreds  of  men 
had  been  taught  in  a  secret  training  programme  how  to 
handle  atomic  bombs.     The  U.S.   navy  announced  that 
bomber  planes  sufficiently  large  to  carry  atomic  bombs 
had  made  successful  test  landings  on  an  aircraft  carrier. 
Gen.  J.  Lawton  Collins,  chief  of  staff  of  the  U.S.  army, 
said  that  an  artillery  piece  capable  of  firing  atomic  weapons 
and  guided  missiles  with  atomic  war-heads  were  under 
development.   As  1950  drew  to  a  close,  the  U.S.  made  plans 
for  a  tremendous  expansion  of  its  atomic  energy  facilities  in 

1951.  On  Dec.  13,  Senator  Brien  McMahon  outlined  to 
the  senate  a  $1,050  million  programme  for  the  development 
of  new  and  more  effective  atomic  weapons.    This  included 
a  $500  million  plant  to  be  built  near  Paducah,  Kentucky, 
for  the  production  of  uranium  235. 

Civil  Defence.  The  basic  information  required  for  the 
planning  of  civil  defence  against  atomic  attack  was  published 
on  Aug.  12,  1950,  by  the  U.S.  Department  of  Defence  in 
The  Effects  of  Atomic  Weapons.  This  described  in  detail  the 
four  main  sources  of  damage  in  an  atomic  explosion,  namely, 
(1)  the  air  blast  or  shock  wave,  (2)  the  heat  wave  or  thermal 
radiation,  (3)  the  radioactive  rays  or  nuclear  radiations  and 
(4)  the  residual  radioactivity  of  the  fission  fragments.  The 
chief  damage  is  done  by  the  air  blast  or  shock  wave  and  this 
is  greatest  when  the  bomb  is  exploded  in  air  at  an  altitude 
of  about  2,000ft.  Under  such  circumstances  the  average 
limit  of  general  structural  damage  is  roughly  two  miles  in 
all  directions  from  ground  zero,  the  point  directly  under 
the  exploding  bomb. 

On  Sept.  8  the  National  Security  Resources  board  sub- 
mitted a  plan  to  President  Truman  for  the  civil  defence  of 
the  U.S.  On  Dec.  1  President  Truman  created  the  federal 
Civil  Defence  administration  as  a  branch  of  his  executive 
office  and  appointed  former  Governor  Millard  F.  Caldwell, 
Jr.,  of  Florida,  to  head  it.  On  Dec.  4  bills  were  introduced 
into  congress  embodying  the  plan  for  civil  defence  prepared 
by  the  National  Security  Resources  board.  This  called  for 
the  expenditure  of  $3,100  million  over  a  period  of  three  years. 
The  largest  expenditure  foreseen  was  that  of  $2,250  million 
for  communal  air-raid  shelters. 

U.S.  Atomic  Energy  Commission.  On  July  11  President 
Truman  nominated  Gordon  Dean,  a  member  of  the  com- 
mission, to  be  chairman  in  place  of  David  Lilienthal,  whose 
resignation  had  become  effective  on  Feb.  15.  Marion  W. 
Boyer,  vice  president  of  the  Esso  Standard  Oil  company, 
became  general  manager  on  Oct.  25  in  place  of  Carroll  Wilson, 
who  had  resigned. 

International  Deliberations.  Attempts  to  reach  an  inter- 
national agreement  on  the  control  of  atomic  energy  came  to 
an  abrupt  halt  on  Jan.  15,  1950,  when  the  Soviet  deputy 
foreign  minister,  Yakov  Malik,  walked  out  of  a  conference 
of  representatives  of  the  five  permanent  members  of  the 
Security  council  and  Canada  at  Lake  Success.  When  President 
Truman  addressed  the  general  assembly  of  the  United  Nations 
at  Lake  Success  on  Oct.  24,  he  suggested  that  a  new  approach 
might  be  made  to  disarmament  and  the  control  of  atomic 
-energy  by  merging  the  U.N.  Atomic  Energy  commission 


A  cartoon  by  Cummings  in  the  "  Daily  Express "  (London)  in 
March  1950—" Ah!  Dr.  Fuchs' s  successor,  no  doubt." 

and  the  Commission  for  Conventional  Armaments.  When, 
however,  on  Nov.  3  the  political  committee  approved  a 
resolution  calling  on  all  nations  to  accept  the  majority  plan 
for  the  control  of  atomic  energy  and  to  agree  to  a  reduction 
in  armaments,  the  vote  was  47  to  5,  with  the  Soviet  bloc 
casting  the  negative  votes. 

Security  Cases.  On  April  28,  Frederic  Joliot-Curie  was 
dismissed  from  his  post  as  French  high  commissioner  for 
atomic  energy  after  he  had  addressed  the  congress  of  the 
French  Communist  party  saying  that  a  "  true  progressive 
scientist "  would  never  give  any  of  his  knowledge  for  war 
against  Russia.  Professor  Bruno  Pontecorvo,  a  naturalized 
British  subject,  failed  to  return  to  his  post  at  the  British  atomic 
energy  station  at  Harwell  when  his  leave  expired  on  Aug.  31. 
He  had  been  on  holiday  in  Italy  and  it  was  later  learned  that 
he  arrived  at  Helsinki,  Finland,  on  Oct.  23.  George  Strauss, 
minister  of  supply,  told  the  House  of  Commons  on  Nov.  6 
that  he  believed  Pontecorvo  had  gone  to  Russia. 

On  March  1  Klaus  Fuchs  was  sentenced  at  the  central 
criminal  court,  London,  to  14  years'  imprisonment  for 
giving  U.S.  and  British  atomic  secrets  to  the  U.S.S.R.  Fuchs 
had  joined  the  German  Communist  party  in  1932  and  fled 
to  Britain  in  1933.  He  was  naturalized  in  Britain  after  he 
had  worked  on  atomic  energy  projects  in  World  War  II.  It 
was  believed  probable  that  his  treachery  enabled  the  U.S.S.R. 
to  achieve  the  atomic  bomb  at  least  a  year  earlier  that  it 
could  otherwise  have  done.  On  Dec.  9  Harry  Gold,  39,  a 
biochemist,  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  was  sentenced 
in  the  U.S.  to  30  years'  imprisonment  for  acting  as  a  messen- 
ger between  Fuchs  and  Soviet  espionage  agents.  (See  also 
CHEMISTRY;  METALLURGY;  MINERAL  AND  METAL  PRODUC- 
TION; PHYSICS;  X-RAY  AND  RADIOLOGY.)  (D.  Dz.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  Sir  John  Cockcroft,  "  The  Development  of  Power 
from  Nuclear  Energy,"  Transactions,  fourth  World  Power  conference, 
London,  1950;  W.  F.  Davidson,  "  Nuclear  Energy  for  Power  Produc- 
tion," ibid.;  R.  Liljeblad,  "  Some  Economic  and  Technical  Aspects  of 
the  Use  of  Nuclear  Energy  for  Power  Production,"  ibid.;  D.  A.  Keys, 
"  Atomic  Energy  Developments  in  Canada,"  ibid.;  L.  Kowarski, 
"  Le  Progres  de  l'£nergic  Nucleaire  en  France,"  Ibid.;  W.  B.  Lewis, 
"  The  Canadian  Atomic  Energy  Project,"  Bulletin  of  the  Atomic 
Scientists,  Chicago,  May  1950;  G.  Randers,  **  Planning  for  Atomic 
Physics  in  Norway,"  ibid.;  U.S.  Atomic  Energy  Commission,  7th 
semi-annual  Report,  Jan.  1950,  8th  Report,  July  1950,  The  Effects  of 
Atomic  Weapons,  Aug.  1950;  National  Security  Resources  Board, 
United  States  Civil  Defense,  Sept.  1950;  Congressional  Joint  Com- 
mittee on  Atomic  Energy,  The  Hydrogen  Bomb  and  International 
Control:  Technical  and  Background  Information,  July  1950. 


ATTLEE— AUSTRALIA 


73 


ATTLEE,  CLEMENT  RICHARD,  British  states- 
man (b.  London,  Jan.  3,  1883),  was  educated  at  Haileybury 
and  University  college,  Oxford.  After  a  period  of  legal  prac- 
tice, he  was  secretary  of  Toynbee  hall,  London,  and  a 
lecturer  at  Ruskin  college,  Oxford.  In  1913  he  joined  the 
staff  of  the  London  School  of  Economics.  During  World 
War  I  he  served  in  Galiipoli,  Mesopotamia  and  France. 
He  was  first  Labour  mayor  of  Stepney,  London,  1919-20, 
was  elected  M.P.  for  Limehouse  in  1922,  and  in  the  second 
Labour  government  was  chancellor  of  the  duchy  of  Lan- 
caster and  later  postmaster  general.  He  was  deputy  prime 
minister  in  the  wartime  coalition  government  and  became 
prime  minister  when  the  Labour  party  achieved  a  majority 
in  July  1945. 

In  the  general  election  of  Feb.  23,  1950,  the  Labour  party 
was  confirmed  in  power  with  a  small  majority,  and  the 
prime  minister  was  returned  for  West  Walthamstow;  and  on 
Feb.  25  he  accordingly  re-formed  his  ministry.  On  March 
16  he  rejected  Winston  Churchill's  demand  for  a  secret 
session  on  defence.  In  April  he  attended  the  opening  by 
Mrs.  Attlee  of  the  Thames  water  'bus  service  and  spoke 
at  the  Royal  Academy  dinner.  He  had  discussions  with  the 
U.N.  secretary  general,  Trygve  Lie,  in  April  and  May; 
in  May  he  also  conferred  with  the  U.S.  secretary  of  state, 
Dean  Acheson,  and  attended  a  dinner  in  the  latter's  honour 
given  by  the  Pilgrims  of  London.  On  May  28  he  left  for  a 
short  tour  of  the  Loire  chateaux  with  Mrs.  Attlee;  they  were 
later  entertained  by  Joseph  Paul-Boncour,  former  French 
premier.  The  prime  minister  broadcast  once  before  the 
general  election  and  three  times  on  defence.  On  July  31 
he  opened  a  new  ocean  terminal  at  Southampton.  In  Septem- 
ber he  attended  the  82nd  annual  Trades  Union  congress  at 
Brighton  and,  speaking  at  the  Labour  party  conference  at 
Margate  in  October,  rejected  suggestions  that  there  would 
be  a  coalition  government  or  an  immediate  general  election. 
On  Oct.  26  he  took  part  in  the  ceremony  to  mark  the  opening 
of  the  new  House  of  Commons  chamber.  On  Dec.  2  he 
received  the  French  prime  minister  and  foreign  minister,  and 
two  days  later  flew  to  Washington  for  discussions  on  defence 
with  President  Truman.  After  calling  at  Ottawa  on  Dec.  10 
for  consultations  with  the  Canadian  prime  minister,  he 
returned  to  London  on  Dec.  12. 

AURIOL,  VINCENT,  French  statesman  (b.  Revel, 
Haute-Garonne,  Aug.  27,  1884).  After  receiving  his  degree 
of  doctor  of  laws  at  the  faculty  of  law  in  Toulouse,  he  prac- 
tised in  that  city.  In  the  early  1900s  Auriol  edited  the  news- 
paper Le  Midi  socialiste.  Entering  politics,  he  was  constantly 
elected  to  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  as  Socialist  member  for 
Muret  (Haute-Garonne)  from  1914  to  the  collapse  of  France 
in  June  1940.  Auriol's  first  cabinet  post  was  in  the  Blum 
cabinet  in  1936,  when  he  was  appointed  minister  of  finance. 
He  was  minister  of  justice  in  the  Chautemps  cabinet 
(1937-38)  and  held  a  post  in  the  short-lived  Blum  cabinet 
in  1938.  Auriol,  who  was  among  80  French  parliamentarians 
who  on  July  10,  1940,  voted  against  according  full  powers 
to  Marshal  Petain,  was  imprisoned  by  Vichy  authorities  for 
several  months  but  was  later  released.  In  Oct.  1943  he 
escaped  to  London  where  he  joined  General  de  Gaulle's 
movement.  He  became  a  member  of  the  Consultative 
Assembly  set  up  in  Paris  after  its  liberation  in  Aug.  1944. 
In  Nov.  1945  he  was  appointed  minister  of  state  without 
portfolio  in  the  de  Gaulle  government.  He  was  elected 
president  of  the  French  Constituent  Assembly  on  Jan.  31, 
1946,  and  was  twice  re-elected  to  the  post  during  1946. 
On  Jan.  16,  1947,  Auriol  became  the  first  president  under 
the  constitution  of  the  Fourth  Republic;  he  was  elected 
by  452  votes  out  of  883  cast  by  the  combined  houses  of 
National  Assembly  and  Council  of  the  Republic,  meeting 


at  Versailles.  In  April  1947  he  paid  an  official  visit  to  French 
West  Africa.  In  May  1949  he  visited  Algeria.  On  March  7, 
1950,  President  and  Mme.  Auriol  arrived  in  London  on  a 
three-day  state  visit.  At  a  state  banquet  at  Buckingham 
palace  at  which  King  George  referred  to  the  old  ties  uniting 
France  and  Great  Britain,  President  Auriol  said  in  reply 
that  the  happiness  and  peace  of  the  peoples  of  the  world 
largely  depended  on  the  resolution  of  the  two  nations  to 
act  in  concert.  During  May  23-26  Queen  Juliana  and  the 
Prince  of  the  Netherlands  were  the  guests  of  President  and 
Mme.  Auriol  in  Paris  during  an  official  visit  to  France. 

AUSTIN,  WARREN  ROBINSON,  United  States 
lawyer  and  politician  (b.  Highgate,  Vermont,  Nov.  12,  1877), 
graduated  from  the  University  of  Vermont  in  1899,  practised 
law  and  became  active  in  Republican  politics.  Elected  U.S. 
senator  from  Vermont  in  1931  to  fill  an  unexpired  term, 
he  was  re-elected  in  1934  and  1940  but  resigned  to  become 
acting  U.S.  representative  to  the  United  Nations  on  June  5, 
1946.  He  was  confirmed  in  this  appointment  with  the  rank 
of  ambassador  on  Jan.  13,  1947.  He  was  one  of  several  U.S. 
leaders  to  disagree  with  Herbert  Hoover's  suggestion, 
early  in  1950,  that  the  United  Nations  should  proceed 
without  the  Communist  bloc,  which  was  then  boycotting  the 
Security  council.  He  led  the  attack  against  Soviet  efforts  to 
use  the  Security  council  as  a  propaganda  sounding-board 
after  the  Russians  resumed  their  seat  to  take  advantage  of 
their  turn  in  the  presidency  in  Aug.  1950.  He  repeatedly 
opposed  the  Soviet  delegate,  Yakov  Malik  (q.v.),  in  debates 
on  Korea.  On  Aug.  2  he  led  the  fight  against  Malik's  attempt 
to  seat  the  delegation  of  the  Peking  regime  on  a  ruling  from 
the  chair.  He  consistently  held  that  the  U.N.  rulings  of 
1947-49  that  Korea  must  be  unified  by  popular  vote  must 
be  adhered  to. 

AUSTRALIA,  COMMONWEALTH  OF.  Self- 
governing  member  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Nations, 
situated  in  the  southern  hemisphere.  Areas  and  populations 
of  the  six  federated  states,  of  the  Northern  territory  and  of 
the  Australian  Capital  territory  are: 

Population 

States  and  Territories  Area  (1947          (mid-1950 

with  their  capitals  (sq.  mi.)        census)  est.) 

New  South  Wales  (Sydney)  309,433        2,985,464        3,225,242 

Victoria  (Melbourne) 
Queensland  (Brisbane) 
South  Australia  (Adelaide) 
Western  Australia  (Perth) 
Tasmania  (Hobart) 
Northern  Territory  . 
Australian   Capital  Territory 
(Canberra)  . 


87,884 

2,055,252 

2,202,869 

670,500 

1,106,269 

1,183,792 

380,070 

646,216 

700,257 

975,920 

502,731 

557,918 

26,215 

257,117 

272,649 

523,620 

10,866 

15,303 

939 


16,905 


20,772 


•Dec.  31,  1949,  est. 


2,974,581        7,580,820        8,178,802 


Full-blood  aboriginals  were  estimated  at  47,000;  half- 
castes  numbered  24,881  in  1944.  Territories  under  the 
administration  of  the  Commonwealth  but  not  included  in  it 
comprise  Papua  (?.v.),  Norfolk  Island,  the  trust  territory  of 
New  Guinea,  Nauru,  the  territory  of  Ashmore  and  Cartier 
islands,  and  the  Australian  Antarctic  territory.  Language: 
English.  Religion:  Christian  (1933  census:  Anglican 
2,565,118;  Roman  Catholic  1,161,455;  Presbyterian  713,229; 
Methodist  684,022;  other  Christian  603,914);  Jewish  37,000. 
Chief  towns  (pop.,  1947):  Sydney  (1,484,434);  Melbourne 
(1,226,923);  Brisbane  (402,172);  Adelaide  (382,604);  Perth 
(272,586);  Newcastle  (127,188);  Hobart  (76,567).  Governor 
general,  William  John  McKell;  prime  minister,  Robert 
Gordon  Menzies  (q.v.). 

History.  The  new  government,  a  coalition  of  the  Liberal 
and  Country  parties,  with  R.  G.  Menzies  (Liberal)  as  prime 


74 


AUSTRALIA 


/?.  (7.  Menzies  (standing,  centre)^  prime  minister  of  Australia,  congratulating  A.  G.  Cameron  (right)  on  his  election  as  the  new  speaker 
of  the  Federal  House  of  Commons,  Feb.  1950.   The  government  supporters  can  be  seen  behind  the  prime  minister. 


minister,  and  A.  W,  Faddcn  (Country  party),  in  charge  of 
the  Commonwealth  Treasury,  had  taken  office  just  before 
the  year  began.  Australian  public  affairs  in  1950  were 
dominated  internally  by  the  new  government's,  bill  for  the 
suppression  of  the  Communist  party  and  externally  by  the 
growing  international  tension,  culminating  in  the  Korean 
war. 

The  Suppression  of  the  Communist  Party.  In  bringing  in  a 
bill  for  the  suppression  of  the  Communist  party  and  affiliated 
organizations,  the  government  fulfilled  an  election  pledge. 
The  main  features  of  the  bill  were:  the  declaration  as  illegal 
of  the  Communist  party  and  certain  organizations  declared 
to  be  affiliated  to  Communism;  the  declaration  by  the 
governor  general  in  council  of  certain  individuals  as  Com- 
munists. Declared  individuals  would  become  automatically 
disabled  from  holding  executive  office  in  certain  named  key 
trade  unions.  The  bill  defined  Communists  as  persons 
"  who  support  or  advocate  the  objectives,  policies,  teachings, 
principles,  or  practices  of  Communism  as  expounded  by 
Marx  and  Lenin."  The  bill  provided  for  a  right  of  appeal  to 
the  High  Court  by  declared  persons  or  associations.  It  was 
expressly  based,  in  the  first  place,  on  the  defence  power  of  the 
Commonwealth,  and  in  the  second  place,  on  the  power  of 
the  Commonwealth  to  make  laws  incidental  to  the  execution 
and  maintenance  of  the  constitution  and  the  laws  of  the 
Commonwealth.  The  bill  aroused  strong  public  controversy, 
and  the  opposition  of  the  Labour  party.  As  a  result,  the 
government  introduced  certain  amendments,  in  particular  a 
high-level  advisory  committee,  to  advise  the  government 
on  the  declaration  of  persons  and  associations.  It  did  not 
yield  on  thd  vital  **  onus  of  proof"  clause,  which  charged 
the  "  declared  "  person  to  deny  on  oath  that  he  was  a 


Communist.  After  months  of  discussion,  the  Labour  party, 
faced  with  the  threat  of  a  double  dissolution,  of  the  House  of 
Representatives  and  the  Senate,  withdrew  its  opposition  to 
the  bill.  Upon  the  promulgation  of  the  Suppression  of  the 
Communist  Party  act,  the  party  became  automatically  illegal, 
but  the  implementation  of  the  act  was  delayed  by  the  party's 
challenge  of  the  constitutionality  of  the  act  before  the  High 
Court — an  action  pending  at  the  end  of  the  year. 

During  the  year,  the  royal  commissioner  appointed  by  the 
Victorian  government  to  enquire  into  the  activities  of  the 
Communist  party  (Mr.  Justice  Lowe)  issued  his  report, 
which  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  party  did  not  openly 
advocate  unconstitutional  procedure,  but  that  its  objective 
and  policies  encouraged  the  fomenting  of  industrial  disputes 
and  internal  unrest,  and  in  certain  contingencies  envisaged 
resort  to  unconstitutional  means  for  the  overthrow  of 
government. 

Industrial  and  Economic  Position.  By  comparison  with  the 
previous  year,  the  country  was  free  from  serious  industrial 
trouble,  except  for  a  railway  strike  affecting  most  of  the 
Australian  states,  which  started  early  in  October  over  the 
refusal  of  a  conciliation  commissioner  to  sanction  an  agree- 
ment between  the  Victorian  railway  commissioners  and  the 
Railwaymen's  union,  by  which  passive  time  was  to  be  counted 
in  the  assessment  of  overtime  rates. 

In  June  1950  the  basic  wage  stood  at  £6  15s.  Qd.  Returns 
compiled  from  80%  of  wage-earners  showed  at  the  same  time 
an  average  wage  of  £9  \9s.  Qd.  The  Commonwealth  Arbi- 
tration Court  issued  its  basic-wage  judgment,  which  increased 
the  basic  wage  by  £1  a  week. 

Economic  activity  was  sustained  on  a  high  level;  national 
income  in  1949-50  was  £A  2,265  million,  an  increase  of 


AUSTRALIAN   LITERATURE 


75 


16%  over  1948-49;  the  level  of  employment  in  June  1950 
was  the  highest  on  record,  with  2,546,900  wage  and  salary 
earners.  Unemployment  in  March  was  0-8%,  equal  to  the 
lowest  recorded.  Prices  rose  sharply  during  the  year;  the 
"C"  series  retail  index  in  June  indicated  an  increase  of 
10%  over  June  1949. 

Exports  rose  to  £A  617;  3  million,  an  increase  on  the 
previous  year  of  14%.  This  was  due  mainly  to  the  further 
price  rises  in  wheat,  and  in  particular,  in  wool,  which  was 
in  keen  competitive  demand  by  Soviet,  U.S.  and  other 
buyers.  Imports  stood  at  £A  536  million  for  the  same  period, 
an  increase  of  30%  over  1948-49. 

The  Commonwealth  obtained  a  dollar  loan  from  the 
International  Bank  for  Reconstruction  and  Development, 
earmarked  for  the  purchase  of  U.S.  machinery  and  other 
capital  equipment.  Australia's  overseas  funds  rose  to  £650 
million,  an  increase  on  the  previous  year  of  43%.  The 
estimated  capital  inflow  of  £A  210  million  was  believed  to  be 
largely  due  to  "  hot  money "  transferred  to  Australia  in 
anticipation  of  the  revaluation  of  the  Australian  currency. 
Revaluation,  however,  was  officially  shelved  by  the  govern- 
ment, after  repeated  discussions. 

Defence  Services.  Estimated  defence  expenditure  for 
1950-51  was  £A  133,383,000,  an  increase  of  £A  79,136,853 
over  the  previous  year.  This  was  almost  entirely  due  to  a 
vastly  increased  defence  programme,  connected  with 
Australia's  active  participation  in  the  United  Nations' 
action  in  Korea,  and  a  projected  expansion  of  all  three  arms 
of  the  military  forces. 

Immigration.  The  number  of  immigrants  was  expected  to 
exceed  200,000  in  1950,  as  compared  with  149,000  in  1949. 
It  was  anticipated  that,  with  the  gradual  exhaustion  of  the 
European  pool  of  displaced  persons,  the  proportion  of 
British  immigrants  would  increase.  The  absorption  of 
immigrants  into  production  and  employment  caused  no 
problems,  but  the  housing  shortage  became  more  acute. 
The  gap  between  housing  needs  and  new  building  was,  at 
the  prevailing  rate  of  construction,  expected  to  increase  by 
30,000  to  35,000  houses  a  year. 

Foreign  Affairs.  Australia  was  one  of  the  first  members  of 
the  United  Nations  to  promise  support  for  action  in  Korea 
and  immediately  sent  a  fighter  squadron  stationed  in  Japan, 
which  fought  with  the  U.S.  forces.  In  September  a  battalion  of 
the  Australian  occupation  forces  in  Japan  became  part  of  the 
British  Commonwealth  brigade  fighting  in  Korea.  Under 
its  new  minister  for  external  affairs,  P.  C.  Spender  (q.v.), 
Australia's  foreign  policy  took  a  sharper  anti-Soviet  turn. 
In  the  U.N.  general  assembly,  Australia  strongly  supported 
intervention  in  Korea,  opposed  Soviet  proposals  for  the 
banning  of  atomic  weapons  alone,  opposed  the  recognition 
of  the  Communist  Chinese  government  and  generally 
supported  the  policy  of  the  United  States.  Spender  also 
proposed  a  Pacific  pact  which  would  link  together  all  the 
American  states  with  a  Pacific  coastline,  Australia,  New 
Zealand,  the  Philippines,  Korea  and  anti-Communist  China, 
as  well  as  the  British  Pacific  possessions. 

The  Arts  and  Sciences.  Professor  M.  L.  E.  Oliphant,  noted 
nuclear  physicist,  became  director  of  the  National  University 
School  for  Nuclear  Research  at  Canberra.  Visiting  lecturers 
from  overseas  included  Bertrand  Russell  (q.v.),  Professor 
A.  R.  Todd  of  Cambridge,  Sir  Alan  Herbert;  the  vice  chan- 
cellors of  most  of  the  Commonwealth  universities  visited 
Australia  on  their  way  to  a  conference  in  New  Zealand. 
The  archbishop  of  Canterbury  arrived  in  October  for  an 
extensive  visit  to  the  country.  Visiting  artists  from  overseas 
included  the  conductors  Otto  Klemperer  and  Sir  John 
Barbirolli,  and  the  Australian-born  composer,  Arthur 
Benjamin,  the  Robert  Masters  quartet,  the  singer  Erna 
Berger  and  the  actress  Elizabeth  Bergner.  (W.  FR.) 


Education.  (1947)  State  schools  8,212,  pupils  (average  weekly  enrol- 
ment) 856,753,  teachers  32,941;  private  schools  1.871,  pupils  (average 
weekly  enrolment)  281,838,  teachers  12,484;  universities  8,  students 
30,477,  professors  and  lecturers  2,141. 

Agriculture.  Main  crops  ('000  metric  tons,  1948-49;  1949-50  in 
brackets):  wheat  5,190  (5,891);  oats  428  (580);  maize  132  (178);  barley 
403  (414);  sugar  cane,  raw  value,  964  (955);  potatoes  457  (520).  Live- 
stock ('000  head,  March  1949):  sheep  108,500;  cattle  14,124;  pigs  1,194; 
horses  1,116.  Wool  production  ('000  metric  tons,  greasy  basis,  1948*49; 
1949-50  in  brackets)  465  (474).  Milk  production  (million  gal.,  1948-49; 
1949-50  in  brackets)  1,206  (1,250).  Food  production  ('000  metric  tons, 
1948-49;  1949-50  in  brackets):  butter  164-4  (171 -2);  cheese  43 -9  (45 -6); 
meat  986-4  (1.048-7)  of  which  beef  582-0  (611-8). 

Industry.  Manufacturing  establishments  (1948-49):  40,010;  persons 
employed,  including  working  proprietors,  890,454.  Fuel  and  power 
(1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets):  coal  ('000  metric  tons)  14,328 
(7,962);  lignite  ('000  metric  tons)  7,488  (3,871);  manufactured  gas 
(million  cubic  metres)  974  (516);  electricity  (million  kwh.)  9,018 
(4,925).  Raw  materials  (1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets):  gold 
('000  fine  ounces)  893  (417);  refined  copper  ('000  metric  tons)  10-1 
(7-9);  refined  lead  ('000  metric  tons)  187  (108);  zinc  ('000  metric  tons) 
83  (43);  steel  ingots  and  castings  ('000  metric  tons)  1,149  (689).  Manu- 
factured goods  ('000  metric  tons):  wool  yarn  (1948-49;  1949-50  in 
brackets)  23-0  (21-7);  cement  1,076  (643). 

Foreign  Trade.  (£A  million,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets) 
import  455  (296);  export  535  (358).  Main  sources  of  imports  (1948-49): 
U.K.  51-4%;  U.S.  10-2%;  India  6-4%;  Canada  2-9%.  Main  desti- 
nations of  exports:  U.K.  42-4%;  France  8-5%;  U.S.  5-9%;  Italy 
5*3%.  Main  imports:  machinery  9*8%;  cotton  and  linen  piece-goods 
7-5%;  petroleum  5-1%;  silk  and  rayon  piece-goods  4*1%.  Main 
exports:  wool  42-3%;  wheat  and  flour  18-6%;  meat  5-4%;  butter 
4-4%. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Roads  (1946  est.):  500.497  mi. 
Licensed  motor  vehicles  (Dec.  1949):  cars  747,200;  commercial  425,889. 
Government  railways  (1948-49):  26,999  mi.;  passengers  carried  504.076; 
freight  carried  40.225  tons;  freight  net  ton-mi.  6,308  million.  Shipping 
(merchant  vessels  of  100  gross  tons  and  over,  July  1949):  341,  total 
tonnage  541,516.  Air  transport  (1949):  mi.  flown  43,224,000;  passenger- 
mi.  710-9  million;  freight  net  ton-mi.  18-0  million;  air  mail  ton-mi. 
4-1  million.  Telephones  (Dec.  1949):  subscribers  1,066,385.  Wireless 
licences  (Dec.  1949):  1,986,180. 

Finance  and  Banking.  (£A  million)  budget:  (1949-50)  revenue  589-5, 
expenditure  606;  (1950-51  est.)  revenue  738-7,  expenditure  738-3. 
National  debt  (June  1949;  June  1950  in  brackets):  1,838-2  (1.850-9) 
Currency  circulation  (Aug.  1949;  Aug.  1950  in  brackets):  218  (237). 
Gold  and  foreign  exchange  (million  U.S.  dollars,  March  1949;  March 
1950  in  brackets):  1,301  (1,251).  Bank  deposits  (Aug.  1949;  Aug.  1950 
in  brackets):  678  (855).  Monetary  unit:  Australian  pound  with  an 
exchange  rate  of  £A  1  -25  to  the  pound  and  £A  0-45  to  the  U.S.  dollar. 

See  J.  B.  Greaves,  Economic  and  Commercial  Condition*  In  Australia 
(London,  H.M.S.O.,  1950). 

AUSTRALIA!^  LITERATURE.  Australian  literary 
output  maintained  its  variety  in  1950  only  in  the  face  of 
rising  costs  of  printing  and  publication.  Poetry  suffered 
moreover  a  continued  decline  from  the  public  support  which 
it  had  enjoyed  during  the  war,  and  Australian  Poetry  had  to 
announce  that  future  volumes  would  appear  only  every 
second  year.  The  year  however  saw  the  publication  of 
Australia's  most  ambitious  poem,  The  Great  South  Land  by 
Rex  Ingamells,  the  12th  volume  of  his  poetical  works,  which 
dealt  with  the  discovery  of  Australia  and  reached  the  pro- 
portions of  Paradise  Lost.  Two  poetry  collections  were 
issued:  James  Devaney's  Poems  made  up  from  five  small 
books  no  longer  in  print;  and  Nancy  Cato's  The  Darkened 
Window,  a  collection  of  poems  which  had  previously  appeared 
in  the  Bulletin.  Under  the  auspices  of  a  Commonwealth 
literary  fund,  Donovan  Clarke  tegan  work  on  a  Panorama 
of  Australian  Poetry,  dealing  with  the  lives  and  works  of 
Australian  poets,  living  and  dead. 

Perhaps  the  outstanding  work  of  criticism  was  Nettie 
Palmer's  Henry  Handel  Richardson,  a  study  based  on  an 
intimate  friendship  with  the  author  and  a  profound  know- 
ledge of  her  work.  Colin  Roderick  provided  an  interesting 
and  valuable  survey  of  literary  developments  in  An  Intro* 
duct  ion  to  Australian  Fiction;  and  the  regular  work  of 
Southerly,  Meanjin  and  the  "  Red  Page "  of  the  Bulletin 
made  their  usual  contribution  to  Australian,  criticism,  the 
Chris  Brennan  number  of  Southerly  being  of  particular  note. 


76 


AUSTRIA 


Among  the  novels  were  Norman  Lindsay's  Dust  or  Polish 
written  with  his  usual  gusto  and  vitality;  Jean  Devanny's 
Cindie,  a  story  of  the  Queensland  cane-fields;  Winged  Seeds, 
the  third  volume  of  Katherine  Susannah  Prichard's  trilogy 
on  the  Western  Australian  goldfields;  Gavan  Casey's  City 
of  Men,  a  documentary  novel  of  a  Kalgoorlie  family;  John 
Morrison's  The  Creeping  City;  and  Catherine  Gaskin's 
Dust  in  the  Sunlight,  her  first  novel  set  in  a  London  scene. 

Short  stories  and  plays  published  in  book  form  were 
fewer  than  ever.  Coast  to  Coast  and  George  Farwell's  Surf 
Music  and  Other  Stories  and  Dymphna  Cusack's  Three 
Australian  Three-Act  Plays  were  the  most  notable  in  these 
fields.  (C.  A.  BR.) 

AUSTRIA.  Republic  of  central  Europe.  Area:  32,388 
sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1939  census)  6,652,720;  (1948  census) 
6,952,744.  Language:  German  98%,  other  2%  (mainly 
Slovene  in  Carinthia).  Religion  (1939):  Roman  Catholic 
88-27%,  Protestant  5-35%,  Jewish  1-26%  (0-2%  in  1945), 
other  5  12%.  Principal  towns  (pop.,  1948  est.):  Vienna 
(cap.,  1,730,613);  Graz  (226,229);  Linz  (184,336);  Salzburg 
(106,919);  Innsbruck  (98,561);  Klagenfurt  (65,950).  President, 
Dr.  Karl  Renner  (died  Dec.  31;  see  OBITUARIES);  chancellor, 
Leopold  Figl.  The  Austrian  government  had  jurisdiction 
throughout  Austria,  with  certain  limitations  regarding 
matters  control  over  which  was  reserved  to  quadripartite 
decision  in  the  Allied  Council  for  Austria.  By  Dec.  31, 
1950,  members  of  the  A.C.A.  were:  France,  Jean  Payart 
(from  June  29);  United  Kingdom,  Sir  Harold  Caccia  (from 
June  12);  U.S.,  Walter  S.  Donnelly  (from  Aug.  24);  U.S.S.R., 
Lieut.  General  V.  P.  Sviridov. 

History.  The  country  remained  divided  into  four  occupied 
zones,  and  Vienna  into  as  many  sectors,  plus  the  quadri- 
partite regime  of  the  innere  Stadt.  The  total  strength  of  the 
occupying  forces  at  the  beginning  of  1950  was  68,500,  of 
which  Soviet  troops  numbered  44,000,  U.S.  10,000,  British 
8,500  and  French  6,000.  In  the  five  years  of  occupation  the 
military  and  civilian  costs  had  swallowed  up,  it  was  estimated, 
some  30%  of  the  country's  wealth:  in  1949  alone  contributions 
amounted  to  Sch.  420  million. 

In  addition,  the  Russians  by  enforcing  their  claim  on  all 
ex-German  properties  secured  possession  of  most  of  Austria's 
oil  as  well  as  the  assets  of  the  Danube  Shipping  company  ; 
and  in  their  latest  negotiations  over  the  terms  of  the  will-o'- 
the-wisp  peace  treaty,  they  sought  to  exact  payment  in  respect 
of  the  relief  goods  and  services  which  they  supplied  immedi- 
ately after  World  War  II.  The  Soviet  Union  thus  had  a  tight 
grip  on  the  nation's  economy,  even  if  its  conduct  had  ensured 
that  the  majority  of  Austrians  would  be  in  the  western  camp. 

No  wonder,  then,  that  the  dearest  wish  of  both  government 
and  people  was  to  achieve  a  peace  treaty  and  effective 
independence:  to  get  rid  of  "  the  men  on  their  back."  The 
prevalent  feeling  of  "  disappointment,  grief  and  righteous 
wrath  "  found  fitting  expression  in  President  Renner's  New 
Year  broadcast,  and  he  re-quoted  his  famous  simile  of  "  four 
elephants  in  a  rowing  boat." 

Only  the  U.S.  could  afford  to  pay  their  own  occupation 
costs,  but  the  process  of  relaxation  of  controls  continued 
throughout  1950.  Such  measures  of  alleviation,  however, 
could  bring  little  comfort,  but  were  in  contrast  with  the 
behaviour  of  the  Soviet  Union,  seemingly  concerned  to  frust- 
rate the  efforts  of  the  foreign  ministers'  deputies  to  get  an 
agreed  draft  treaty.  The  minister  of  finance,  Eugen 
Margaretha,  showed  elementary  realism  in  including  the  occu- 
ation-costs  tax  in  his  1950  budget  estimates.  And  the  public 
mood  was  on  the  whole  fatalistic. 

Nevertheless,  the  government  felt  it  incumbent  on  them  to 
make  the  demand  that  these  costs  should  be  borne  by  the 
occupying  powers.  A  note  in  this  sense  was  addressed  to  the 


powers  and  on  March  8  Karl  Gruber,  foreign  minister, 
detailed  in  parliament  some  of  the  other  requests  that  were 
included:  that  the  strength  of  the  foreign  garrisons  should  be 
drastically  reduced;  that  requisitioned  property  should  be 
released;  and  that  all  military  courts,  zonal  frontier  controls 
and  every  form  of  censorship  should  be  abolished.  Chancellor 
Figl  was  understood  also  to  have  suggested  a  meeting  in 
Vienna  at  the  highest  level  to  break  the  deadlock. 

This  proposal  was  not  taken  up.  But,  after  the  252nd 
abortive  meeting  of  the  deputies  on  April  26,  the  foreign 
ministers  of  the  three  western  powers,  on  the  occasion  of  their 
London  talks,  issued  on  May  19  a  statement  that  they  were 
willing  to  settle  all  outstanding  issues  if  this  would  bring  about 
agreement  on  the  treaty  as  a  whole;  failing  that,  while  the 
occupation  must  be  maintained,  everything  possible  would  be 
done  to  lighten  the  burden,  and,  to  begin  with,  civilian  high 
commissioners  would  be  appointed  to  replace  the  military 
commanders. 

A  formal  reply  was  made  by  the  British  Foreign  Office  on 
July  13.  The  concessions  cofnprised:  a  considerable  reduction 
of  high  commission  personnel,  further  de-requisitioning,  a 
promise  of  sympathetic  consideration  for  any  plan  for  ending 
Allied  control  over  the  Austrian  broadcasting  system  and,  in 
time,  the  abolition  of  military  travel  permits.  But  on  military 
courts  and  the  right  to  ban  books  and  newspapers  the  British 
government  would  not  yield.  (In  fact  censorship  no  longer 
existed  in  the  British  zone.)  The  U.S.  and  French  govern- 
ments made  somewhat  similar  response.  - 

During  1950  Austria  received  Sch.  2,600  million  in  respect 
of  Marshall  aid  funds,  divided  almost  equally  among  private 
undertakings,  nationalized  industries  and  public  services, 
including  the  railways.  In  addition  a  "  stopgap  "  allocation 
of  a  further  Sch.  200  million  from  E.R.P.  sources  was  forth- 
coming to  cover  housing  costs,  for  which,  as  in  1949,  no 
provision  had  been  made  in  the  budget.  This  helped  substan- 
tially to  relieve  an  acute  situation  in  the  building  trade,  which 
threatened  to  have  serious  political  consequences.  The 
subsidies  to  industry  and  agriculture  thus  made  possible 
went  some  way  to  correcting  the  unfavourable  trade  balance 
of  1949.  But,  even  so,  the  chronic  problem  of  unemployment 
(which  had  reached  a  peak  figure  of  195,000  in  February) 
persisted,  and  the  ominous  date  of  1952,  when  Marshall  aid 
would  cease,  was  looming  ahead. 

Thanks  to  U.S.  aid  industrial  production  rose  to  109%  of 
the  1937  figure;  agricultural  output  and  the  volume  of  exports, 
on  the  other  hand,  amounted  to  only  70%  of  the  prewar  level. 
The  hardest  task  of  the  Catholic-Socialist  coalition  govern- 
ment was,  clearly,  to  strike  a  fair  balance  between  the  interests 
of  town  and  country.  Early  in  September  a  crisis  developed 
over  fixing  the  in'and  price  of  wheat:  the  People's  party  were 
stipulating  for  a  figure  higher  than  the  Socialists  could  accept 
unless  there  were  a  compensatory  rise  in  wages.  After  some 
hard  bargaining,  under  the  shadow  of  a  threatened  strike  by 
the  trade  unions,  a  new  price  and  wage  agreement  was  reached, 
on  a  basis  of  a  10%  increase  of  wages  and  salaries,  with 
appropriate  increases  in  pensions  and  family  allowances,  to 
offset  the  increased  cost  of  living,  including  the  removal  of 
certain  food  and  fuel  subsidies.  The  Communists,  however, 
saw  an  opportunity  to  stir  up  unrest.  First  they  initiated 
token  strikes  and  demonstrations,  with  the  deliberate  con- 
nivance of  the  Soviet  authorities  in  Vienna;  and  then  on 
Sept.  30  a  conference  of  some  hundreds  of  Communist  works 
councillors  issued  an  ultimatum  calling  for  a  general  strike  on 
Oct.  3  unless  the  wage  and  price  agreement  were  withdrawn. 
By  that  time,  however,  the  government  and  trade  union 
leaders  regained  complete  authority  over  the  bulk  of  the 
workers,  and  the  strike  was  called  off.  Only  in  the  Soviet 
zone  were  there  any  serious  disturbances. 

For  the  time  being  the  Communists  ceased  to  count  as  a 


AVIATION,   CIVIL 


77 


serious  factor  in  Austria's  internal  politics.  At  the  Peasant 
Chamber  elections  held  in  Lower  Austria  in  April,  despite 
Soviet  activity,  they  failed  to  win  a  single  seat.  And  in  local 
elections  in  the  same  Soviet  sector  of  Lower  Austria  held  in 
May  they  polled  only  5  •  23  %— against  51-96%  for  the 
People's  party  and  39-97%  for  the  Social  Democrats:  10  of 
the  11  Communist  mayors  installed  in  1945  lost  their  seats. 
Neo-Nazism,  likewise,  receded  as  a  political  danger,  with 
the  disintegration  of  the  League  of  Independents.  Its  moderate 
leader,  Herbert  Kraus,  continued  to  woo  the  Volkspartei 
leaders  with  the  prospect  of  an  anti-Marxist  combination  in 
parliament  which  would  have  a  comfortable  majority.  But 
in  fact  the  rift  between  Socialists  and  Communists  was 
widening,  and  the  great  majority  of  Austrians  perceived  that 
the  maintenance  of  the  "  black-red  "  coalition  was  essential 
for  the  very  survival  of  their  country.  (W.  H.  CTR.) 

Education.  Schools  (1948-49):  elementary  4,956,  pupils  829,326, 
teachers  34,105;  secondary  167,  pupils  47,310,  teachers  3,476;  technical 
and  commercial  64,  students  20,739,  teachers  1,691.  Teachers'  training 
colleges  28,  students  4,821,  lecturers  534;  universities  4,  students 
19,762,  professors  and  lecturers  1,684. 

Agriculture.  Main  crops  ('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950  est.  in  brac- 
kets): wheat  350  (347);  barley  197;  oats  286;  rye  365  (366);  maize 
132;  potatoes  2,008;  sugar  52  (67).  Livestock  (*000  head):  cattle  (Dec. 
1949)  2,200;  sheep  (Dec.  1948)  454;  pigs  (May  1950)  2,024;  horses 
(Dec.  1948)  286;  poultry  (May  1950)  4,140. 

Industry.  Insured  persons  employed  (Dec.  1949)  1,896,966.  Fuel  and 
power  (1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets):  coal  ('000  metric  tons) 
184  (89);  lignite  ('000  metric  tons)  3,816  (2,045);  electricity  (million 
kwh.)  4,164  (2,253);  crude  oil  900  (450).  Raw  materials  ('000  metric 
tons,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets):  iron  ore  1,728  (831);  pig 
iron  838  (420);  crude  steel  835  (464);  magnesite  521  (255);  lead  smelter 
8-6  (4-6).  Manufactured  goods  ('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950,  six 
months,  in  brackets):  woven  cotton  fabric  12-0  (6-3);  cotton  yarn 
18-0  (9-4);  fertilizers  288  (93);  chemical  and  paper  pulp  430  (235); 
cement  1,098  (582). 

Foreign  Trade.  (Million  schillings,  1949;  1950.  six  months,  in 
brackets.)  import  4,477-2  (3,551-9);  export  3,228-0  (2.719-1). 
Main  sources  of  imports  (1949):  Germany  16%;  Italy  12%;  Czecho- 
slovakia 9%;  U.S.  6%.  Main  destinations  of  exports:  Italy  18%; 
Germany  8%;  Czechoslovakia  7%;  Yugoslavia  7%. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Roads  (1947):  53,000  mi.  Licensed 
motor  vehicles  (Dec.  1949):  cars  37,350;  commercial  54,620.  Railways 
(Jan.  1949):  3,728  mi.;  passenger-mi.  (1948)  2,617  million;  freight 
net  ton-mi.  (1949)  3,311  million.  Telephones  (1949):  subscribers 
231,857.  Wireless  licences  (1949):  967,787. 

Finance  and  Banking.  (Million  schillings)  budget:  (1949)  revenue 
6,091,  expenditure  7,532;  (1950  cst.)  revenue  9,617,  expenditure  10,695. 
Internal  debt  (Dec.  1948;  Dec.  1949  in  brackets):  11,152  (11,826) 
Currency  circulation  (Sept.  1949;  Sept.  1950  in  brackets):  5,817  (5,863). 
Bank  deposits  (Aug.  1949;  Aug.  1950  in  brackets):  5,367  (6,864). 
Monetary  unit :  Schilling  with  an  exchange  rate  (Nov.  1950)  of  Sch.  60  •  20 
to  the  pound  and  Sch.  21-49  to  the  U.S.  dollar. 

AVIATION,  CIVIL.  In  1950  British  commercial 
air  transport  began  to  use  new  aircraft  which  had  been 
delayed  in  delivery,  and  so  entered  the  phase  in  which  more 
satisfactory  financial  results  could  be  expected;  yet  in  the 
course  of  the  year  there  were  unexpected  setbacks.  Some  of 
the  effects  of  the  devaluation  of  sterling  were  felt  and  for  the 
first  half  of  the  year,  British  Overseas  Airways  corporation 
was  still  without  most  of  the  new  aircraft  on  which  it  had 
counted.  Not  until  November  was  this  handicap  fully 
removed.  At  that  point,  the  corporation  ceased  to  operate 
flying-boats  and  all  its  services  thenceforward  were  flown  by 
land  aircraft.  These  were  expected  to  produce  economies 
both  in  the  cost  of  operation  per  ton-mile  and  through  the 
saving  of  expense  on  the  maintenance  of  marine  stations  on 
the  routes  to  the  far  east  and  to  South  Africa.  British  Euro- 
pean Airways  corporation  was  not  due  to  receive  the  first  of 
its  new  aircraft  until  early  in  1951  and  relied  on  careful 
management  and  an  energetic  sales  organization  to  bring 
expenditure  and  revenue  more  closely  together. 

For  the  greater  part  of  the  year  therefore  both  corporations 
were  in  much  the  same  position  of  having  to  use  a  proportion 
of  old-type  aircraft  at  a  time  when  they  wished  to  develop 


and  increase  their  services.  In  common  with  other  operators 
they  sought  to  increase  their  traffic  and  the  hours  flown  by 
their  aircraft  by  offering  cheap  return  fares  during  "off*1 
seasons  on  the  long  runs  and  at  less  popular  hours  on  the 
short  routes.  The  result  was  to  increase  the  number  of 
passengers  and  also  the  number  of  capacity  ton-miles  flown. 
Unfortunately  the  rise  in  capacity  exceeded  the  rise  in 
passenger  ton-miles  in  both  corporations,  but  the  extra 
traffic  obtained  by  B.E.A.  through  cheap  fares  appeared  to 
be  balancing  the  direct  operating  cost  of  the  aircraft  employed 
on  the  early  and  late  services  and  so  helped  to  spread  adminis- 
trative costs  over  a  bigger  total  of  ton-miles  flown.  To  this 
extent  the  policy  justified  itself  but  the  dual  difficulty  of  coping 
with  seasonal  traffic  and  of  obtaining  a  big  enough  average 
flow  of  traffic  at  existing  rates  to  show  a  profit  had  still  to  be 
solved.  B.O.A.C.,  in  the  financial  year  ended  March  30, 
1950,  had  a  deficit  of  £7,791,887  and  B.E.A.'s  deficit  in  the 
same  year  was  £1,363,594  or  about  half  that  of  the  previous 
year.  The  loss  suffered  by  B.O.A.C.  included  that  of  British 
South  American  Airways  corporation  (subsequently  amal- 


A  British  European  Airways  helicopter  arriving  at  Speke  airport, 
Liverpool,  from  Cardiff  to  inaugurate  the  first  permanent  passenger 
*  service  by  helicopter  on  June  7,  1950. 

gamated  with  B.O.A.C.)  and  a  sum  of  about  £1,750,000 
was  accounted  for  by  the  grounding  of  the  Avro  Tudor 
aircraft  which  B.S.A.A.  had  been  using. 

From  November  B.O.A.C.  was  fully  re-equipped.  It  had 
received  its  overdue  Stratocruisers  and  Hermes  I  Vs.  It  had 
been  able  in  the  summer  to  increase  its  services  between 
London  and  New  York  from  seven  to  eight  a  week.  From 
November,  it  used  a  new  landplane  route  between  London 
and  Johannesburg.  Three  times  a  week  this  route  was  by  way 
of  Tripoli,  Kano,  Brazzaville  and  Livingstone,  and  twice  a  week 
the  more  familiar  route  through  Cairo,  Khartoum  and 
Nairobi  was  used.  At  the  same  time  the  corporation  had 
completed  its  administrative  reorganization  and  its  plan  for 
reducing  expenditure  by  reducing  staff  and  by  re-grading 
some  of  its  employees.  In  the  course  of  three  years  its  staff 
had  been  reduced  from  24,000  to  about  17,000  and  some  of 
the  employees  remaining  had  accepted  salary  reductions  of 
up  to  25%. 

Prospects  of  prosperity  appeared  to  be  improving  although 
the  ratio  of  pay  load  to  capacity  in  the  latter  part  of  the  year 
was  still  not  good  enough  to  promise  a  profit.  This  situation 
lent  special  interest  to  the  additional  aircraft  the  corporation 
would  put  into  commission  during  the  next  three  years. 
Early  in  1952  the  de  Havilland  Comet  jet  air  liner  was  likely 
to  begin  operations  on  the  Australia  route  and  to  reduce  the 
journey  time  by  about  half.  This  was  expected  to  attract 
passengers  and  help  to  increase  the  average  pay  load,  but  it 


78 


AVIATION,  CIVIL 


would  also  throw  into  greater  prominence  the  question  of 
differential  fares.  By  1953  the  big  Princess  flying-boats  were 
expected  to  be  ready.  The  corporation  had  already  set  up  a 
unit  to  prepare  for  their  advent  and  therefore  presumably 
intended  to  use  them  from  the  old  flying-boat  base  at  South- 
ampton. By  the  end  of  1950  the  corporation  was  better 
equipped  to  meet  competition  and  to  bring  cost  of  operation 
per  ton-mile  nearer  that  of  other  lines  which  had  modern  air- 
craft. The  task  before  it  was  to  increase  revenue  by  obtaining 
more  traffic  and  to  keep  costs  steady  in  a  period  of  rising 
prices. 

Operating  the  home  and  European  services,  B.E.A. 
continued  to  make  progress  within  the  limitations  imposed 
by  its  equipment  and  to  prepare  for  further  development. 
In  the  course  of  the  year  it  lost  the  right  to  carry  loads  to 
and  from  Lisbon  through  the  insistence  of  Portugal  on  her 
right  to  carry  half  the  available  traffic  between  London  and 
Lisbon.  As  B.O.A.C.  was  calling  regularly  at  Lisbon  and 
was  able  to  handle  all  the  traffic  left  under  this  arrangement 
B.E.A.  agreed  to  discontinue  its  services.  In  their  place  it 
opened  services  to  Madrid.  On  other  European  routes  the 
corporation's  business  was  generally  bigger  than  in  1949.  In 
the  summer  months  the  traffic  increased  by  about  30  %,  part  of 
the  increase  being  accounted  for  by  cheap  fares  on  early  and 
late  services.  Home  Cervices  were  much  less  profitable  and 
there  were  signs  at  the  end  of  the  year  that  the  corporation 
intended  temporarily  to  resign  a  bigger  proportion  of  the 
home  routes  to  private  operators  licensed  as  "  associates  " 
of  the  corporation.  In  1950  some  48  routes  were  operated 
by  associates.  The  corporation  announced  in  November 
that  it  intended  to  take  over  six  of  those  routes  but  was 
prepared  to  recommend  that  more  than  70  of  the  smaller 
routes  should  be  allocated  in  1951  to  associates.  At  the 
same  time  B.E.A.  had  given  a  contract  for  the  modification 
of  its  fleet  of  28  Douglas  DC-3s  to  permit  this  type  to  be 
worked  by  a  crew  of  two  instead  of  the  normal  crew  of  three. 

This  evident  attempt  to  reduce  the  cost  of  operation  in 
1951  was  also  a  temporary  expedient,  for  the  corporation  had 
placed  an  order  for  14  four-engine  Miles  Marathon  liners 
intended  to  carry  12  to  14  passengers  and  to  operate  from  the  * 
small  aerodromes  on  the  minor  home  routes.  Bv  its  experi- 
mental service  of  helicopters  between  Liverpool  and  Cardiff, 
the  corporation  also  showed  its  ultimate  belief  in  the  heli- 
copter as  the  vehicle  for  most  air  serviced  w,Uh  stages  of  less 
than  200  mi.  This  daily  helicopter  service  did  not  show  a 
profit  but  as  the  corporation  was  paid  a  fee  for  some  opera- 
tional research  work  undertaken  in  the  course  of  the  service, 
the  net  loss  was  small  enough  to  be  offset  reasonably  against 
the  experience  gained.  The  six-month  contract  for  the 
carriage  of  night  mails  by  helicopter  between  Peterborough 
and  Norwich  which  ended  in  April  was  both  profitable  and 
successful.  This  service,  flown  throughout  the  winter  months, 
with  a  ban  on  operations  when  the  cloud  base  was  below 
500  ft.  or  the  visibility  less  than  half  a  mile,  achieved  a 
regularity  record  of  96*6%. 

Another  hint  of  developments  to  come  was  seen  in  the  use 
for  brief  periods  on  two  routes  of  the  new  Vickers  Viscount 
turbo-prop  liner.  This  was  operated  on  regular  services  for 
one  week  on  the  Edinburgh  route  and  for  two  weeks  on  the 

TABLE  I.     UNITED  KINGDOM  CIVH.  AIR  TRAFFIC 

All  Internal  External 

services*  services  services 

1949  1950t  1949  1950|  1949  1950f 
Mi.  flown  ('000)  .  44,257  48,229 
Pass,  carried  ('000)  921  1,156 
Pass,-mi.  ('000)  .  614,659  793,724 
Freight  carried  (tons)  14,148  19,337 
Freight  ('000  tons)  18,085  21,905 
Mail  carried  (tons)  5,297  6,481 
Mail  ('000  ton-i»i.)  10,557  12.111 


6.006     6,952     38,251      41,277 
453        486          468          670 
72,432   80,896   542,227   712,828 
12,392 
17,756 
4,064 
10,352 


1,756 
329 

1,233 
205 


2,280 
427 

1,413 
234 


17,110 

21,478 

5,068 

11,877 


'  BOAC,  BEAC    and  associate  companies,     t  Provisional. 


The  French  balloon  pilot,  Charles  Dolfuss*  making  an  ascent  over 

Stockholm  in  1950  to  celebrate  I  he  50th  anniversary  of  the  Federation 

Aeronautique  Internationale. 

Paris  route.  Soon  afterwards  a  firm  order  was  placed  for 
28  Viscounts  with  provision  for  deliveries  to  begin  late  in 
1952.  Preparations  were  also  made  for  putting  the  Airspeed 
Ambassador  liners  into  service  in  the  spring  of  1951  for  the 
carriage  of  big  holiday  loads  particularly  between  London  and 
Paris.  The  Ambassador  was  intended  to  carry  50%  more 
passengers  than  the  Viking  at  a  cruising  speed  about  60  m.p.h. 
faster.  B.E.A.  also  used  the  year  to  consolidate  earlier 
economies.  Its  staff,  reduced  from  7,800  to  about  6,500, 
remained  steady  and  proved  adequate  to  deal  with  the 
increased  traffic.  The  corporation  suffered  two  serious 
accidents  involving  the  loss  of  a  Viking  and  a  DC-3,  with  the 
death  of  nearly  all  on  board.  Another  Viking,  badly  damaged 
by  a  bomb  apparently  placed  by  a  passenger  in  the  lavatory, 
was  brought  safely  back  to  London.  Its  captain  was  subse- 
quently decorated  with  the  George  Medal. 

Independent  air  operators  also  had  a  year  of  fair  activity. 
Besides  acting  as  associates  of  B.E.A.,  several  were  engaged 
at  times  of  pressure  to  help  with  the  regular  services  or  the 
freight-carrying  of  the  two  corporations.  They  were  busy 
too  with  a  great  variety  of  private  charters.  Two  independent 
services  still  run  by  private  operators  were  the  motor-car 
ferry  across  the  English  channel  (which  handled  4,000  cars  and 
1,000  motor  cycles)  and  the  weekly  flying-boat  service 
between  England  and  Madeira.  The  charter  companies  in 
general  obtained  extra  business  through  the  Holy  Year 
pilgrimages  to  Rome,  the  Council  of  Europe  at  Strasbourg 
and  holidays  organized  by  tourist  agents,  student  bodies 
and  the  Boy  Scouts  association.  One  company  obtained  a 
contract  from  the  War  Office  to  carry  troops  between 
England  and  west  Africa.  Others  included  in  their  loads 
Arab  ponies  from  Iraq  and  cattle  and  pigs  from  Italy  and 
Greece.  There  was  some  development  of  the  dusting  and 
spraying  of  crops  from  the  air  and  an  experiment  was  made 
in  the  treatment  of  hill  land  near  Plynlymon  with  super- 
phosphate pellets. 

In  the  handling,  supervision  and  control  of  commercial 
aircraft  over  the  United  Kingdom  there  were  some  important 
improvements.  Early  in  the  year  a  new  radar  station  with  a 
range  of  140  mi.  was  established  at  London  airport,  its 
purpose  that  of  monitoring  traffic  over  the  southern  part  of 
England  and  of  helping  liner  captains  in  that  area  with 


AVIATION,   CIVIL 


79 


TABLE  H.    REVENUE  STATISTICS  FOR  BRITISH  AIR  LINES 
(Financial  years,  April  1 -March  31) 

B.O.A.C.  B.E.A.C. 


Operating  revenue 
Operating  expense 
Operating  deficit 
Non-operating  expense 
Total  deficit 


1948-49* 

£ 

17,717,220 

24,962,497 

7,245,277 

560,697 

7,805,974 


1949-50 

£ 

19,530,584 

26,102,495 

6,571,911 

1,219,976 

7,791,887 


1948-49 

£ 

5,312,654 
7,820,927 
2,508,273 

226,565 
2,734,838 


1949-50 

£ 

6,884.935 
8,104,285 
1,219,350 
91,472 
1,310,822 


*  1948-49  figures  are  those  shown  in  the  corporation's  report  and  accounts 
for  1949-50,  and  exclude  from  non-operating  expense  profit  on  disposal  of 
assets  and  redemption  of  stock.  The  total  deficit  for  B.O.A.C.  B.S.A.A.C.  as 
shown  in  the  1948-49  accounts  is  £6,977,777. 

information  about  their  position,  height  and  bearing.  A  plan 
was  also  announced  for  creating  a  series  of  seven  traffic 
lanes  leading  into  the  chief  air  traffic  centres  in  England, 
Scotland  and  Northern  Ireland,  the  intention  being  to  equip 
each  lane  with  radio  ranges  to  enable  pilots  to  fix  with  a 
high  degree  of  accuracy  their  positions  in  the  approach  lanes. 
The  first  lane  was  brought  into  use  in  August.  In  September 
the  ground-controlled  approach  team  at  Northolt  brought 
in  their  ten  thousandth  aircraft  to  a  safe  landing. 

Within  the  Commonwealth  there  was  some  expansion  and 
the  promise  of  more.  Canada  was  engaged  for  some  months 
in  negotiations  with  the  United  States  arising  out  of  her 
proposal  to  run  services  to  New  York.  This  was  resisted  by 
the  United  States  line  already  handling  this  traffic;  but 
Canada,  strengthened  by  her  recent  acquisition  of  Newfound- 
land and  consequent  control  of  Gander  airport,  pressed  her 
claim  and  was  allowed  to  open  her  service  in  April.  About 
the  same  time  Trans-Canada  Airlines  had  second  thoughts 
about  its  plans  to  order  Avro  Jetliners  (made  in  Canada) 
for  its  main  services.  Up  to  the  end  of  the  year  the  outcome 
of  this  reconsideration  had  not  been  announced.  The 
privately  owned  Trans-Pacific  Airways,  which  had  already 
ordered  two  Comet  jet  airliners  for  its  proposed  service  from 
Vancouver  to  Tokyo  by  way  of  the  Aleutian  islands,  found 
itself  in  some  difficulty  by  the  decision  of  the  U.S.  not  to 
continue  to  maintain  certain  bases  along  that  line. 

Australia  too  showed  an  interest  in  the  Comet  and  also 
in  the  Indian  ocean  route  from  Western  Australia  to  Johannes- 
burg, touching  at  the  Cocos  islands  and  Mauritius,  but  nothing 
had  been  settled  on  either  point  by  the  end  of  the  year.  On 
its  existing  services  Qantas  Empire  Airways  made  a  profit  in 
the  previous  complete  year.  Towards  the  end  of  the  year 


Tasman  Empire  Airways  opened  a  service  between  Sydney 
and  Christchurch  and  so  for  the  first  time  linked  New  Zealand's 
south  island  with  Australia  by  a  regular  line.  There  were 
other  plans  for  services  between  Christchurch  and  Melbourne, 
and  between  Wellington  and  Sydney.  New  services  with 
flying-boats  were  also  being  organized  from  Australia  to  the 
Solomon  islands,  the  New  Hebrides,  New  Caledonia  and 
various  other  islands.  Inside  Australia  there  was  little 
development,  but  there  were  signs  that  the  government- 
owned  Trans-Australian  Airlines  might  make  a  profit  on  the 
year's  work.  Australian  National  Airlines  operated  a  beef 
service  between  the  killing  station  at  Glenroy  and  the  port 
of  Wyndham,  a  run  of  180  mi.  More  than  two  million  Ib. 
of  meat  was  carried  in  the  five-month  season  and  the  advan- 
tages over  the  old  method  of  delivering  the  beef  **  on  the 
hoof*  were  proved.  This  company  also  became  a  minority 
shareholder  in  Air  Ceylon,  established  to  operate  long 
distance  services.  In  New  Zealand  the  state-owned  National 
Airways  was  offered  for  sale  by  the  new  government. 

The  chief  event  in  Africa  was  the  completion  of  the  big 
airport  at  Livingstone  and  the  removal  of  flying-boats  from 
the  main  routes.  The  two  corporations  serving  central  and 
east  Africa  with  their  bases  at  Nairobi  continued  to  expand. 
India,  was,  if  anything,  over-served  with  air  transport. 
Among  its  16  companies  there  was  little  prosperity  and  a 
new  government  policy  on  air  transport  was  expected. 
Difficulty  in  communications  between  Assam  and  Calcutta 
arising  from  the  creation  of  East  Pakistan  was  relieved  to  a 
large  extent  by  air  transport.  Similar  enterprise  was  shown 
in  Pakistan  in  the  operation  of  a  service  from  Peshawar  to 
Gilgit  following  the  valley  of  the  Indus  through  the  moun- 
tains of  the  northwest  frontier. 

European  air  operators  generally  had  a  difficult  time  during 
the  year.  For  the  first  time  in  recent  years  K.L.M.*  failed 
to  make  a  profit.  There  were  doubts  as  to  whether  Sabenaf 
would  show  a  profit.  Discussions  took  place  between  these 
two  companies  and  Swissair  with  a  view  to  a  closer  pooling 
arrangement  to  embrace  aircraft  maintenance  and  stocks  of 
spares.  The  three  Scandinavian  companies  also  drew  closer 
together  in  search  of  further  co-operative  economies.  France 
alone  undertook  expansion,  acquiring  additional  U.S.  as  well 
as  home-produced  aircraft  and  plunging  boldly  ahead  with  a 

*  K.L.M.—  Koninklijke  Luchtvaart    Maatschappij    (Royal  Dutch  Air  Lines). 
tS.A.B.E.N.A.~Societ6>  Anonyme    Beige   d'Exploitation   de    la    Navigation 
Aerienne.  , 


The  British  European  Airways  Vickers  Viscount  at  Le  Bourget  airport,  Paris,  July  2$,  1950,  after  flying  from  London.    THis  wax  the  first 

scheduled  nassenuer  service  in  the  world  hv  a  turho-oroo  airliner. 


80 


AVIATION,  CIVIL 


scheme  of  differential  fares  based  on  aircraft  seating  arrange- 
ments.  Air  France  and  its  associates  were  reported  to  have 
seven  different  fare  scales  by  the  end  of  the  year.  (E.  C.  SD.) 

United  States.  An  analysis  of  226  air  lines  in  operation 
throughout  the  world  in  April  1950,  of  which  55  were  U.S.- 
operated  and  171  operated  by  other  countries,  shows  that 
four-fifths  of  the  world's  scheduled  air  line  services  were 
being  conducted  with  U.S.-built  aircraft.  While  the  U.S. 
share  of  the  total  scheduled  aircraft-miles  dropped  to  48% 
from  52  %  in  the  previous  year,  air  lines  operating  under  the 
U.S.  flag  had  increased  their  revenue  ton-mile  capacity  by  8  % 
during  the  year,  and  by  35%  since  1948.  It  was  expected 
that  still  further  substantial  additions  to  the  U.S.  civil  fleet 
would  result  from  the  faster  and  larger  versions  of  air  tran- 
sports which  were  on  order  for  delivery  during  1951  and  1952, 
including  more  than  100  Douglas  DC-6Bs  and  Lockheed 
Constellation  1049s. 

The  U.S.  civil  air  line  industry  experienced  its  best  year 
since  the  end  of  World  War  II.  International  and  domestic 
scheduled  air  carriers  made  traffic  gains  comparable  to,  or 
greater  than,  those  reported  in  the  record  year  of  1949. 
Total  operating  revenues  increased  about  8  %,  while  operating 
expenses  increased  about  5%.  This  difference  largely 
accounted  for  a  47%  increase  in  net  operating  income  to  a 
total  of  $66-8  million,  a  far  cry  from  the  heavy  operating 
deficits  of  1946  and  1947.  Collectively,  the  industry  added 
1 6  •  7  %  in  passenger-miles  over  1 949,  11  •  6  %  in  mail  ton-miles 
and  19-7%  in  cargo  services,  including  express  and  freight. 
Altogether,  18,828,000  passenger  runs  were  reported,  while 
total  revenue  loads,  including  passengers,  mail  and  cargo, 
reached  a  record  figure  of  1,230  million  ton-mi.,  a  16-8% 
increase  from  1949. 

TABLE  ill.  U.S.  SCHEDULED  AIR  CARRIER  OPERATIONS 


Revenue  passengers  carried 

Domestic 

International 
Revenue  miles  flown 

Domestic 

International 
Revenue  passenger- miles  flowt 

Domestic 

International 
Passenger-miles  flown  . 

Domestic 

International 
Ton-miles  of  express  carried 

Domestic 

International 
Ton-miles  of  freight  carried 

Domestic 

International 


1949 
(actual) 

16,600,771 

15,080,704 

1,520,067 

456,165,882 

351,639,998 

104.525,884 

8,806,576,000 

6,752,578,000 

2,053,998,900 

9,233,945,000 

7,065,146,000 

2,168,799,000 

77.217,799 

27,773,669 

49,444,130 

101,969,397 

95,227,983 

6,741,414 


1950 
(estimate) 

18,828,000 

17,162,000 

1,666,000 

460,453,000 

367,184,000 

93,269,000 

10,115,000,000 

7,929,000,000 

2,186,000,000 

10,600,000,000 

8,283,000,000 

2,317,000,000 

80,740,000 

37,01p.OOO 

43,730,000 

136,119,000 

120,519,000 

15,600,000 


The  distribution  of  revenues  among  the  three  principal 
sources  of  traffic  for  the  scheduled  air  carriers  remained  about 
the  same  in  1950  as  in  1949,  passengers  accounting  for  73%, 
mail  for  approximately  17-5%  and  cargo  for  6  •  7  %.  Average 
unit  receipts  for  freight  dropped  to  slightly  less  than  19  cents 
a  ton-mile  for  the  first  time,  reflecting  the  increasing  volume 
of  back-haul  freight  movement  at  special  commodity  rates. 

The  16  domestic  trunk  lines  alone  more  than  doubled  their 
net  operating  income,  from  approximately  $25  million  in 
1949  to  more  than  $51  million  in  1950.  The  12  local-service 
air  lines  had  an  operating  net  of  $500,000,  in  round  figures, 
contrasted  with  a  loss  of  about  the  same  amount  during  the 
previous  year.  The  13  international  and  overseas  air  lines, 
on  the  other  hand,  showed  a  decline  of  about  28  %,  to  a  net 
operating  income  of  $  1 5 '  3  million  for  the  year.  Nevertheless, 
Pan  American  World  Airways  reported  that  its  1950  traffic 
volume  was  the  greatest  in  its  24-year  history.  The  company 
transported  more  than  a  million  passengers  and  50  million  Ib. 


of  cargo  during  the  year,  in  addition  to  military  contract 
operations  on  the  trans-Pacific  Korean  air  lift. 

The  year  witnessed  a  continuous  and  gradual  extension  of 
ah*  coach  operations  on  the  part  of  the  scheduled  carriers, 
while  the  **  irregulars,"  or  non-scheduled  operators,  found  it 
more  and  more  difficult  to  maintain  their  services  in  the  face 
of  the  stiffening  restrictions  of  the  Civil  Aeronautics  board. 
During  the  spring,  T.W.A.  (Transcontinental  and  Western 
Air,  Inc.)  and  American  Airlines  began  using  modern  high- 
speed Constellations  and  DC-6  type  equipment  with  high- 
density  seating  in  New  York-Los  Angeles  coach  operation. 
In  July  they  both  reported  load  factors  of  more  than  90%  and 
bookings  several  weeks  in  advance.  Ten  major  air  lines  wefe 
offering  coach  service  on  various  routes,  reaching  32  domestic 
cities  in  July  1950,  including  16  out  of  the  20  leading  traffic- 
generating  points.  Load  factors  on  the  Los  Angeles-San 
Francisco  run  were  particularly  heavy,  with  fares  as  low  as 
3  cents  a  mile. 

For  the  first  four  months  of  1950,  revenue  passenger-miles 
on  air  coach  services  showed  a  tenfold  increase  over  a  similar 
period  in  1948.  In  fact,  much  of  the  increase  in  total  passenger 
air  traffic  during  the  year  came  from  air  coach  service. 
Altogether,  domestic  air  lines  carried  some  48-5%  of  the 
total  U.S.  first  class  rail  and  air  travel  market  in  1950,  com- 
pared with  43%  in  1949. 

TABLE  IV.   U.S.  SCHEDULED  Am  CARRIER  OPERATING 


Operating  revenues     . 

Operating  expenses     . 

Net  operating  income. 

Revenue  ton-mile  receipts — average 

Revenue  ton-mile  expenses — average 

Passenger-mile  receipts 

Mail  ton-mile  receipts 

Express  ton-mile  receipts     . 

Freight  ton-mile  receipts 


REVENUES  AND  INCOME 
1949 

$755,877,711 
710,402,051 
45,475,660 
57 -36  cents 
54 -29  cents 
5  •  76  cents 
110 -17  cents 


32 -78  cents 
19-46  cents 


1950  («/.) 
$813,210,000 

746,410,000 

66,800,000 

54  •  7  cents 

49  -4  cents 

5  •  5  cents 

103 -6  cents 
33 -9  cents 
19-0  cents 


U.S.  domestic  scheduled  services  maintained  their  high 
safety  record  of  recent  years  with  only  four  fatal  accidents, 
the  same  number  as  in  1949.  On  the  basis  of  passenger 
fatalities  this  was  a  rate  of  1  -2  per  100  million  passenger-miles 
flown  in  domestic  operations,  compared  with  1  •  3  for  the 

Srevious  year.  One  accident  in  1950,  involving  a  U.S.  aircraft 
ying  outside  the  U.S.A.,  resulted  in  48  deaths  and  brought 
the  combined  over-all  rate  to  1-4,  compared  with  1  -0  in  1949. 

The  year  1950  marked  a  definite  turning  point  in  the 
history  of  the  private-plane  industry  in  which  sales  had 
diminished  since  1946.  Based  on  official  statistics  for  the 
first  11  months,  and  unofficial  reports  for  December,  the 
total  number  of  private  aircraft  sold  during  the  year  exceeded 
3,400,  with  a  manufacturer's  value  of  about  $18-5  million. 
This  compared  with  3,370  sold  in  1949  and  valued  at 
$14,324,000.  The  increase  in  dollar  volume  reflected  the 
demand  for  the  larger  types  of  four-  and  five-seater  models 
used  mainly  by  business  executives.  About  100  helicopters 
were  built  during  the  year  for  military  and  commercial 
purposes.  The  use  of  light  aircraft  for  agricultural  purposes 
continued  to  grow;  about  10,500  planes  were  owned  by 
farmers  and  ranchers. 

In  general,  flying  schools  and  fixed-base  operators  found 
1950  a  difficult  year.  The  number  of  student  pilots  dropped 
off  as  ex-service  applicants  decreased.  There  was  a  17% 
decline  in  the  number  of  private  pilot  certificates  issued  from 
more  than  30,000  to  25,000— and  a  29%  reduction  in  the 
number  of  commercial  pilot  certificates  issued. 

During  the  second  half  of  the  year,  the  shadow  of  the 
Korean  war  and  the  mobilization  activities  to  which  it  gave 
rise  made  still  more  uncertain  the  immediate  outlook  for 
civil  aviation  that  was  not  directly  or  indirectly  related  to 
the  defence  effort. 


BACTERIOLOGY-BAHAMAS 


81 


As  the  year  closed,  the  Civil  Aeronautics  administration 
made  compulsory  the  filing  of  flight  plans  for  planes  entering, 
or  flying  within,  designated  air  defence  identification  zones. 
Areas  affected  were:  a  zone  several  miles  in  diameter  around 
each  atomic  energy  plant;  zones  surrounding  the  cities  of 
San  Francisco  and  Los  Angeles;  and  zones  covering  the 
Atlantic  and  Pacific  ocean  areas  seaward  to  a  line  about 
20  mi.  off-shore.  Flight  plans  were  also  required  for  planes 
entering  the  United  States  from  Canada  east  of  Wisconsin. 

For  the  first  time  since  the  end  of  World  War  II  the  use 
of  civilian  aviation  flight  and  ground  schools  was  planned  for 
large-scale  training  of  air  force  personnel.  About  10,400 
U.S.  air  force  technicians  were  to  be  trained  in  civilian  trade 
schools  by  July  1951 ;  and  contract  training  of  a  minimum  of 
2,250  basic  flight  cadets  was  announced  at  five  fields  to  be 
operated  by  civilian  flight-school  contractors. 

The  C.A.A.  Federal  Aid  Airport  programme  went  on  a 
defence  footing,  1950-51  projec.s  being  screened  to  meet  the 
cuts  in  non-defence  construction.  Grant  agreements  entered 
into  during  1950  numbered  598,  involving  $40-6  million  in 
federal  funds.  Projects  completed  during  the  year  numbered 
452  on  which  $27-3  million  in  federal  funds  had  been 
expended. 

Employment  in  the  basic  aircraft  industry,  which  totalled 
about  256,000  in  June  1950,  was  expected  to  reach  500,000 
by  mid-1951.  (J.  P.  V.  Z.) 

AVIATION,  MILITARY:  see  AIR  FORCES  OF  THE 
WORLD. 

AZORES:  see  PORTUGAL. 

BACTERIOLOGY.  Vitamin  B12  simultaneously 
produced  with  streptomycin  had  proved  of  great  value  in  the 
treatment  of  pernicious  anaemia.  Maximum  stimulation  of 
haematopoiesis  occurs  when  folic  acid,  a  bacterial  metabolite, 
is  administered  with  vitamin  B12.  It  appeared  that  both 
substances  were  produced  by  bacteria  normally  residing  in 
the  intestines  and  that  defective  absorption  might  result  in 
deficient  blood  formation.  A  growth-stimulating  substance 
present  in  aureomycin  concentrates  produced  by  Streptomyces 
aureofaciens  identified  as  "  animal  protein  factor  "  was  an 
entirely  new  entity  in  the  field  of  fermentations.  Consumption 
of  this  factor  by  poultry  and  pigs  results  in  20%  greater 
growth  with  unusually  high  meat  quality  and  increases  the 
vigour  and  growth  of  calves.  The  discovery  might  revolu- 
tionize the  preparation  of  manufactured  feed  for  animals  and 
poultry  and  create  a  new  industry  for  producing  the  factor. 

Immunity  in  Syphilis.  A  substance  present  in  blood  of 
infected  individuals,  called  reagin,  had  been  of  inestimable 
value  in  the  serological  tests  for  diagnosis  of  syphilis,  but 
reagins  are  not  true  antibodies  in  that  they  offer  no  protection 
and  are  of  little  value  in  the  study  of  immunological  mechan- 
isms. A  protective  antibody,  which  has  an  immobilizing 
effect  on  Treponema  pallidum,  appears  in  the  sera  of  experi- 
mentally infected  and  treated  animals.  The  level  of  immunity 
is  directly  correlated  with  the  immobilizing  power  of  the  serum. 
Disclosure  of  these  data  offered  for  the  first  time  a  research 
tool  for  more  detailed  studies  of  syphilis  immunity  in  man. 

Antibiotic  Resistance  and  Dependence.  The  development 
of  resistance  of  many  bacteria  to  streptomycin  has  been 
demonstrated  both  experimentally  and  in  the  course  of 
therapy  in  human  infections.  Whether  this  is  a  result  of 
natural  selection  according  to  Darwinian  principles  with 
survival  and  overgrowth  of  resistant  individual  cells,  or  the 
outcome  of  acquired  resistance  in  the  manner  of  Lamarchian- 
ism,  was  still  being  debated  in  1950.  The  ultimate  in  this 
tendency  of  the  bacterial  organisms  to  withstand  strepto- 
mycin was  reached  when  it  was  reported  that  many  bacteria 

7 


actually  become  streptomycin-dependent  and  fail  to  grow  in 
its  absence.  Similar  phenomena  were  also  observed  with  one 
of  the  newer  antibiotics.  Chloramphenicol  resistance  and 
dependence  was  shown  for  Klebsie/la  pneumoniae,  and 
bacitracin  resistance  was  observed  to  develop  in  many  strains 
of  beta  haemolytic  streptococci.  Since  these  antibiotics  had 
already  enjoyed  rather  extensive  clinical  use  the  isolated  reports 
lent  support  to  the  view  that  the  newer  antibiotics  would  not 
lead  to  frequent  development  of  resistant  strains  of  pathogenic 
organisms  as  had  been  the  common  observation  in  strepto- 
mycin therapy. 

Poliomyelitis.  Attempts  to  develop  a  vaccine  for  polio- 
myelitis had  been  thwarted  by  difficulties  encountered  in 
cultivating  the  virus  in  sufficient  quantity  and  by  the  existence 
of  many  yet  unrecognized  immunological ly  distinct  strains 
of  the  virus.  A  report  on  the  successful  propagation  of  the 
virus  in  a  test  tube  on  human  placenta!  tissue  might  be  an 
important  step  toward  removing  mysteries  surrounding  the 
disease  and  might  facilitate  attempts  to  produce  a  vaccine. 
Likewise  the  isolation  of  strains  in  addition  to  the  three 
reported  should  be  more  readily  accomplished.  A  vaccine 
to  be  successful  must  have  immunizing  potentialities  against 
all  strains  of  the  virus.  Some  hope  from  new  data  was 
extended  to  the  use  of  ultra-violet  irradiation  to  attenuate 
the  virus  for  purposes  of  vaccine  production.  (M.  N.) 

BADMINTON.  National  and  international  champion- 
ship tournaments  took  place  during  1950  HI  all  continents  of 
the  globe.  In  the  most  important  of  these,  the  40th  all- 
England  championships  in  London  in  March,  the  winners 
were  Wong  Peng  Soon  (Malaya)  and  Fru  Tonny  Ahm 
(Denmark)  in  the  singles;  and  Jorn  Skaarup  and  Preben 
Dabelsteen  (Denmark),  Fru  Ahm  and  Frk.  Kirsten  Thorndahl 
(Denmark)  and  Poul  Holm  and  Fru  Ahm  (Denmark)  in  the 
doubles  events.  In  international  matches  England  defeated 
Ireland  and  Scotland,  but  was  beaten  by  Denmark  and 
Sweden.  Ireland  defeated  Scotland,  and  for  the  first  time  New 
Zealand  got  the  better  of  Australia. 

Thirty-four  counties  took  part  in  the  English  inter-county 
championship  which  was  again  won  by  Cheshire  with  a  close 
win  over  Surrey  in  the  final.  Essex  headed  Division  II. 

A  new  departure  instituted  by  the  Badminton  Association 
of  England  was  the  holding  of  the  first  all-England  junior 
championships  in  January;  in  these  118  competitors  took 
part.  A  large  number  of  other  tournaments  took  place  all 
over  the  United  Kingdom,  and  all  attracted  increasing 
numbers  of  players.  Eighteen  national  associations  were 
members  of  the  International  Badminton  federation,  and 
most  of  them  were  expected  to  take  part  in  the  championship 
for  the  Thomas  cup  in  Malaya  in  1951.  (H.  A.  E.  S.) 

BAHAMAS,  British  colony,  an  archipelago  of  about 
700  islands,  of  which  New  Providence  is  the  most  important, 
outside  the  Gulf  of  Mexico  and  off  the  coast  of  Florida. 
Area:  4,403  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1943  census)  68,846;  (1948  est.) 
76,620.  Language:  English.  Capital:  Nassau.  Administra- 
tion: governor;  executive  council;  Legislative  Council  of 
9  unofficial  nominated  members  and  House  of  Assembly 
of  29  elected  members.  Governors  (1950),  Sir  George  Ritchie 
Sandford  and,  from  Dec.  7,  Major  General  R.  A.  R.  Neville. 

History.  Butlin's  vacation  village  at  West  End,  Grand 
Bahama,  opened  early  in  the  year  and  as  a  result  of  the 
increase  in  facilities  the  colony  experienced  a  record  tourist 
season :  by  the  end  of  July  the  number  of  visitors  was  already 
10,000  greater  than  for  the  whole  of  1949.  But  in  the  autumn 
it  was  learnt  that  the  future  of  the  village  was  endangered 
by  lack  of  capital  to  ensure  its  completion.  Petitions  were 
presented  for  the  winding  up  of  the  company,  but  judgment 
was  postponed  pending  the  outcome  of  various  efforts  to 


82 


BALANCE  OF  PAYMENTS 


raise  extra  capital,  and  the  outcome  was  still  undecided  at 
the  end  of  the  year.  An  agreement  was  signed  permitting 
the  U.S.  jointly  with  the  United  Kingdom  to  establish  and 
operate  technical  and  supporting  facilities  at  selected  sites 
in  the  colony  for  a  guided  missile  range  to  be  known  as 
"  Bahamas  long-range  proving  ground."  The  Colonial 
Development  corporation  announced  that  it  had  launched 
an  agricultural  undertaking  to  make  the  colony  to  a  large 
extent  self-supporting  in  food;  the  plans  envisaged  projects 
on  three  of  the  main  islands,  Eleuthera,  Andros  and  Abaco; 
the  capital  authorized  up  to  October,  including  the  purchase 
of  the  land  and  buildings  at  Eleuthera,  was  £1,034,000. 

Finance  and  Trade.  Currency:  pound  sterling;  U.S.  currency  also 
generally  accepted.  Budget:  revenue  (1950 est.)  £1,315,760;  expenditure 
(1950  cst.)  £1,649,573.  Foreign  trade  (1949):  imports  £4,775,789; 
domestic  exports  £488,365;  re-exports  £172,448.  Principal  exports: 
lumber,  tomatoes,  salt  and  crawfish;  the  economy  of  the  colony  was 
primarily  dependent  on  the  tourist  industry.  (J.  A.  Hu.) 

BAHREIN  ISLANDS:  ^ARABIA. 

BAKERY  PRODUCTS:  see  BREAD  AND  BAKERY 
PRODUCTS. 

BALANCE  OF  PAYMENTS.  During  1950  the 
world  outside  the  United  States  substantially  improved  its 
position  in  the  balance  of  payments,  and  its  reserve  position 
was  strengthened. 

Closer  balance  was  established  after  Lie  widespread 
currency  devaluation  of  Sept.  1949,  by  countries  accounting 
for  nearly  two-thirds  of  world  trade.  The  basic  cause  of  the 
devaluations  was  the  postwar  distortion  in  international 
payments,  of  which  the  most  obvious  symptom  was  a  world 
shortage  of  U.S.  dollars:  in  1949  the  surplus  of  the  U.S.  with 
the  rest  of  the  world  for  goods  and  services  amounted  to 
$6,200  million.  This  surplus  was  reduced  in  the  first  half  of 
1950  to  an  annual  rate  of  $3,000  million  and  in  the  third 
quarter  of  1950  to  an  annual  rate  of  less  than  $300  million. 
It  would  be  premature  however  to  assume  that  this  wide- 
spread improvement  meant  the  achievement  of  a  new 
equilibrium.  In  the  12  months'  period  ending  with  Sept. 
1950  countries  other  than  the  United  States  were  able  to 
increase  their  gold  and  dollar  holdings  by  ati  amount  of 
about  $3,750  million,  of  which  $3,000  million  resulted 
from  transactions  with  the  U.S.  and  thfe  rest  from  new  gold 
production.  Countries  benefiting  from  rising  exports  and 
by  the  inflow  of  speculative  capital  gained  most  ox  the  gold 
and  dollars,  such  as  Canada  ($900  million),  the  sterling  area 
($1,300  million  excluding  the  Union  of  South  Africa)  and 
also  some  of  the  Latin  American  countries. 

Devaluation  improved  the  competitive  position  of  the 
devaluing  countries.  But  it  was  only  one  of  the  factors  that 
improved  the  foreign  balances  of  payments  with  the  U.S. 
Other  important  factors  were:  (1)  the  continuing  U.S.  govern- 
ment aid  to  foreign  countries  at  a  rate  of  more  than  $4,500 
million  a  year;  (2)  reduction  of  foreign  purchases  from  the 
U.S.  in  order  to  conserve  dollar  resources;  and  (3)  an  increase 
in  the  imports  of  the  U.S.  This  last  was  facilitated  by  the 
high  level  of  business  activity  in  the  U.S.  as  well  as  by  the 
improvement,  due  to  devaluation,  in  the  competitive  position 
of  the  exporting  countries.  There  was  indeed  since  devaluation 
an  expansion  in  the  volume  of  Europe's  exports  not  only  to 
the  U.S.  but  also  to  overseas  countries  in  general  in  relation 
to  imports.  The  advantages  of  this  were  however  offset  by  a 
deterioration  of  about  10-15%  in  Europe's  terms  of  trade 
with  overseas  countries,  brought  about  by  devaluation.^ 
Therefore  the  improvement  in  the  gold  and  dollar  holdings' 
of  Europe  could  not  be  explained  primarily  by  changes  in  the 
balance  of  merchandise  trade  but  rather  by  shifts  in  the 
pattern  of  tfade  by  an  improvement  in  service  and  capital 


transactions   and    by    an  inflow   of   speculative    capital. 

The  Sterling  Area.  Because  of  the  United  Kingdom's 
central  position  in  world  trade  and  the  importance  of  sterling 
as  an  international  currency  the  most  important  development 
of  1950  was  the  improvement  of  the  position  of  the  sterling 
area  in  general  and  of  the  United  Kingdom  in  particular  in 
the  balance  of  payments.  This  improvement  was  illustrated 
by  the  sterling  area's  earning  a  net  gold  and  dollar  surplus 
of  $220  million  in  the  first  half  of  1950  as  against  deficits  of 
$962  million  and  $570  million  in  the  first  and  second  halves  of 
1949  respectively.  The  United  Kingdom's  contribution  to 
this  was  a  drastic  reduction  in  its  net  gold  and  dollar  deficit. 
A  further  major  contribution  came  from  the  earnings  of  the 
overseas  sterling  areas,  made  possible  by  the  increase  in  demand 
for  and  prices  of  their  products  (such  as  tin,  rubber,  wool,  etc.) 
as  well  as  by  their  sale  of  gold  to  the  United  Kingdom. 

The  actual  increase  of  the  gold  and  dollar  reserves  of  the 
sterling  area  was,  of  course,  greater  than  the  net  gold  and 
dollar  surplus  earned.  It  amounted  to  $735  million  in  Jan.- 
June  1950  as  a  result  of  Marshall  aid  ($426  million)  and  of 
drawing  on  the  line  of  Canadian  credit  ($45  million)  and  also 
because  of  certain  smaller  items.  This  net  addition  to  the  gold 
and  dollar  reserves  could  be  compared  with  a  reduction  of 
such  reserves  to  the  extent  of  $205  million  in  the  first  half 
of  1949  and  an  addition  of  $37  million  in  the  second  half  of 
1949.  There  was  a  further  increase  of  $878  million  in  the 
second  half  of  1950,  made  up  of  $293  million  in  Marshall 
aid  and  $585  million  surplus  earned  by  the  sterling  area, 
including  the  United  Kingdom.  Part  of  this  increase  in  the 
fourth  quarter  was -due  to  special  factors  such  as  an  inflow 
of  funds  from  North  America  in  anticipation  of  future  com- 
mercial needs.  Total  reserves  amounted  to  $3,300  million 
on  Dec.  31,  1950,  nearly  treble  the  reserves  just  before 
devaluation.  In  view  of  the  great  improvement  in  the  dollar 
position  of  the  sterling  area  and  in  view  of  the  launching  of 
the  Mutual  Defence  Aid  programme  by  the  United  States, 
it  was  mutually  agreed  to  suspend  Marshall  aid  to  the  United 
Kingdom  from  Jan.  1,  1951. 

United  Kingdom  Current  Account.  The  improvement  of 
the  United  Kingdom's  position  in  the  balance  of  payments 
with  the  world  at  large  on  current  account  is  shown  in  Table  I. 
It  showed  a  surplus  of  £52  million  in  the  first  half  of  the  year, 
against  a  surplus  of  £16  million  in  the  first  half  of  1949  and  a 
deficit  of  £54  million  in  the  second  half  of  1949.  It  was 
estimated  that  the  surplus  for  1950  as  a  whole  was  of  the 
order  of  £200  million-£250  million,  a  striking  result  compared 
with  a  deficit  of  £38  million  for  1949. 

It  was  even  more  important  that  the  United  Kingdom 
succeeded  in  reducing  its  deficit  on  current  account  with  the 
dollar  area  to  £52  million  (in  the  first  six  months  of  1950)  as 
against  £142  million  and  £160  million  (in  the  first  and  second 
halves  of  1949  respectively). 

The  improvement  in  the  first  half  of  1950  was  not  in  the 
visible  balance  of  current  transactions,  which  is  made  up 
of  the  difference  between  United  Kingdom  exports  and 
imports  both  valued  at  f.o.b.  prices.  The  visible  items  showed 
a  deficit  of  £108  million  in  the  first  half  of  1950  as  against 
deficits  of  £43  million  and  £104  million  in  the  first  and  second 
halves  of  1949  respectively,  because,  although  the  sterling 
value  of  exports  increased,  that  of  imports  increased  even 
more.  But  even  in  this  period  the  United  Kingdom  succeeded 
in  reducing  its  deficit  on  visible  items  with  the  dollar  area  to 
£71  million  in  the  first  half  of  1950  as  against  £1 1 1  million  and 
£140  million  in  the  first  and  second  halves  of  1949  respectively, 
both  by  reducing  imports  and  increasing  exports.  In  the 
second  half  of  the  year  a  sharp  improvement  in  visible 
trade  took  place,  and  towards  the  end  of  the  year  the  United 
Kingdom  was  earning  more  on  visible  exports  than  it  was 
spending  on  imports*  In  1950  the  volume  of  British  exports 


BALANCE  OF  PAYMENTS 


83 


U.K.  BALANCE   OF  PAYMENTS 


NET  PAYMENTS 

1947 

NET  RECEIPTS 


NET  PAYMENTS 
NET  ftfcEIPTS 

NET  PAYMENTS 

1949 

NET  RECEIPTS 


NET  PAYMENTS 

I95CT 

NET  RECEIPTS 


iM.,1.-!00 


200        300       400        500 
*lst  Smooths  of  enwol  rot* 


600        700 


was  16%  more  than  that  of  1949,  a  substantial  achievement, 
while  the  volume  of  British  imports  was  only  1  %  more. 
Also  the  expansion  of  exports  to  the  dollar  area  was  greater 
than  the  expansion  to  other  areas.  This  was  however  counter- 
balanced by  the  marked  deterioration  in  the  terms  of  trade 
of  the  United  Kingdom.  In  1950  export  prices  increased  by 
6%  as  compared  with  the  average  for  1949,  while  import 
prices  increased  by  17%. 

Improvement  for  the  United  Kingdom  in  the  first  half  of 
1950  was  most  marked  in  the  balance  of  invisible  items, 
which  showed  a  surplus  of  £160  million  as  against  £59  million 
and  £50  million  in  the  first  and  second  halves  of  1949.  Net 
income  from  shipping  and  from  interest,  profits  and  dividends 
increased  a  little;  the  net  deficit  on  travel  and  total  government 
transactions  abroad  remained  about  the  same  as  in  the  first 
half  of  1949;  but  the  mixed  bag  of  other  net  income  increased 
to  £137  million  from  £75  million  and  £84  million,  mainly 
reflecting  increased  income  of  oil  and  insurance  companies 
operating  abroad.  The  United  Kingdom  earned  a  surplus 
of  £19  million  on  its  invisible  balance  with  the  dollar  area 
against  a  deficit  of  £31  million  and  £20  million. 

United  Kingdom  Capital  Account.  The  way  in  which  the 
surpluses  and  deficits  in  the  current  accounts  were  financed  and 
the  changes  in  the  capital  accounts  of  the  United  Kingdom  are 
shown  in  the  second  part  of  Table  I* 

An  important  change  on  the  debit  side  of  the  capital 
account  was  the  further  increase  in  the  short-term  sterling 
liabilities  bringing  them  to  £3,471  million  at  the  end  of  June 
1950,  as  against  £3,340  million  at  the  end  of  Dec.  1949. 
The  sterling-area  countries  remained  the  largest  creditors  of 
these  balances,  owning  £2,497  millions.  The  non-sterling  area 
countries  owned  balances  to  the  extent  of  £974  million. 
Releases  continued  to  be  made  and  negotiations  with  various 
creditors  took  place  in  1950,  but  no  general  arrangement  was 
made  for  the  final  settlement  of  these  balances.  In  fact  the 
pressure  for  such  an  arrangement  diminished  as  countries 
became  more  willing  to  hold  their  balances  in  sterling  than 
before  the  devaluation.  A  block  of  balances  owned  centrally 
by  the  monetary  authorities  of  O.E.E.C.  countries  on  July  1, 
1950,  amounting  to  £200  million,  was  swept  into  the  European 
Payments  union,  to  be  used  by  the  United  Kingdom's 
creditors  to  cover  their  deficits. 

Another  step  towards  settling  these  balances  was  contained 
on  the  so-called  Colombo  plan,  which  envisaged  a  reduction 
of  the  sterling  balances  or  India,  Pakistan  and  Ceylon  by 
£246  million  within  six  years,  these  releases  forming  pan  of 


the  funds  for  developing  the  Commonwealth  countries  of 
southern  and  southeastern  Asia, 

European  Payments  Union.  An  important  new  development 
in  1950  was  the  setting  up  of  the  European  Payments  union 
to  be  started  as  from  July  1,  1950,  thus  replacing  two  previous 
intra-European  payments  agreements.  For  the  first  time  the 
clearing  arrangement  was  wholly  multilateral  and  automatic. 
The  principle  was  that  the  surpluses  earned  by  one  country  in 
any  other  one  should  be  expendable  in  all  other  countries, 
including  the  non-European  monetary  areas  (e.g.,  as  far  as 
the  United  Kingdom  was  concerned,  the  whole  sterling  area). 
This  arrangement,  together  with  the  liberalization  of  trade 
also  agreed-to  in  1950,  was  expected  to  facilitate  a  return 
towards  multilateral  trade  in  western  Europe  and  to  lead  to 
the  abandonment  of  discrimination  between  soft-  and  hard- 
currency  countries. 

Each  country  was  allotted  a  quota  which  reflected  its 
weight  in  intra-European  trade  and  represented  the  field 
within  which  whatever  surpluses  or  deficits  arose  were  to  be 

TABLE  I.     UNITED  KINGDOM  BALANCE  OF  PAYMENTS,  1946  TO  1950 
(£  million) 


1949 

1950 

r  ' 

Jan.- 

July- 

Jan.- 

1946 

1947 

1948 

June. 

Dec. 

June 

(prov- 

A. 

CURRENT  ACCOUNT 

isional) 

Debits 

1. 

Imports  (f.o.b.) 

1,081 

1,560 

1,790 

958 

1,007 

1,150 

2. 

Shipping 

137 

165 

174 

95 

97 

96 

3. 

Interest,  profits  and 

dividends    . 

83 

94 

102 

52 

53 

55 

4. 

Travel    . 

42 

76 

66 

27 

46 

32 

5. 

Migrants'  funds,  leg- 

acies, private  gifts 

(net)  . 

—  15 

46 

44 

18 

13 

8 

6. 

Government     trans- 

actions (net) 

363 

230 

87 

64 

76 

63 

7.   Total  debits    .         .    1,691    2,171       2,263    1,214      1,292      1,404 


Credits 

8. 

Exports   and    re-ex- 

ports (f.o.b.) 

905 

1,135 

1,583 

9. 

Shipping 

166 

198 

250 

10. 

Interest,  profits,  divi- 

dends. 

153 

171 

174 

11. 

Travel    . 

13 

21 

33 

12. 

Other  (net)     .        , 

106 

88 

143 

13. 

Total  credits 

1,343 

1,613 

2,183 

14. 

Balance  of  current 

transactions 

915 
142 

78 
20 
75 


903 

138 

89 
24 
84 


1,042 
153 

98 

26 

137 


1,230      1,238      1,456 


(credit  +,  debit  — ):  —  348  —558  —80 
of  which 

(a)  visible  trade       .  -  -176  —425  —207 

(b)  invisible     .         .—712—133  +  127 


+  76 


-54       +52 


_43    _|04     __i08 
+  59       +  50     +160 


B.  INVESTMENT  AND  FINANCING  ACCOUNT 

1.  Grants,  etc.  (to  U.K. 

— )     .         .         .     —        —30    --138      —71      —83     —111 

2.  Overseas  investment, 

borrowing,  etc. 
(investment  by 
U.K.+)  .  .  __37Q  —141  —93  +8  +286  +16 

3.  Sterling      liabilities, 

etc.  (increase,— ).     —31—235     +205     +130    —305     —115 

4.  Gold  and  dollar  re- 

serves (increase,  +)    +53  —152      —54      —51       +48     +262 


5.   Total  of  investment 

and  financing       .  —348  —558      —80      +16      —54       +52 

of  which  net  change 
in  capital  account 
(B2-4  above:   in- 
vestment +,  disin- 
vestment—)        .   —348  —528       +58       +87       +29     +163 
SOURCE:    United  Kingdom  Balance  of  Payments,  1946  to  1950  CH.M.S.O., 
London,    1950).    Reproduced    by  kind   permission  of  the  Controller,   H.M. 
Stationery  Office. 


84 


BANK   FOR  INTERNATIONAL  SETTLEMENTS— BANKING 


TABLE  II.     UNITED  KINGDOM  CURRENT  ACCOUNT:   DISTRIBUTION  BY 


AREAS  (£  million) 
1949 


Dollar  area: 

visibles 

invisibles  . 
Sterling  area: 

visibles 

invisibles  . 
O.E.E.C.  area: 

visibles 

invisibles  . 
Others: 

visibles 

invisibles  . 


Jan. -June     July-Dec. 


—31 

4-78 
4-57 

„  9 
4-20 


—140 
—20 

4-78 
4-42 

—31 

4-  2 


__  1        —11 

-H3  +26 


1950 
Jan. -June 

—71 
4-19 

4-13 
4-67 

4-17 
4-34 

—67 
+40 


settled  by  a  combination  of  credit  and  gold  payments  in  the 
course  of  E.P.U.'s  operations.  An  excess  beyond  the  quota 
had  to  be  settled  at  once  in  full  in  gold. 

In  order  to  secure  the  smooth  working  of  E.P.U.,  a  working 
capital  fund  of  dollars  (together  with  certain  other  guarantees) 
was  provided  by  the  United  States.  This  fund  was  moreover 
supplemented  by  European  currencies  in  the  form  of  drawing- 
rights  granted  by  certain  creditor  countries  such  as  the 
United  Kingdom,  Belgium,  etc.  At  the  same  time  certain 
chronic  debtor  countries  were  given  an  initial  credit  balance 
in  the  books  of  E.P.U. 

The  first  six  months  of  the  operation  of  E.P.U.  showed 
rather  the  impact  of  the  uncertainties  of  the  period  than  the 
normal  way  in  which  E.P.U.  was  expected  to  operate.  In 
this  period  Germany  incurred  a  heavy  net  debit  and  was 
offered  a  special  short-term  credit  ^n  condition  that  it  put 
its  own  house  in  order.  France  and  the  United  Kingdom 
earned  a  substantial  cumulative  surplus  and  both  received 
gold  from  the  union.  (The  United  Kingdom  moreover 
discharged  its  initial  debt  incurred  by  granting  drawing 
rights.) 

Rearmament.  In  the  second  part  of  1950  the  immediate 
effect  of  the  Korean  war  and  the  new  drive  for  rearmament  by 
the  western  world  was  to  give  a  further  impetus  to  U.S. 
purchases  abroad,  especially  to  purchases  of  strategic  mater- 
ials, and  to  make  probable  the  continuation  of  U.S.  govern- 
ment aid  in  one  form  or  another — both  factors  improving 
the  foreign  dollar  position.  But  rearmament  imposed  a  new 
strain  on  the  economies  of  the  countries  of  western  Europe, 
competed  with  exports,  home  consumption  and  investment 
and  also  increased  the  demand  for  dollars  and  dollar  goods. 
However,  the  search  for  the  long-term  solution  of  an  equili- 
brium in  international  payments  continued.  One  step  in 
this  search  was  the  "  Report  to  the  President  of  the  U.S.  on 
Foreign  Economic  Policies  "  prepared  at  the  request  of  the 
president  by  Gordon  Gray.  This  report  emphasized  the 
importance  of  western  Europe's  keeping  up  its  competitive 
strength  in  order  to  ensure  adequate  export  markets.  But 
it  also  emphasized  the  need  for  the  U.S.  to  increase  its  imports 
and  to  secure  an  adequate  outflow  of  capital,  by  such  methods 
as  increased  lending  by  the  International  Bank  for  Recon- 
struction and  Development  and  the  Export-Import  bank 
(<7^.v.)  as  well  as  by  grants  and  additional  appropriations  for 
the  development  of  under-developed  areas.  (L.  Rs.) 

See  International  Monetary  Fund,  Balance  of  Payments  Yearbook. 

BALLET:  see  DANCE. 

BANK  FOR  INTERNATIONAL  SETTLE- 
MENTS. Celebrating  in  1950  the  20th  anniversary  of  its 
foundation,  the  bank  could  justifiably  claim  to  have  lived 
down  the  hostility  to  its  origins  and  purposes  evident  in 
many  countries  at  the  end  of  World  War  II.  No  decisive  steps 
having  been  taken  by  the  countries  concerned  to  resolve  the 
problems  of  German  prewar  debts,  the  bank  took  measures 


to  segregate  assets  and  liabilities  connected  with  the  execution 
of  the  Hague  agreement  of  1930  on  German  reparations, 
the  intention  being  to  facilitate  the  development  of  banking 
business  by  enabling  a  clear  and  complete  view  of  the  bank 
to  be  obtained.  The  balance  sheet  presentation  was  altered 
accordingly. 

BANK  FOR  INTERNATIONAL  SETTLEMENTS 

(Million  Swiss  gold 


Assets 

Gold  in  coins  and  bars 
Cash  and  sight  funds  . 
Bills,  acceptances,  investments 
Miscellaneous  assets   . 
Own  Hague  investments  in  Germany 


Liabilities 

Short-term  and  sight  deposits  (gold) 

Short-term  and  sight  deposits  (various  cur- 
rencies   

Miscellaneous  provisions     .... 

Reserves  (legal  and  general) 

Paid-up  capital  ...... 


francs,  pre-1936 

value) 

March  31,  March  31, 

1950 

1949 

267-6 

150-7 

44-3 

39-2 

373-0 

233-7 

1-6 

1-6 

68-3 

68-3 

754-8 

493-5 

96-8 

21-6 

399  «8 

220-2 

113-3 

105-8 

19-9 

19-9 

125-0 

125-0 

754-8 


493-5 


Execution  of  Hague  Convention 

Claims  on  German  banks  and  other  assets     .  297-2  297-2 

Deposits  of  creditors  and  other  liabilities         .  297-2  297-2 

No  new  development  affecting  the  sums  connected  with  the 
Hague  agreement  occurred  during  the  financial  year  1949-50 
but  returning  confidence  in  the  bank  resulted  in  a  consider- 
able increase  in  the  amount  of  deposits  entrusted  to  its  care 
by  central  banks  and  other  institutions.  This,  together  with 
the  bank's  work  as  agent  for  the  multilateral  compensation 
schemes  operated  by  the  Organization  for  European 
Economic  Co-operation,  brought  about  a  heavy  expansion 
in  the  amount  of  business  handled,  turnover  at  Swiss  (gold) 
Fr.  6,800  million  being  a  record.  The  net  profit,  which  was 
placed  to  reserve,  was  18%  higher  than  in  1949  at  Swiss 
(gold)  Fr.  6  million. 

In  July  the  bank  undertook  to  act  as  agent,  initially  until 
1953,  for  the  new  European  Payments  union  devised  by  the 
O.E.E.C.  In  April  Dr.  Wilhelm  Vocke  was  elected  to  the 
board  to  represent  the  central  bank  of  the  German  Federal 
republic.  (C.  H.  G.  T.) 

BANKING.  The  dislocation  of  the  world  prices  structure, 
caused  in  part  by  the  series  of  currency  devaluations  of  1949 
and  in  part  by  the  spectacular  expansion  of  the  demand  for 
primary  commodities  after  the  opening  of  the  war  in  Korea, 
was  the  main  concern  of  bankers  in  Great  Britain,  the 
Commonwealth,  Europe  and  the  middle  east  in  1950.  In 
the  first  part  of  the  year  the  stable  financial  conditions 
established  in  most  of  the  countries  in  these  regions  in  1949 
with  the  help  of  credit-restriction  and  other  official  anti- 
inflationary  measures  were  largely  maintained.  But,  as  the 
upward  movement  in  world  prices  gathered  pace,  the  volume 
of  money  likewise  began  to  expand  and  fairly  large  increases 
in  bank  deposits  were  recorded  in  most  countries  in  the 
closing  months  of  the  year. 

The  problems  created  for  the  commercial  banks  by  the 
tendency  of  their  total  resources  to  expand  were  complicated 
in  some  countries  by  the  central  bank's  bringing  credit 
restriction  into  play  to  contain  inflationary  pressures  generated 
by  the  boom  in  primary  commodities.  In  a  few  cases  the 
imposition  of  credit  limitation  on  the  initiative  of  the  central 
bank  led  to  clashes  between  the  bank  and  the  political 
authorities.  This  and  the  decision  of  a  number  of  countries 
to  give  their  central  banks  greater  freedom  from  governmental 
control  in  formulating  currency  and  credit  policies  focused 
attention  during  the  year  on  the  question  of  the  degree  of 


BANKING 


85 


freedom  from  governmental  interference  that  should,  in  the 
national  interest,  be  given  to  state  central  banks  in  these  fields. 
The  possibility  that  new  trends  in  international  payments,  pro- 
duced by  the  distortion  of  the  prices  structure  and  other 
developments,  would  lead  to  the  revaluation  of  certain 
currencies  gave  rise  to  some  considerable  movements  of 
capital  from  country  to  country,  with  important  effects  on 
the  volume  of  bank  resources  in  the  countries  concerned. 

Great  Britain.  The  approximate  stability  of  the  credit 
framework  established  after  the  inauguration  of  Sir  Stafford 
Cripps's  disinflation  policy  in  the  1947-48  period  was  fully 
maintained  during  the  first  part  of  1950,  the  inflationary 
effect  of  the  rising  trend  of  import  prices  being  neutralized 
by  higher  productivity.  Contrary  to  expectations,  therefore, 
the  banks'  deposits  fully  reflected  the  downward  pressure 
normally  exerted  in  the  early  part  of  the  year  by  the  movement 
of  tax  money  into  the  exchequer  :  the  decline  in  the  deposits 
of  the  London  clearing  banks  (together  these  account  for 
some  95%  of  all  commercial  bank  resources  in  Britain) 
between  January  and  June  was  nearly  £100  million  larger 
than  during  the  corresponding  period  of  1949. 

In  the  second  half  of  the  year,  however,  a  rise  in  internal 
prices,  caused  in  the  main  by  developments  overseas,  pro- 
duced a  marked  distortion  of  the  credit  structure.  This, 
aided  by  an  extensive  movement  of  so-called  "  hot  "  money 
into  London  inspired  by  talk  of  a  possible  revaluation  of 
sterling,  caused  a  sharp  expansion  in  the  volume  of 
bank  resources.  Net  deposits  (i.e.,  published  deposits  after 
deducting  the  duplicating  item  "  balances  in  course  of  collec- 
tion ")  showed  a  drop  of  nearly  £50  million  on  an  annual 
comparison  at  the  end  of  June;  at  the  end  of  October  they 
were  higher  on  the  year  by  nearly  £140  million. 

ELEVEN  LONDON  CLEARING  BANKS 

(£  million) 

Oct.  1948 

6,040 

5,855 

485 

497 

802 

1,313 

1,475 

1,355 

243 

Although  the  total  of  bank  resources  remained  fairly 
stable  in  Great  Britain  through  the  first  half  of  1950,  there 
were  considerable  changes  during  this  period  in  the  way  in 
which  these  resources  were  deployed.  In  particular  the 
switch  in  bank  lending  from  the  governmental  sector  to 
the  private  sector  of  the  economy,  which  had  been  in  progress 
throughout  1949,  was  vigorously  continued.  In  the  five 
months  to  the  end  of  May  the  rise  in  bank  loans  to  industry 
and  commerce  was  the  largest  in  British  banking  history. 
Over  the  same  period  extensive  repayment  of  official  indebted- 
ness to  the  banking  system  found  a  reflection  in  a  sharp  net 
decline  in  the  banks'  holdings  of  money-market  assets.  With 
the  upward  turn  in  the  total  of  bank  resources  in  the  second 
half  of  the  year,  however,  the  re-deployment  of  bank  resources 
as  between  the  governmental  sector  and  the  private  sector 
was  interrupted.  By  the  end  of  October  the  figure  for  banks' 
loans  to  industry  and  commerce  had  receded  some  £50 
million  from  the  record  level  reached  at  the  end  of  June;  on 
the  other  hand  the  amount  of  bank  lending  to  the  government 
had  sharply  increased. 

The  striking  reversal  of  well-established  trends  was  not 
due  to  changes  in  government  policies:  the  April  budget  was 
based  on  the  principle  that  the  disinflation  policy  operated 
through  1948  and  1949  should  be  continued  and  official 
credit  policy  during  1950  also  followed  the  lines  of  previous 
years,  no  large-scale  effort  being  made  by  the  authorities  to 
influence  the  volume  of  bank  credit  by  open-market  opera- 


Deposits 

Net  deposits 

Cash  . 

Call  money 

Bill  holdings 

Treasury  deposit  receipts 

Investments 

Advances    . 

Acceptances,  etc. 


Oct.  1949 

Oct.  1950 

6,050 

6,204 

5,868 

6,006 

499 

509 

556 

557 

1,162 

1,414 

744 

496 

1,517 

1,505 

1,466 

1,598 

261 

346 

tions  and  similar  activities.  The  downward  turn  in  bank  loans 
in  the  second  half  of  the  year  was  due  in  large  measure  to 
a  marked  improvement  in  conditions  in  the  London  capital 
market.  This  enabled  the  nationalized  industries  and  other 
industrial  concerns  to  repay  bank  loans  from  the  proceeds 
of  new  issues  of  their  stock  and  more  than  neutralized  the 
increased  demand  for  bank  finance  from  other  industrial 
and  commercial  firms  for  carrying  stocks  which  came  in  the 
wake  of  the  rise  in  commodity  prices.  The  expansion  in  bank 
lending  to  the  government  over  the  same  period  was  due  to 
seasonal  factors  and  to  the  influx  of  capital  from  abroad.  To 
the  extent  that  the  inflow  of  capital  had  the  effect  of  swelling 
the  London  reserves  of  overseas  central  banks,  the  authorities 
supplied  the  sterling  required  by  selling  Treasury  bills  to  the 
banks  concerned;  i.e.,  without  recourse  to  the  commercial 
banking  system.  But  where  the  sterling  proceeds  of  the 
capital  transfer  remained  on  deposit  with  the  commercial 
banks,  the  authorities  obtained  finance  to  acquire  the  foreign 
exchange  by  borrowing  from  the  commercial  banking  system. 

The  possibility  that  the  increased  demand  for  bank  loans 
for  financing  capital  outlays  would  induce  the  banks  to  sell 
government  securities  in  order  to  preserve  a  satisfactory 
relationship  between  liquid  assets  on  the  one  hand  and 
illiquid  assets  on  the  other  was  believed  to  have  been  the  cause 
of  the  official  decision  to  continue  the  process  (begun  in  1949) 
of  enabling  the  banks  to  reduce  their  holdings  of  the  inflexible 
Treasury  deposit  receipt  and  to  enlarge  their  holdings  of  the 
flexible  Treasury  bill.  The  big  expansion  during  the  year  in 
the  volume  of  acceptance  and  similar  business  handled  by 
the  banks  was  due  to  the  rise  in  prices,  to  revaluation  rumours 
and  to  the  wider  use  of  sterling  in  international  payments 
transactions. 

The  Commonwealth.  The  replacement  in  1949  of  the 
Labour  governments  of  Australia  and  New  Zealand  by 
governments  with  conservative  views  was  followed  in  1950  by 
legislative  measures  in  both  countries  to  curb  governmental 
interference  with  the  currency  and  credit  policies  of  their 
respective  central  banks.  A  bill  was  introduced  into  the 
Australian  parliament  providing  for  the  removal  of  the 
control  of  monetary  policies  from  the  federal  treasurer  to  a 
reconstitute^  board  of  directors  of  the  Commonwealth  bank. 
The  board  was  made  responsible  for  the  integration  of  its 
own  policies  with  tfye  financial  and  economic  policies  of  the 
government;  in  the  event  of  disagreement  between  the  bank 
and  the  government,  the  matter  was  to  be  referred  to  the 
governor  general  of  the  Commonwealth  and  the  course  to 
be  adopted  decided  upon  after  full  consideration  by  the 
cabinet.  The  same  bill  made  provision  for  the  repeal  of  the 
Banking  act,  1947,  originally  introduced  by  the  Labour 
government  of  J.  B.  Chifley  to  nationalize  the  trading  banks 
but  never  enforced.  The  Reserve  Bank  Amendment  bill 
introduced  by  the  New  Zealand  government  vested  control 
over  the  currency  and  credit  policies  pursued  by  the  bank  in 
its  governor  and  board  of  directors.  It  stipulated  that  any 
interference  with  the  bank's  policies  deemed  necessary  by  the 
government  in  the  public  interest  would  require  specific 
parliamentary  approval. 

Inflationary  pressures  resulted  in  a  considerable  expansion 
in  bank  resources  in  most  of  the  Commonwealth  countries. 
In  Australia  the  influx  of  capital  from  abroad,  which  was 
stimulated  by  revaluation  rumours,  combined  with  a  rise  in 
export  incomes  (caused  by  the  commodity  boom)  to  raise  th  j 
deposits  of  the  trading  banks  by  some  £A  200  million  1o 
£A  998  million  in  the  12  months  to  Aug.  1950.  About  hilf 
the  additional  resources  were  frozen  in  special  accounts  with 
the  Commonwealth  bank.  About  £A  50  million  was  utilized 
to  expand  loans  to  trade  and  industry.  New  Zealand  banks 
also  witnessed  a  similarly  steady  though  smaller  increase  in 
resources  during  the  year.  In  South  Africa  financial 


86 


BANKING 


conditions  were  more  stable  than  in  the  previous  year  and  bank 
resources  moved  within  narrower  limits.  The  influx  of  capital 
from  other  parts  of  the  sterling  area  continued,  though  at  a 
diminishing  rate;  and  this,  with  the  general  increase  in 
business  activity,  led  to  a  modest  increase  in  bank  deposits. 
Canadian  bank  deposits  showed  a  fairly  rapid  expansion  in 
the  first  part  of  the  year.  This  was  due  to  the  capital  invest- 
ment boom,  to  the  inflationary  effect  of  price  increases  in  the 
U.S.  and  to  a  heavy  inflow  of  American  "  hot "  money 
stimulated  by  expectations  that  the  Canadian  dollar  would  be 
revalued  to  parity  with  the  U.S.  dollar.  Towards  the  close  of 
the  year  the  dominion  authorities  took  steps  to  restrict  credit, 
including  the  raising  of  the  bank  rate.  Simultaneously  the 
Canadian  dollar  was  freed  to  discourage  the  inflow  of  specu- 
lative funds. 

In  India  the  banking  year  was  largely  uneventful,  with  total 
resources  showing  little  net  change.  Pakistan  continued  to 
implement  its  scheme  for  building  up  a  comprehensive 
banking  system:  the  state-sponsored  National  Bank  of 
Pakistan  was  set  up  and  entrusted  with  the  task  of  tilling  gaps 
in  existing  banking  facilities.  Ceylon  established  a  monetary 
board  to  administer  and  regulate  its  monetary  and  banking 
system. 

Europe.  The  policy  of  relaxing  restrictions  on  bank  credit 
followed  by  most  European  countries  throughout  1949  was 
continued  in  the  early  months  of  1950.  With  the  development 
of  inflationary  pressures  in  the  second  half  of  the  year, 
however,  this  trend  was  reversed.  Changes  ii  the  volume 
of  bank  resources  were  fairly  small  for  France,  Italy,  the 
Netherlands,  Denmark,  Sweden  and  Norway.  But  bank 
deposits  rose  steadily  in  Switzerland,  partly  on  account  of  the 
inflow  of  capital.  In  Belgium,  by  contrast,  an  exodus  of  capital 
caused  by  fears  of  devaluation  forced  down  foreign  exchange 
reserves  and  the  volume  of  bank  deposits.  The  deterioration 
in  the  German  external  payments  situation  led  the  Bank 
C^utscher  Lander  to  impose  severe  credit  restrictions  late 
in  the  year.  Preparations  were  made  for  the  establishment 
of  a  new  German  central  bank  with  the  object  of  removing 
ultimate  control  over  currency  and  credit  policies  from  the 
Bank  Deutscher  Lander  to  the  government. 

Middle  East.  Further  steps  were  taken  to  implement  the 
plan  for  converting  the  National  Bank  of  Egypt  into  the 
state's  central  bank.  The  deteriorati9n  in  the  internal 
economic  situation  created  new  problems,  for  bankers  in 
Israel.  In  Iraq,  there  was  a  steady  increase  in  the  volume  of 
money  in  circulation,  but  bank  resources  showed  little  change. 

(C.  H.  G.  T.) 

United  States.  Banking  developments  in  the  U.S.  during 
1950  were  dominated  by  the  gradual  rise  in  business  activity 
during  the  first  part  of  the  year,  the  sharp  upswing  in  demand 
for  credit  after  the  outbreak  of  the  Korean  war  and  efforts 
to  restrain  inflationary  credit  expansion.  New  records  were 
set  in  many  banking  magnitudes,  such  as  total  loans  and 
investments  of  commercial  banks,  total  loans,  total  privately 
held  money  supply,  home  mortgage  indebtedness  and 
consumer  credit  outstanding.  In  1950  the  privately  held 
money  supply,  which  included  total  bank  deposits  other  than 
inter-bank  and  U.S.  government  deposits,  and  currency 
outside  banks  rose  by  $6,400  million  to  reach  a  new  high 
level  of  about  $176,200  million  at  the  end  of  the  year.  Most 
of  the  increase  was  in  demand  deposits  adjusted,  in  contrast 
to  the  preceding  year  when  such  deposits  had  shown  little 
change.  Currency  outside  banks  declined  by  another  $200 
million.  Time  deposits  in  commercial  banks,  mutual  savings 
banks  and  postal  savings  system  rose  by  about  $300  million 
during  the  year. 

Factors  responsible  for  the  renewed  increase  in  the  privately 
held  money  supply  included  an  increase  of  $11,300  million 
in  loans  of  commercial  and  mutual  savings  banks  and  an 


increase  of  $1,900  million  in  holdings  by  such  banks  of  state 
and  local  government  obligations.  These  factors  were  offset 
in  part  by  a  decrease  in  holdings  of  U.S.  government  securities 
by  the  banking  system  amounting  to  $3,900  million,  by  a 
decrease  during  1950  in  the  gold  stock  of  $1,600  million  and 
by  other  factors.  Almost  all  the  increase  in  the  money 
supply  came  about  in  the  second  half  of  the  year. 

The  year  saw  such  large  expansion  in  private  bank  credit 
that  several  new  peaks  were  reached  by  Dec.  31,  1950,  in 
earning  assets  of  all  commercial  banks.  Total  loans  and 
investments  reached  a  new  record  of  $127  million,  an  increase 
of  $7,000  million  during  the  year.  Total  loans  of  all  commer- 
cial banks  rose  almost  $10,000  million  to  a  new  peak  of 
$52,700  million.  Holdings  of  other  securities  reached  a 
record  level  of  $12,200  million,  after  an  increase  of  $2,000 
million.  Holdings  of  U.S.  government  obligations  by  all 
commercial  banks  declined  $4,700  million  and  stood  at 
$62,300  million  at  the  end  of  the  year.  On  June  30,  1950, 
national  banks,  which  numbered  almost  5,000,  held  $82,400 
million  of  total  deposits.  State  banks,  which  numbered 
somewhat  more  than  9,000,  had  total  deposits  of  $61,400 
million. 

An  act  of  congress,  approved  on  Sept.  21,  1950,  increased 
the  legal  maximum  of  insurance  for  each  depositor  to  $10,000 
from  the  previous  $5,000.  A  study  by  the  Federal  Deposit 
Insurance  corporation,  released  early  in  the  year,  indicated 
that  on  Sept.  30,  1949,  the  13,440  insured  commercial  banks 
reported  91  million  accounts  with  total  deposits  of  $139,000 
million.  About  88  million  accounts,  or  96%  of  the  total 
number,  were  fully  protected  under  the  $5,000  maximum 
coverage  per  depositor,  while  the  insured  deposits  amounted 
to  $62,000  million  or  45%  of  total  deposits.  The  study 
showed  that  at  Sept.  30,  1949,  there  were  about  2,250,000 
accounts  of  between  $5,000  and  $10,000,  and  that  additional 
insured  deposits  with  a  coverage  of  $10,000  amounted  to 
$10,600  million. 

Consumer  credit  expansion  played  a  very  important  role 
in  business  developments  during  the  year.  By  Dec.  31,  1950, 
total  consumer  credit  reached  a  record  height  of  about 
$20,000  million,  an  increase  of  $3,200  million  from  the  end 
of  Dec.  1949.  (See  CONSUMER  CREDIT.) 

The  decline  in  the  U.S.  gold  stock,  which  had  started  after 
devaluation  of  the  pound  sterling  and  other  currencies  in 
Sept.  1949,  continued  at  an  intensified  rate.  At  the  end  of 
Dec.  1950,  the  gold  stock  stood  at  $22,800  million,  about 
$1,900  million  less  than  the  record  of  about  $24,700  million 
reached  just  before  devaluation  of  the  pound.  Most  of  the 
gold  sold  net  by  the  U.S.  to  foreign  countries  was  held  and 
earmarked  for  the  account  of  foreign  monetary  authorities 
at  the  Federal  Reserve  Bank  of  New  York,  where  gold  under 
earmark  for  the  account  of  foreign  central  banks  and  inter- 
national institutions  amounted  to  more  than  $5,600  million 
on  Dec.  29,  1950,  as  against  $4,000  million  on  Sept.  30,  1949, 
The  accelerated  U.S.  gold  sales  reflected  in  part  a  more  rapid 
conversion  into  gold  of  dollar  balances  acquired  by  foreign 
nations,  but  chiefly  the  more  rapid  aquisition  of  dollars  by 
foreign  countries  which  resulted  from  the  sharp  increase 
in  U.S.  imports  at  very  high  prices  after  the  outbreak  of  the 
war  in  Korea. 

During  1950  as  a  whole  the  gross  federal  debt  declined  by 
about  $400  million  to  $256,700  million  on  Dec.  31,  1950. 
Total  marketable  obligations  were  reduced  by  $2,700  million. 
The  amount  outstanding  of  treasury  notes  rose  sharply  and 
that  of  certificates  of  indebtedness  and  marketable  bonds 
fell,  reflecting  the  issue  of  notes  for  certificates  and  bonds  in 
exchange  operations.  Non-marketable  public  issues  out- 
standing continued  to  rise,  with  increases  of  $1,300  million 
in  United  States  savings  bonds  of  all  series  including  accrued 
discount  and  $1,000  million  in  treasury  savings  notes. 


BANK  OF  ENGLAND-BANK  OF  FRANCE 


87 


Redemptions  of  series  E  savings  bonds  exceeded  sales  after 
*  May,  however,  and  growing  attention  was  being  given  to  the 
problem  of  refunding  the  series  E  bonds  when  they  would 
begin  to  mature  in  May  1951.  Special  issues,  held  by  govern- 
ment trust  funds  and  corporations,  rose  during  the  year  by 
$700  million. 

The  volume  of  bank  debits  of  the  banks  in  333  reporting 
centres  reached  another  high  level  in  1950.  The  annual  rate 
of  turnover  of  demand  deposits,  except  inter-bank  and 
government,  showed  a  substantial  increase,  from  27-3  in 
Oct.  1949  to  30-7  in  Oct.  1950  for  New  York  city  banks, 
and  from  18-5  in  Oct.  1949  to  20-9  in  Oct.  1950  for  banks 
in  other  leading  cities.  The  increase  in  the  velocity  of  the 
circulation  of  the  privately  held  money  supply  as  well  as  the 
increase  in  the  quantity  of  deposits  and  currency  financed 
the  post-Korea  increase  in  money  expenditures  throughout 
the  economy.  (J.  K.  L.) 

Mutual  Savings  Banks.  For  the  year  ended  July  1,  1950, 
assets  of  the  mutual  savings  banks  in  the  United  States 
increased  by  $1,181  million  (5-6%)  to  a  total  of  $22,293 
million,  and  deposits  increased  by  $991  million  (5-2%)  to  a 
total  of  $19,939  million.  In  the  year  ended  July  1,  1949, 
the  increases  were  $849  million  or  4-2%  and  $739  million 
or  4  •  1  %  respectively.  On  July  1,  1950,  the  combined  surplus 
was  $2,210  million,  equivalent  to  11-1%  of  deposits.  On 
July  1,  1949,  the  combined  surplus  was  $2,063  million  or 
10-9%  of  deposits.  Accounts  increased  by  345,115  (1-8%) 
to  a  total  of  19,531,373  at  July  1,  1950  On  Dec.  1,  1950, 
there  were  529  mutual  savings  banks  with  212  branches  in 
operation.  There  was  a  decrease  of  2  banks  and  an  increase 
of  14  branches  during  1950.  The  combined  assets  of  all 
mutual  savings  banks  on  July  1,  1950,  were  invested  as 
follows:  U.S.  government  securities  51  -91  %;  other  securities 
10-91%;  mortgage  loans  31-82%;  cash  and  other  assets 
5-36%.  On  July  1,  1949,  the  investment  classification  was: 
U.S.  government  securities  55-22%;  other  securities  1 1  -21  %; 
mortgage  loans  28-18%;  cash  and  other  assets  5-39%. 

Savings  Bank  Life  Insurance.  At  the  end  of  Oct.  1950 
there  were  259  savings  banks  in  the  states  of  Connecticut, 
Massachusetts  and  New  York  selling  savings  bank  life 
insurance;  of  these,  82  were  issuing  banks  and  177  were 
agency  banks.  The  amount  of  savings  bank  life  insurance  in 
force  and  number  of  policies  represented  were:  Connecticut 
$14,015,028  in  force,  representing  14,772  policies;  Massa- 
chusetts $392,869,673  in  force,  representing  423,345  policies; 
and  New  York  $171,752,816  in  force,  representing  124,445 
policies.  Combined  there  was  $578,637,517  in  force,  repre- 
senting 562,562  policies.  (See  also  BANK  FOR  INTERNATIONAL 
SETTLEMENTS;  BANK  OF  ENGLAND;  BANK  OF  FRANCE;  BUSI- 
NESS REVIEW;  EXPORT-IMPORT  BANK  OF  WASHINGTON; 
FEDERAL  RESERVE  SYSTEM;  INTERNATIONAL  BANK  FOR  RECON- 
STRUCTION AND  DEVELOPMENT;  INTERNATIONAL  MONETARY 
FUND.)  (HE.  BR.) 

BANK  OF  ENGLAND.  Problems  arising  from  the 
important  changes  in  the  external  payments  position  of  the 
United  Kingdom  after  devaluation  of  the  pound  in  1949  held 
the  main  attention  of  the  bank  throughout  1950.  As  adviser 
to  the  Treasury  on  currency  and  the  institution  responsible 
for  the  administration  of  the  country's  exchange  control 
machinery,  the  bank  played  a  large  part  in  formulating  and 
implementing  the  decisions  taken  by  the  government  to  meet 
the  situation  created  by  the  improvement  in  Great  Britain's 
current  account  payments,  by  the  substantial  influx  of  "  hot " 
money  into  the  country  in  the  second  half  of  the  year  and  by 
other  developments.  It  was  also  active  in  the  negotiations 
which  led  to  full  British  participation  in  the  European 
Payments  union  set  up  by  the  Organization  for  European 
Economic  Co-operation. 


Steps  taken  by  the  bank  in  connection  with  the  decision  to 
promote  the  wider  use  of  sterling  as  an  international  currency 
included  the  partial  relaxation  of  restrictions  on  the  transfer 
of  sterling  securities  between  non-residents  of  the  sterling  area 
and  the  extension  of  an  offer  to  countries  inside  the  O.E.E.C. 
group  to  become  full  members  of  the  sterling  transferable 
account  system. 

Movements  in  the  bank's  note  circulation  were  on  a  slightly 
larger  scale  than  in  the  previous  year.  But  inflationary 
pressure  in  Britain  having  developed  less  rapidly  than  had 
been  feared  at  the  time  of  the  devaluation  of  the  pound, 
there  was  no  marked  change  in  the  basic  financial  position 
of  the  bank.  To  meet  the  seasonal  demand  the  total  of  notes 
in  issue  was  raised  in  the  summer  by  £50  million  by  increasing 
the  fiduciary  issue.  Contrary  to  the  usual  practice,  this  was 
not  reversed  at  the  end  of  the  holiday  season.  Early  in  the 
year  the  bank  announced  its  intention  to  return  to  the  prewar 
practice  of  holding  its  main  reserve  of  subsidiary  coinage  on 
the  issue  department.  Owing  to  the  inability  of  the  British 
and  U.S.  governments  to  agree  upon  the  use  to  which  Marshall 
aid  counterpart  funds  should  be  put  there  was  a  considerable 
immobilization  of  money  in  the  special  account  maintained 
by  the  bank  to  receive  these  funds  until  late  in  the  year. 

The  main  items  in  the  bank  returns  in  October,  with 
comparisons  for  1949  and  1948  are  given  in  the  table. 
BANK  OF  ENOLAND 


l\sue  Department 
Notes  in  circulation     . 
Fiduciary  issue 

Banking  Department 
Public  deposits  . 
Treasury  special  account 
Bankers*  deposits 
Other  deposits    . 
Government  securities 
Other  securities  . 
Reserve  of  notes  and  coin 


Oct.  27,  1948  Oct.  26, 1949  Oct.  25, 1950 
(£  million)      (£  million)      (£  million) 


1,231 
1,300 

13 

20 

307 

93 

322 
37 
72 


1,259 
1,300 

17 

63 

298 

107 

403 

27 

47 


1,273 
1,350 

13 
266 
315 

89 
556 

67 

80 


The  bank  published  a  survey  of  United  Kingdom  overseas 
investment  during  1938-48.  (C.  H.  G.  T.) 

BANK  OF  FRANCE.  The  restriction  of  credit, 
enforced  since  the  close  of  1948  to  implement  the  government's 
anti-inflation  policyvwas  to  some  extent  relaxed  in  the  early 
part  of  1950.  Tahelp  to  check  the  decline  in  business  activity 
the  discount  rate  was  reduced  and  steps  taken  to  encourage 
the  commercial  banks  to  grant  more  generous  credit  facilities 
to  private  enterprises. 

The  rise  in  French  prices,  partly  owing  to  developments  in 
world  commodity  markets  and  partly  to  the  inability  of  the 
government  to  eliminate  the  budget  deficit,  brought  increased 
demand  for  currency.  This,  in  conjunction  with  an  increase 
in  note  hoarding,  produced  a  considerable  rise  in  the  note 
circulation.  An  agreement  concluded  with  the  Treasury  for 
the  revaluation  of  the  bank's  gold  stock  (previously  valued 
on  the  1945  gold  value  of  the  franc)  to  take  account  of  the 
postwar  series  of  devaluations  was  implemented  in  August. 
The  book  profit  on  the  transaction  of  Fr.  126,000  million  was 
used  to  redeem  French  Treasury  bills  held  by  the  bank,  to 
reimburse  a  dollar  loan  obtained  by  the  government  in  the 
U.S.  in  1947  and  to  increase  the  state's  autonomous  redemp- 
tion fund. 

In  the  same  month  the  bank  agreed  to  participate  in 
arrangements  whercby^the  franc  proceeds  of  two  new  dollar 
loans  secured  by  the  French  Treasury  from  U.S.  banks  would 
be  used  to  ease  the  government's  internal  financing  problem. 
The  bank  furnished  the  exchange  stabilization  fund  at  intervals 
during  the  year  with  considerable  additional  quantities  of 
francs  to  finance  purchases  of  gold  and  foreign  exchange. 
The  increase  in  lending  to  the  state  on  this  account  largely 


BAPTIST  CHURCH— BASEBALL 


neutralized  the  contraction  in  the  bank's  advances  to  the 
government  produced  by  the  gold  revaluation  operation. 

BANK  OP  FRANCE 

Sept.  30, 1948  Sept.  29, 1949  Sept.  28, 1950 
(Fr.  million)  (Fr.  million)  (Fr.  million) 
Assets 

Gold         .         .         .  65,200  65,200  182,875 

Private   discounts   and   ad 

vanccs   .         .  257,800          442,400          415,837 

Advances  to  state  711,700          715,200          717,042 

Liabilities 

910,600 
800 
191,300 


1,210,600 

200 

138,800 


1,467,425 

94 

156,837 


Notes 

Government  deposits 

Other  deposits    . 

The  bank  introduced  notes  with  denominations  of 
Fr.  5,000  and  Fr.  10,000  in  July.  Previously  the  largest  note 
in  circulation  was  valued  at  Fr.  1,000,  an  earlier  issue  of 
Fr.  5,000  notes  having  been  withdrawn  at  the  beginning  of 
1948.  Early  in  the  year  the  form  of  the  bank's  weekly  return 
was  changed  to  provide  more  detailed  information  about  the 
composition  of  the  bill  portfolio  and  the  ownership  of 
creditor  accounts.  (C.  H.  G.  T.) 

BAPTIST  CHURCH.  The  major  event  for  world 
Baptists  in  1950  was  the  eighth  congress  of  the  Baptist  World 
alliance  at  Cleveland,  Ohio,  during  July.  The  registration  of 
45,000  from  48  nations  was  exceeded  only  by  the  57,000  who 
had  attended  the  sixth  congress,  Atlanta,  Georgia,  in  1939. 
Representing  18  million  Baptists  throughout  the  world,  the 
congress  demanded  freedom  of  peoples  evcrywher ,  and,  under 
the  conviction  that  all  nations  are  guilty  under  God  for  war, 
called  for  the  practice  of  religious  good  will  and  co-operation 
as  the  only  assurance  of  peace.  F.  Townley  Lord  of  London, 
England,  succeeded  C.  Oscar  Johnson,  St.  Louis,  Missouri, 
as  president. 

The  Australian  Baptists  faced  serious  missionary  handicaps 
resulting  from  the  devaluation  of  the  pound.  After  Youth 
month  in'  July,  Australian  Baptists  announced  that  youth 
responds  to  adequate  leadership,  respects  self-evident 
authority  and  prefers  to  choose  its  own  allegiance.  Edu- 
cational films  emphasized  Christian  home  life  and  churches 
held  father-and-son  and  mother-and-daughter  banquets. 

The  assembly  of  the  Baptist  Union  of  Soutlj  Africa,  in 
September,  resolved  to  establish  a  Baptist  theological  college 
in  1951  at  Johannesburg  to  enjoy  facilities  of  the  University 
of  the  Witwatersrand.  The  union  reported  J4,391  members; 
700  baptisms  in  the  European  churches,  125  in  the  non- 
European  and  1,168  in  the  Bantu. 

The  Baptist  Missionary  society,  reporting  on  the  progress 
of  work  in  Ceylon,  announced  that  the  enrolment  at  Carey 
Boys'  college,  Colombo,  had  increased  during  1945-50  from 
300  to  1,000,  and  that  the  girls*  schools  such  as  those  in 
Colombo,  Matale  and  Ratnapura,  had  increased  similarly 
in  numbers.  Protestant  bodies  discussed  closer  union  in  the 
island.  The  Baptist  Missionary  society  of  London  also 
announced  that  the  officers  and  staff  of  Whitewright  institute, 
established  in  China  in  1910,  were  all  Chinese  in  1950. 
During  the  year  30,500  people  heard  the  gospel  there. 

The  Foreign  Mission  board  of  the  Southern  Baptist 
convention  opened  a  theological  seminary  in  Zurich,  Switzer- 
land, with  30  students  from  16  nations.  All  the  trustees 
were  European  Baptists.  The  faculty  was  international— 
the  president  Scandinavian,  the  professors  Swiss,  British  and 
American.  Sixty  ministers  and  students  attended  the  Euro- 
pean Baptist  Ministers  conference  at  the  seminary  in  June. 

The  Southern  Baptist  convention  met  in  Chicago  with  a 
registration  of  8,151  messengers  from  a  membership  of 
6,761,265.  The  Northern  Baptist  convention,  meeting  at 
Boston,  changed  its  name  to  the  American  Baptist  convention. 
The  registration  of  12,182  at  the  convention  broke  all  records. 
A  membership  of  1,561,073  was  reported. 


An  extract  from  an  address  on  personal  freedom,  printed 
in  the  Baptist  Times,  London,  which  called  attention  to  the 
existence  of  police  state  conditions  in  the  U.S.S.R.  and  else- 
where, drew  a  reply  from  the  All-Union  Council  of  Evan- 
gelical Christian  Baptists  in  Russia  denying  the  impution. 

(R.  E.  E.  H.) 

BARBADOS.  British  colony,  the  most  easterly  of  the 
Caribbean  islands.  Area:  166  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1946  census): 
192,841;  (1950  est.)  202,669.  Language:  English.  Religion: 
Christian  (c.  70%  Anglican).  Capital  and  chief  port,  Bridge- 
town (pop.,  1948,  13,345).  Administration:  governor; 
executive  council,  2  ex  officio  members  and  nominated 
members;  executive  committee,  which  introduces  all  money 
votes  and  initiates  all  government  measures,  consists  of  the 
members  of  the  executive  council  ex  officio  9  and  1  member 
of  the  Legislative  Council  and  4  from  the  House  of 
Assembly  appointed  by  the  governor;  legislature  consisting 
of  the  Legislative  Council,  not  more  than  15  members 
appointed  by  the  King,  and  the  House  of  Assembly,  24  elected 
members.  Governor,  Alfred  William  Lungley  Savage. 

History.  The  most  important  pieces  of  legislation  passed 
during  1950  were  probably  the  Adult  Suffrage  act,  giving  the 
franchise  to  men  and  women  over  21  years  of  age  without 
any  property  qualifications,  and  the  Petroleum  act,  granting 
a  prospecting  license  to  the  Gulf  Oil  company.  The  latter 
act  renewed  possibilities  which  had  been  debated  for  many 
years  of  establishing  another  major  industry  in  the  island 
besides  the  cultivation  of  sugar  on  which  the  economy  of 
Barbados  had  largely  depended  for  three  centuries. 

Long  known  as  a  winter  resort,  Barbados  witnessed  during 
the  year  a  considerable  development  in  the  summer  tourist 
trade,  the  majority  of  the  visitors  being  Venezuelans.  The 
increased  popularity  of  the  colony  for  tourists  at  all  times 
of  the  year  was  underlined  by  the  beginning  of  operations 
by  the  Trans  Canada  airlines,  which  started  regular  scheduled 
flights  from  Montreal.  To  accommodate  these  and  other 
long-distance  planes  a  new  runway  6,000  ft.  in  length  was 
put  into  use  at  Seawell  airport. 

Barbados  is  a  country  of  expert  cricketers  and  fervent 
followers  of  the  game.  John  Goddard,  the  captain  of  the 
victorious  West  Indian  team  which  toured  Great  Britain  in 
the  summer  of  1950,  is  a  Barbadian,  and  there  were  five  other 
Barbadians  in  the  team.  When  the  ship  bearing  the  captain 
and  other  returning  members  of  the  team  reached  Barbados, 
a  public  holiday  was  declared ;  and  the  victors  were  officially 
welcomed  by  the  governor. 

Finance  and  Trade.  Currency:  West  Indian  dollar  ($4-80~£l). 
Budget  (1949-50):  revenue  $12,150,990;  expenditure  $12,095,842. 
Foreign  trade  (1949):  imports  $33,948,619;  exports  $22,341,775. 
Principal  exports:  sugar,  molasses  and  rum.  (P.  H.-M.) 

BARLEY:  see  GRAIN  CROPS. 

BASEBALL.  Connie  Mack,  for  50  years  manager  of 
the  Philadelphia  Athletics,  retired  on  Oct.  18,  1950,  in  his 
88th  year.  He  had  been  associated  with  the  game  since  1884. 

In  the  top  player  deal  of  the  year,  the  New  York  Yankees 
sent  pitchers  Duane  Pillette  and  Don  Johnson,  second 
baseman  George  (Snuffy)  Stirnweiss,  outfielder  Jimmy 
Delsing  and  $50,000  to  the  St.  Louis  Browns  for  pitchers 
Tom  Ferrick  and  Joe  Ostrowski  and  the  assignment  of  two 
St.  Louis  players  to  New  York's  farm  club  at  Kansas  City, 
Missouri.  The  Giants  claimed  pitcher  Jim  Hearn  from  the 
Cardinals  on  waivers  in  mid-season  and  the  right-hander, 
who  had  a  0 — 1  hill  record  with  the  St.  Louis  club,  went  on 
to  post  an  11 — 4  mark  for  the  campaign.  Late  in  June  the 
Yankees  recalled  pitcher  Edward  (Whitey)  Ford  and  he 
hung  up  nine  victories  against  only  one  defeat  to  highlight  the 
Bombers*  drive  towards  the  American  league  championship. 


BAUDOUIN-  BAYAR 


89 


The  major  leagues'  only  no-hit  game  of  the  season  was 
registered  on  Aug.  1 1  by  Vern  Bickford,  Boston  Braves'  right- 
hander, who  set  down  the  Dodgers,  7  to  0. 

Major  League  Races.  After  a  35-yr.  lapse,  the  Phillies 
captured  the  second  National  league  pennant  in  their  history 
with  a  dramatic,  last-day  victory  over  the  Brooklyn  Dodgers. 
Entering  the  final  day  of  the  season,  the  Phils  held  a  one- 
game  margin  and  were  faced  with  the  prospects  of  a  three- 
game  play-off  for  the  title  if  Brooklyn  should  win  the  con- 
cluding game,  thereby  throwing  the  race  into  a  tie.  With 
Robin  Roberts  hurling  a  five-hitter,  however,  and  Dick 
Sisler  providing  the  pay-off  blow  with  a  three-run  homer, 
the  Phillies  posted  a  ten-inning,  4-to-l  triumph  to  win  their 
first  pennant  since  1915. 

The  Yankees  nailed  down  their  17th  American  league 
championship  on  Sept.  29,  backing  into  the  title  when  the 
runner-up  Tigers  lost  to  Cleveland,  thereby  erasing  their 
last  mathematical  chance  for  the  flag. 

Individual  Performances.  Billy  Goodman,  Red  Sox,  ousted 
George  Kell  of  Detroit  as  the  American  league  batting 
champion  with  an  average  of  •  354.  Stan  Musial  of  St.  Louis 
captured  the  National  league  honours  with  -346.  Ralph 
Kiner  retained  his  major  league  home  run  crown,  clouting 
47  round-trippers  for  the  Pirates.  Al  Rosen,  rookie  Cleve- 
land third  baseman,  led  the  American  league  with  37  homers. 

All-Star  Game.  Albert  (Red)  Schoendienst,  St.  Louis 
Cardinal  second  baseman,  clouted  a  home  run  in  the  14th 
inning  to  enable  the  National  league  stars  to  defeat  the 
American  league  representatives,  4  to  3,  in  the  mid-summer 
classic  at  Comiskey  park  in  Chicago  on  July  11. 

World  Series.  In  the  lowest  scoring  series  in  history,  the 
Yankees  defeated  the  Phillies  in  four  straight  games  to 
register  their  13th  world  championship  and  mark  their 
sixth  win  in  the  minimum  number  of  contests. 

Attendance.  Major  league  turnstile  figures  declined  from 
20,215,365  in  1949  to  17,462,977  in  1950.  '  (L.  RB.) 

BASUTOLAND:  see  BRITISH  SOUTH  AFRICAN  PROTEC- 
TORATES. 

BAUDOUIN  (BAUDOUIN-ALBERT-CHARLES-LEOPOLD- 
AXEL-MARIE-GUSTAVE,  DUKE  OF  BRABANT),  Prince  Royal  of 
Belgium  (b.  Stuyvenberg  castle,  near  Brussels,  Sept.  7,  1930), 
elder  son  of  King  Leopold  III  (q.v.)  and  Queen  Astrid.  Just 
before  he  was  five  he  lost  his  mother  in  a  motor  accident  and 
was  almost  ten  when  Belgium  was  invaded  by  the  Germans. 
With  his  elder  sister  Princess  Josephine-Charlotte  and  his 
younger  brother  Prince  Albert  he  was  sent  in  May  1940  to 
Cahors,  France;  in  June  he  reached  Lisbon,  but  at  the  end 
of  July  he  rejoined  his  father  at  Laeken  palace  where  the 
royal  family  remained  in  seclusion.  He  accompanied  his 
father  during  his  internment  in  Germany  (June  1944 — May 
1945)  and  his  subsequent  voluntary  exile  in  Switzerland.  He 
was  for  the  most  part  privately  educated  but  during  his 
father's  stay  at  Pregny,  near  Geneva  (1945-50),  he  attended  a 
state  college  at  Geneva.  On  Aug.  11,  1950,  by  a  joint  session 
of  the  Senate  and  the  Chamber  of  Representatives,  he  was 
informed  that  parliament  had  granted  him  power  to  exercise 
the  royal  prerogatives,  to  which  he  answered  in  French  and 
Flemish,  "  I  accede  to  the  wish  of  parliament."  He  took  the 
oath  to  observe  the  constitution  and  the  law.  By  the  terms 
of  his  father's  abdication  he  was  to  ascend  the  throne  on 
Sept.  7,  1951. 

BAYAR,  CELAL,  Turkish  statesman  (b.  Umurbey, 
near  Bursa,  May  15,  1884),  the  son  of  a  Turkish  immigrant 
from  Bulgaria.  To  his  father's  advanced  views  he  owed  the 
unusual  opportunity  of  education  at  a  French  school  at 
Bursa.  Later,  imbued  with  the  western  outlook,  he  entered 


Prince  Baudouin,  the  Prince  Royal,  saluting  after  placing  a  wreath 
on  the  tomb  of  the  unknown  warrior  in  Brussels,  Nov.  1950. 

the  Deutsche  Orient  Bank,  a  field  which  had  hitherto  been 
reserved  to  foreigners  or  Turkish  subjects  belonging  to 
national  minorities.  After  the  Young  Turk  revolution  in 
1908  he  became  secretary  of  the  Committee  of  Union  and 
Progress  in^  Izmir,  in  which  capacity  he  worked  hard  for 
Turkish  nationalism.  In  the  revolution  of  Kemal  Atatiirk 
and  the  war  against  the  Greek  invasion  he  took  an  active 
part,  placing  himself  at  the  head  of  the  resistance  movement. 
Disguised  as  an  itinerant  teacher,  he  toured  the  country 
co-ordinating  activities.  From  Feb.  27,  1921,  to  Jan.  15, 
1922,  he  was  minister  of  national  economy  for  the  first  time. 
On  March  6,  1924,  he  was  appointed  minister  for  exchange 
and  rehabilitation  of  refugees.  He  resigned  oh  July  7  of 
the  same  year  to  become  head  of  the  newly  founded  I§ 
(Business)  bank.  On  Sept.  9,  1932,  he  returned  to  the  govern- 
ment as  minister  of  national  economy  for  the  second  time, 
became  acting  prime  minister  on  Sept.  20,  1937,  and  suc- 
ceeded Ismet  Inonii  as  prime  minister  on  Oct.  25  of  the 
same  year.  Following  the  death  of  Atatiirk  (Nov.  1938)  and 
the  election  of  Inonii  as  second  president  of  the  republic, 
Bayar  resigned  on  Jan.  25,  1939.  Re-elected  deputy,  he 
became  the  leader  of  a  minority  within  the  Republican 
People's  party  who  warned  their  colleagues  against  the 
dangers  of  a  one-party  system.  In  June  1945  he  resigned 
from  the  R.P.P.  and  on  Jan.  7,  1946,  formed  the  Democratic 
party,  which  was  permitted  to  win  62  seats  in  the  elections 
on  July  21,  1946,  and  which  under  his  leadership  secured 
an  overwhelming  victory  in  the  elections  of  May  14,  1950. 
He  was  elected  third  president  of  the  Turkish  republic  by 
the  new  parliament  by  387  votes  against  64  for  Inonii. 


BECHUANALAND: 

PROTECTORATES. 


see    BRITISH    SOI/TH   AFRICAN 


90 


BEEKEEPING— BELGIAN  COLONIAL  EMPIRE 


BEEKEEPING.  Speaking  generally,  1950  was  a  disap- 
pointing year  to  British  beekeepers.  The  large  acreage  of 
(and  under  the  plough  limited  the  foraging  grounds  to  such 
an  extent  that  perfect  climatic  conditions  were  necessary 
for  real  success.  This  proved  far  from  realization. 

During  the  period  of  fruit  blossom  the  weather  was  never 
ideal,  and,  just  as  at  the  time  of  later  nectar  flows,  the  nights 
were  too  cold  for  generous  nectar  secretion.  A  few  apiarists 
were  fortunate,  however,  and  received  encouragement  by 
fair  returns  for  their  labour;  but  there  is  little  doubt  that  the 
average  yield  from  each  colony  fell  well  below  20  Ib.  The 
quality  of  honey  was  much  inferior  to  that  which  prevailed 
in  the  previous  year.  Light-coloured  honey  was  not  nearly 
so  common  as  in  an  average  season.  More  often  it  was 
medium  to  dark,  and  sometimes  spoilt  by  honey  dew.  The 
density  of  most  honeys  was  low,  though  sometimes  with 
flavour  and  aroma  of  distinction. 

Poverty  in  the  brood  chambers  was  more  marked  than 
usual,  consequently  the  allowance  of  sugar  for  winter  feeding 
was  insufficient,  and  fear  was  expressed  that  many  colonies 
would  not  survive  the  winter. 

In  some  areas  as  often  happens  in  a  poor  season,  swarming 
became  annoyingly  excessive.  On  the  removal  of  surplus 
many  colonies  were  found  to  be  either  quecnless,  headed  by 
drone-breeder  queens,  or  hampered  by  the  presence  of  fertile 
workers.  In  the  latter  situation  beekeepers  found  re  queening 
difficult  and  many  good  young  queens  were  lost. 

Beekeepers  fortunately  situated  near  ling-growing  moors 
had  high  hopes  of  compensation  from  them,  but  again  the 
weather  was  not  too  helpful  and  returns  from  the  heather 
were  meagre. 

Disease  made  its  usual  appearances  in  various  parts  of  the 
country.  A  few  districts  suffered  rather  heavily,  in  some  cases 
due  to  the  ignorance  of  the  beginner,  but  far  too  frequently 
the  result  of  sheer  carelessness  on  the  part  of  beekeepers  of 
some  experience.  Experts  insisted  that  neither  American  nor 
European  Foul  Brood  yielded  to  any  treatment  but  the  des- 
truction by  fire  of  every  comb,  quilt,  etc..  that  had  been  in 
contact  with  a  diseased  colony.  This  should  be  followed  by 
heavy  disinfection  of  all  hive  parts  with  a  strong  solution  of 
carbolic  acid.  A  high  percentage  of  colonies!  were  again 
infested  with  the  mites  responsible  for  Acarine  disease  and 
teachers  of  apiculture  again  urged  the  timely  use  of  the  Frow 
remedy  or  oil  of  wintergreen.  P  (W.  H.  R.) 

BEER :  see  BREWING  AND  BEER. 


BELGIAN  COLONIAL 

EMPIRE 

Country          Population 

Capital, 

Principal  Products 

Foreign  Trade 

and  Area         (Feb.  28, 

Status  and 

(1949) 

(Francsf  million) 

(in  sq.mi.)       1949  est.) 

Governor 

(including  Ruanda 

(including  Ruanda 

and  Urundi) 

and  Urundi) 

BF.LGIAN  Native  10,914,208 

Ldopoldville  ; 

Diamonds  (carats) 

CONGO  White         51,639* 

colony;  governor 

9,884,000 

1949 

<XV4.974  (including    36,510 

general:    Eugene 

Gold  (kg.)  .         .      10,383 

Imports  10,346 

Belgians) 

Jungers 

(metric  tons) 

(93  1,500  metric  tons) 

Silver           .                    141 

Exports  11,155 

Copper  (metal) 

141,399 

(836,700  metric  tons) 

Tin  (metal)  . 

13,365 

Cobalt 

1,976 

1950  (six  months) 

Manganese  ore 

12,247 

Tungsten     . 

169 

Imports  4,574 

Cadmium    . 

25 

(438,000  metric  tons) 

Zinc  (concentrate 

)  109,263 

Exports  5,845 

Coal  . 

152,370 

(407,800  metric  tons) 

Palm  oil 

121,226 

RUANDA            (1948  est.) 

Nianza(  Ruanda) 

Palm  kernels 

80,034 

AND        Native     3,386,362 

Kitega  (Urundi) 

Gum  copal  . 

10,721 

URUNDI 

trust  territory 

Cotton 

46,806 

20.120 

administered 

Coffee 

31,434 

with  Congo 

Maize 

17.271 

Timber 

71,359 

BELGIAN  COLONIAL  EMPIRE.  The  Belgian 
colonial  empire  consists  of  the  colony  of  the  Congo  in  central 
Africa  and  the  adjacent  trust  territories  of  Ruanda  and 
Urundi.  The  accompanying  table  gives  material  relative  to 
all  territories  administered  by  Belgium.  Total  area:  about 
925,094  sq.mi.  Total  pop.  (1949  est):  about  14,352,200. 
Chief  towns  (white  population  only,  Dec.  1948  est): 
L&>poldville  (cap.,  7,244);  Elisabethville  (6,240);  Stanleyville 
(1,517);  Costermanville  (1,511). 

History.  The  10-year  plan  for  the  Congo's  economic  and 
social  development  published  in  1949  naturally  formed  the 
starting  point  for  1 950.  Pierre  Wigny,  minister  for  the  colonies, 
obtained  approval  for  his  schemes  from  the  Belgian  cabinet 
in  February  and  visited  London  and  Paris  to  obtain  informal 
co-ordination  from  two  governments  with  neighbouring 
colonial  interests.  Eugene  Jungers,  governor  general  of  the 
Congo,  expounded  aspects  of  the  programme  to  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  Congo  government  council  at  Leopoldville 
(July  17-22). 

Two  important  steps  to  raise  Native  standards  were  the 
opening  of  the  first  all-Native  co-operatives  of  many  types 
(planters,  fishermen,  artisans,  etc.)  under  government  super- 
vision and  the  creation  of  a  savings  bank  in  which  Natives 
were  for  the  first  time  allowed  to  deposit  both  personal  and 
corporate  funds.  A  decree  was  passed  prohibiting  polygamy 
after  the  end  of  1950. 

Representations  by  the  principal  organization  of  white 
settlers  (U.C.O.L.),  asking  for  the  exclusion  of  Natives  from 
the  nominated  and  consultative  government  council,  were 
rebuffed  by  Jungers.  Proposals  to  create  a  Congo  Legislative 
Council,  with  powers  comparable  to  those  of  the  Belgian 
parliament,  he  referred  to  the  government  council,  which 
rejected  them.  The  government  council,  however,  asked  that 
it  should  be  compulsory  for  the  government  to  submit 
proposed  decrees  of  importance  to  the  council  or  its  standing 
committee  and  to  justify  before  its  members  any  failure  to 
introduce  such  legislation  as  the  council  might  twice  request. 
At  the  same  time  the  council  reaffirmed  the  governor  general's 
duty  to  issue  urgent  decrees  on  his  own  responsibility. 

Under  the  10-year  plan  the  colony's  44,000  European 
population  required  to  be  doubled.  A  propaganda  campaign 
was  opened  in  Belgium  to  attract  professional  skill  to  the 
Congo,  especially  engineers,  agricultural  technicians  and 
doctors.  Plans  were  approved  for  a  new  airport  20  km.  east 
of  Leopoldville,  and  arrangements  made  for  the  Belgian  air 
force  to  do  much  of  its  training  in  the  Congo.  Additional 
hydro-electric  plants  were  erected,  chiefly  in  the  Katanga 


Road,  Rail  and 
Waterways 
(including  Ruanda 

and  Urundi) 

Roads  (1949): 

116,303km. 

Railways    (1948): 
4,747  km. 

Waterways  (1948): 

25,412km. 

(including    12,284 

km.  for  barges  of 

40  tons  only) 


Motor  vehicles 

(excluding  Ruanda 

and  Urundi 

Dec.  1949): 


Budget 
( Francs  t  '000) 

Belgian  Congo 

(1949) 

Revenue        4,562,602 
Expenditure  4.460,764 

(1950  est.) 

Revenue       4.032,220 
Expenditure  4,008,982 
Index  number  of 
the  cost  of  living 
(July  1935-100) 
(July  1950-258) 


*  Including  Ruanda  and  Urundi.          t  Although  the  Congolese  franc  waj  technically  an  independent  currency 
1949  was  equally  devalued  by  12  34%  to  the  U.S.  dollar. 


Ruandi-  Urundi 
(1949  actual) 
Revenue  232,062 

Expenditure     347,504 
Cars.         .    8,000  (1950  est.) 

Commercial  Revenue  276,919 

vehicles    12,000      Expenditure    225,164 
it  was  equal  to  the  Belgian  franc  and  in  Sept 


BELGIUM 


91 


Youngsters  of  the  Belgian   Congo   carrying  light-weight   models 
which  they  have  made  of  river  steamers. 

province  and  the  neighbourhood  of  Stanleyville.  In  both  these 
areas  there  was  an  extension  of  private  building;  elsewhere 
postwar  construction  had  roughly  caught  up  with  the  housing 
shortage.  Public  works  absorbed  the  increased  cement  output. 
Work  went  forward  in  the  construction  of  a  military  base  at 
Kamina  in  the  Lualaba  province,  west  of  Katanga. 

Among  many  new  commercial  ventures  were  the  first 
margarine  factory  and  the  equipment  of  silk-spinning  plant. 
The  largest  trade  exhibition  ever  held  in  the  Congo,  with  250 
Belgian  and  100  other  exhibitors,  took  place  in  July  at 
Elisabeth vi lie.  Navigation  on  the  upper  Congo  was  handi- 
capped by  the  abnormal  growth  of  papyrus  on  Lake  Kisale, 
for  a  time  delaying  transport  from  Katanga. 

In  October  a  4  %  Congo  loan  of  60  million  Swiss  francs,  to  be 
repaid  in  ten  annual  instalments  from  the  end  of  1959,  was  float- 
ed. Other  financial  developments  included  the  raising  of  the 
official  rate  for  "  free  "  gold  sales  from  the  Congo  from  64,000 
to  66,000  Belgian  francs  a  kilogram.  A  number  of  Natives  in 
the  Kivu  province  and  Ruanda-Urundi  were  arrested  on  a 
charge  of  illicitly  extracting  and  exporting  alluvial  gold. 

The  activities  of  a  Czech  sculptor  making  terracotta  heads 
and  busts  revived  macabre  rumours  that  meat-tins  trade- 
marked  with  a  negro's  head  were  filled  with  kidnapped 
Natives.  A  large-scale  riot  at  Leopoldville  in  June  resulted. 

Ruanda-Urundi.  In  February  the  U.N.  Trusteeship  council 
approved  the  administration  of  this  territory,  but  recom- 
mended steps  to  abolish  flogging.  They  rejected  the  claim  of 
Mwambutsa,  mwami  (king)  of  Urundi,  to  the  legal  sover- 
eignty of  60,000  inhabitants  of  the  Bugufi  district  of  Tangan- 
yika. Accompanied  by  his  brother  and  three  other  chiefs, 
Mwambutsa  visited  Belgium  in  July  (as  the  mwami  of  Ruanda 
had  done  the  year  before).  He  was  received  by  the  regent 
and  subsequently  by  King  Leopold  and  Queen  Elisabeth.  His 
tour  outside  Brussels  included  Antwerp,  Ghent  and  Namur. 

Education.  Belgian  Congo  (Jan.  1949):  European  schools  44,  pupils 
6,470;  Native  schools  26,293,  pupils  878,972.  Ruanda-Urandi  (Jan. 
1949):  state  schools  2,  pupils  1,240,  Native  teachers  21 ;  Roman  Catholic 
schools  3,549,  pupils  289,835,  Native  teachers  4,749;  Protestant  schools 
437,  pupilf  34,322,  Native  teachers  638.  (H.  D.  Z.) 


BELGIUM.  Kingdom  in  western  Europe  bounded  S.W, 
by  France,  N.  by  the  Netherlands  and  E.  by  Germany  and 
Luxembourg.  Area  (incl.  some  German  frontier  localities 
annexed  on  April  15,  1949)  11,782-5  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1947 
census)  8,512,195;  (1948  est.)  8,602,611.  Language  (1930): 
Flemish  (Dutch)  42-92%,  French  37-56%,  German  0-85%, 
Dutch  and  French  12-92%,  German  and  French  0-83%. 
Religion:  mainly  Roman  Catholic;  Jewish  35,000.  Chief 
towns  (pop.,  1948  est.;  first  figure  including  suburbs,  second 
figure  commune  only) :  Brussels  (q. v.,  cap.,  1 ,296,687,  1 85, 1 1 2) ; 
Antwerp  (chief  port,  794,280,  266,636);  Liege  (573,176, 
156,664);  Charleroi  (445,229,  26,262);  Ghent  (442,792, 
166,797);  Namur  (215,069,  31,637);  Bruges  (200,850,  52,984). 
Ruler,  King  Leopold  III  (^.v.);  regents  in  1950,  Prince 
Charles  and  (from  Aug.  11)  Prince  Baudouin  (^.v.);  prime 
ministers  in  1950,  Gaston  Eyskens,  Jean  Duvieusart  (^.v., 
from  June  8)  and  Joseph  Pholien  fy.v.,  from  Aug.  15). 

History.  Belgian  politics  in  1950  were  wholly  dominated  by 
the  royal  question.  The  bill,  already  passed  by  the  Senate,  to 
authorize  a  referendum  on  the  desirability  of  King  Leopold's 
resuming  his  prerogatives  was  debated  in  the  Chamber  of 
Representatives  throughout  January  and  finally  passed  (117 
votes  to  92)  on  Feb.  8.  The  referendum,  at  which  voting  was 
compulsory,  was  to  be  purely  advisory.  The  king  had 
indicated  beforehand  that  if  he  received  less  than  55%  of  the 
votes  cast  he  would  withdraw  in  Prince  Baudouin's  favour. 
The  Socialists,  with  some  Liberal  support,  maintained  that 
only  a  Leopoldist  vote  of  66%  or  70%  in  the  country  as  a 
whole,  with  at  least  a  bare  majority  in  each  of  the  three 
regions — Flanders,  French-speaking  Wallonia  and  Brussels—- 
would justify  his  return. 

After  a  vigorous  campaign  of  posters,  leaflets  and  wall- 
slogans  the  referendum  passed  off  quietly  on  March  12. 
It  showed  a  57-68%  majority  for  the  king  (2,933,745  against 
2,151,099).  But  whereas  Flanders  produced  a  72%  Leopoldist 
result,  the  Walloon  vote  was  57-8%  hostile  and  Brussels 
polled  51*8%  against  the  king.  Summoning  the  Social 
Christian  (Catholic)  premier,  Gaston  Eyskens,  and  the  presi- 
dents of  the  two  houses  of  parliament  to  his  home  at  Pregny, 
near  Geneva,  King  Leopold  issued  a  statement  showing  that 
while  he  would  not  take  action  in  advance  of  parliament's 
verdict,  he  himself  interpreted  the  results  as  a  signal  for  his 
recall. 

The  Social  Christian  majority  of  the  government  was  now 
anxious  to  summon  a  joint  session  of  the  two  houses  to  end 
the  regency.  The  Liberals,  however,  withdrew  their  eight 
representatives  from  the  two-party  cabinet,  which  resigned 
on  March  18.  The  Socialists  gave  notice  that  they  would 
oppose  the  king's  return  by  every  means,  including  a  general 
strike.  A  series  of  24-hr.  **  spontaneous  warning  strikes  " 
was  already  occurring  in  the  mining  areas  of  Wallonia,  and 
a  similar  protest  strike  of  a  day  paralysed  the  Antwerp  docks 
on  March  20. 

Two  days  later  the  81 -year-old  Count  Henri  Carton  de 
Wiart,  a  former  Catholic  premier,  was  instructed  by  the 
regent  to  explore  the  possibilities  of  a  new  government. 
He  called  on  March  23,  for  the  first  time  since  1914,  a  meeting 
of  ministers  of  state  (privy  councillors),  but  made  no  progress 
towards  reconstructing  the  coalition.  He  gave  up  the  attempt 
next  day.  Already  fresh  strikes  were  occurring  in  Wallonia 
and  Brussels.  The  regent  caused  general  surprise  by  asking 
Albert  Deveze,  the  outgoing  Liberal  vice  premier  and  minister 
of  defence,  to  form  a  cabinet.  After  a  week's  attempts  to 
bring  about  a  "  solution  of  concord  "  and  a  chilly  interview 
with  King  Leopold,  Deveze  on  April  4  desisted. 

Paul  van  Zeeland,  the  outgoing  Social  Christian  foreign 
minister  and  former  premier,  was  now  called  in.  By  April  7 
he  claimed  to  have  formed  his  government,  but  difficulties 
occurred  with  the  moderates  of  his  own  party.  The  regent 


92 


BELGIUM 


refused  to  approve  his  suggested  cabinet  list  on  April  12, 
and  it  was  understood  that  King  Leopold  himself  doubted 
at  this  stage  the  wisdom  of  recovering  the  throne  as  the 
nominee  of  a  single  party.  Van  Zeeland  and  the  king's 
secretary,  Jacques  Pirenne,  went  to  Geneva  to  see  King 
Leopold,  who  (by  a  recording  made  in  Switzerland)  broad- 
cast to  his  people  on  April  15  for  the  first  time  since  1940. 
His  message  contained  a  suggestion,  previously  mooted  both 
by  Liberals  and  by  Socialists,  that  he  might  return  to  the 
throne  but  **  delegate  the  exercise  of  his  powers  temporarily  " 
to  his  19-year-old  heir. 


The  three  prime  ministers  of  Belgium  in  1950.  Left  to  right,  Lias  ion 
Eyskens,  Jean  Duvieusart  and  Joseph  Pholien. 

At  the  suggestion  of  Paul-Henri  Spaak,  the  Socialist 
ex-premier,  three-party  talks  were  held  to  discuss  hov  this  offer, 
criticized  by  the  extrcmer  Leopoldists,  might  be  implemented. 
The  opposition's  misgivings  lest  the  king  should  ultimately 
resume  his  original  powers  from  Prince  Baudouin  were 
increased  when  a  further  visit  of  van  Zeeland  to  Geneva 
produced  a  refusal  from  the  king  to  leave  Belgium  after 
transferring  his  prerogatives.  The  Socialists  withdrew  from 
the  negotiations,  and  after  fresh  friction  with  the  Liberals 
Eyskens  and  van  Zeeland  jointly  persuaded  the  regent  to 
grant  a  dissolution. 

Elections  were  held  on  June  4.  By  now  Belgium  had 
passed  1 1  weeks  under  a  caretaker  administration.  Parlia- 
ment had  not  met  since  March  7.  No  budget  had  been  passed. 
The  final  stage  of  Benelux  was  still  held  up,  as  well  as  the 
ratification  of  the  European  payments  agreement.  Even  inter- 
national defence  decisions  affecting  Western  Union  and  the 
North  Atlantic  treaty  remained  tentative  while  Belgian 
attention  was  concentrated  upon  the  domestic  royal  question. 
The  electoral  contest,  with  this  as  the  main  issue,  was  luke- 
warm, all  parties  having  virtually  exhausted  their  funds  and 
their  arguments. 

The  Social  Christians  gaining  47-68%  of  the  votes  (just 
10%  below  the  Leopoldists'  results  in  the  referendum), 
returned  with  108  out  of  212  scats  in  the  Chamber— the  first 
clear  parliamentary  majority  since  1914.  The  Socialists  had 
77  seats,  Liberals  20,  Communists  7.  Jean  Duvieusart, 
50-year-old  minister  for  economic  affairs  in  the  Eyskens 
government,  formed  a  new  all-Catholic  cabinet  of  eight 
Flemings  and  seven  Walloons.  Duvieusart  visited  King 
Leopold  and,  having  announced  his  intention  of  calling  a 
joint  session  of  the  two  houses  to  repeal  the  Regency  law, 
obtained  a  vote  of  confidence  from  each  house  separately. 

The  joint  session  began  formally  on  July  6,  but  the  real 
debate  did  not  start  till  July  12.  Noisy  Socialist  obstruction 
protracted  the  joint  session.  But  on  July  20,  the  bill  ending 
the  regency  passed  by  198  votes  to  none,  the  Socialists, 
Communists  and  almost  all  the  Liberals  having  walked  out. 
In  the  early  morning  two  days  later— time  and  place  being 
kept  secret— King  Leopold,  Prince  Baudouin  and  Prince 
Albert  landed  at  fevfcre  military  airport  and  drove  straight 
out  to  Laeken  palace.  The  route  was  closely  guarded  by 
armed  gendarmerie  and  troops. 

A  few  hours  later  King  Leopold  broadcast  to  the  nation, 


sent  messages  to  parliament,  confirmed  the  Duvieusart 
cabinet  in  office  and  summoned  to  a  Crown  council  the 
minister  of  state.  Count  Hubert  Pierlot,  the  wartime  Catholic 
premier,  declined  to  attend.  The  Socialists  had  already 
resigned  their  honours.  The  Liberals  left  without  meeting 
the  king,  and  their  executive  issued  a  statement  refusing 
political  co-operation  with  him  and  urging  his  "  voluntary 
and  honourable  abdication."  On  the  other  hand,  an  immense 
quantity  of  flowers,  chiefly  from  Flemish  supporters  of  the 
king,  began  to  arrive  at  the  palace — contrasting  with  turbulent 
counter-demonstrations  in  Brussels  in  which  Spaak  and 
other  Socialist  leaders  were  prominent. 

A  campaign  of  sabotage  by  explosives,  chiefly  directed 
against  railway  and  telephone  lines,  and  widespread  strikes 
in  Wallonia,  no  longer  confined  to  24  hours,  were  described 
by  Spaak  in  the  Chamber  as  "  having  the  character  of  an 
insurrection,  though  they  might  be  the  beginning  of  a  revo- 
lution." The  flag  of  Walloon  separatism  was  raised  in 
Liege,  Charleroi  and  elsewhere,  and  within  a  week  500,000 
men  were  on  strike,  including  dockers  and  ship  repairers  in 
Antwerp  and  textile  operatives  in  Ghent.  In  Brussels  almost 
all  trams  and  taxis  were  forced  off  the  streets,  cafes  were  shut 
and  a  small  crowd  of  hooligans  with  stink-bombs,  fire- 
crackers and  anti-Leopold  whistles  compelled  the  larger 
stores  to  close.  Six  persons,  including  a  Socialist  senator, 
were  injured  in  street  fighting. 

Sabotage  blocked  most  railway  lines- and  some  main  roads. 
In  Liege,  where  a  demonstrator  had  lost  his  foot,  the  city  was 
hung  with  black  flags  and  a  state  of  emergency  proclaimed. 
Gas  was  cut  off  here  and  water  was  only  intermittent;  food 
shops  alone  were  kept  open  for  two  hours  a  day.  On  July  30, 
gendarmes  breaking  up  a  prohibited  meeting  at  Grace- 
Berleur  on  the  outskirts  of  Liege,  fired  and  killed  three  men. 
Max  Buset,  the  Socialist  party  chairman,  declared  that  unless 
decisive  steps  were  taken,  there  might  be  civil  war  the  follow- 
ing day.  In  defiance  of  the  government  preparations  had 
already  been  made  for  a  "  march  on  Brussels"  on  Aug.  1, 
by  100,000  persons  from  the  Walloon  mines  and  factories. 

The  cabinet  sat  almost  continuously  through  the  night  of 
July  30-31.  By  8  P.M.  an  agreement  in  principle  had  been 
reached  between  the  party  leaders,  the  government  and  the 
king's  representative.  The  prime  minister  was  to  broadcast 
the  actual  text  two  hours  later.  Its  basis  was  that  the  king 
should  hand  over  his  powers  to  Prince  Baudouin  at  once  and 
abdicate  on  the  prince's  21st  birthday,  Sept.  7,  1951.  He 
was  not,  however,  obliged  to  return  into  exile.  King  Leopold 
now  revived  an  already  rejected  condition  that  he  might  at 
his  own  discretion  resume  full  powers  from  Prince  Baudouin. 
The  broadcast  was  cancelled,  and  it  was  not  until  6.30  A.M. 
on  Aug.  1  that  the  king  was  persuaded  to  accept  the  solution 
agreed  the  previous  day.  In  a  subsequent  open  letter  to  the 
prime  minister  he  made  it  clear  that  he  yielded  only  to  the 
threat  of  being  left  without  a  government  at  all. 

Socialists  and  Liberals  had  now  to  call  off  the  march  on 
Brussels  and  damp  down  Communist  agitation  for  a  republic. 
Edgar  Lalmand,  the  Communist  party  secretary,  and  another 
Communist  deputy  were  temporarily  arrested  for  organizing 
a  prohibited  public  meeting.  More  serious  were  the  reactions 
of  the  extreme  Leopoldists,  who  felt  themselves  betrayed 
by  the  moderates  of  the  Catholic  party,  some  of  whose 
homes  were  attacked  with  small  bombs.  Baron  van  der 
Straten-Waillet,  the  party  chairman,  after  a  series  of  stormy 
party  meetings,  resigned  his  position.  It  was  now  the  turn 
of  the  Leopoldists  to  demonstrate  in  Brussels,  and  of  Catholic 
Flanders,  not  free-thinking  Wallonia,  to  talk  of  separatism. 

The  bill  transferring  powers  to  Prince  Baudouin  provoked 
some  fresh  parliamentary  scenes,  but  passed  both  houses  in  turn 
(160  votes  to  127  and  121  to  22).  On  Aug.  1 1  a  joint  morning 
session  of  the  two  houses,  interrupted  by  a  smoke-bomb 


BELGIUM 


93 


'W1-  r/K 

<?»        ii  (/-a,  ««  f^> 

on  /*»/y  W,         A*1              10  «w           IM» 

Ir                     to               <4)  am/  %  a             <m  * 

(5|I  Ilif            ow  Mi  <«t 

rlilrr  »»t                              »^«  '«  «*                        f^> 


94 


BENTON 


thrown  by  a  Leopoldist  army  officer,  resolved  that  the 
royal  prerogative  should  henceforth  be  exercised  by  the 
prince  royal— Baudouin.  The  same  afternoon  he  took  the 
oath  before  the  two  houses  and  the  principal  notables  of  the 
realm.  A  Communist,  Mien  Lahaut,  the  party  chairman, 
interrupted  the  ceremony  with  a  cry  of  Vive  la  Rfyublique ! 
(a  week  later  he  was  shot  dead  at  his  home  in  Seraing  by 
two  unidentified  men). 

Prince  Baudouin's  first  political  act  was  to  ask  van  Zeeland, 
the  strongest  Leopoldist  in  the  previous  cabinet,  to  form  a 
new  government.  This  he  did  on  Aug.  15,  but  opposition 
of  the  moderates  forced  van  Zeeland,  while  remaining  foreign 
minister,  to  yield  the  premiership  to  Joseph  Pholien,  a  66- 
year-old  Catholic  senator.  Except  for  a  new  non-political 
minister  of  defence,  Colonel  fidouard  De  Greef,  the  govern- 
ment was  composed,  like  its  predecessor,  entirely  of  members 
of  the  Social  Christian  party,  but  all  the  senior  ministers  of 
the  late  cabinet,  apart  from  van  Zeeland,  were  eliminated. 
The  Chamber  and  Senate  passed  a  vote  of  confidence  in  the 
new  government  (107  to  78  and  82  to  61)  before  going  into 
recess. 

Defence.  When  Parliament  resumed,  Colonel  De  Greef 
introduced  on  Nov.  7,  in  face  of  Socialist  opposition,  a  bill 
calling  up  conscripts  for  two  years  at  the  age  of  19,  instead 
of  for  one  year  at  20.  This  confirmed  pledges  given  by 
Pholien  in  his  first  weeks  of  office,  when  he  also  undertook 
to  organize  reserve  divisions,  train  a  home  gua  d  against 
airborne  attacks  and  establish  a  special  force  of  frontier 
guards.  Earlier  in  the  year  it  had  been  announced  that 
the  Belgian  navy  was  to  be  trebled  and  the  air  force  expanded. 
A  battalion  of  1,000  volunteers  was  enrolled  for  service  in 
Korea. 

Industry  and  Unemployment.  Unemployment  in  the  last 
week  of  January  reached  a  figure  of  nearly  340,000  (including 
120,000  temporarily  out  of  work),  but  this  was  reduced  in 
April  by  a  pick-up  in  the  textile  industry,  favoured  by  the 
removal  of  Dutch  import  restrictions,  and  again  in  June 
by  an  improvement  in  agriculture  and  building.  Retail 
trade  was  assisted  by  panic  buying  of  foodstuffs  in  the 
summer,  prompted  by  war  rumours  following  the  invasion 
of  Korea.  By  September,  when  a  6-week  dock  strike  was 
brought  to  an  end,  unemployment  was  down  to  172,000, 
and  industrial  activity  stood  at  a  level  of  133-1  (1936-38- 
100).  Steel  output,  which  had  been  cut  back  for  some  months, 
went  ahead  with  world  re-stocking  in  view  of  rearmament, 
and  a  government  policy  of  investment  in  roads,  airport 
installations  and  other  public  works  came  into  play. 

(H.  D.  Z.) 

Education.  (1948-49)  Elementary:  infant  schools  4,064,  pupils 
272,264;  primary  schools  8,733,  pupils  770,822;  adult  schools  356. 
Secondary,  state:  lower-grade  (athtntes)  117,  pupils  53,272;  higher 
grade  (tcoles  moytnnes)  140,  pupils  39,362;  '*  free"  (Catholic)  schools 
458.  pupils  (1946)  65,918.  Teachers*  colleges:  infant  39,  students 
1,223;  elementary  81,  students  8,460;  secondary  41,  students  841. 
Universities  4,  students  16,723. 

Agriculture  and  Fisheries.  Main  crops  ('000  metric  tons,  1949; 
1950  est.  in  brackets):  wheat  596  (590);  barley  247;  oats  587;  rye  258 
(250);  potatoes  2,047;  sugar,  raw  value  344.  Livestock  ("000  head, 
Jan.  1950):  cattle  2,761,  of  which  cows  in  milk  859;  sheep  121;  pigs 
1,361;  horses  257;  goats  51;  poultry  18,000.  Meat  production  ('000 
metric  tons.  1948;  1949  in  brackets):  total  187  (260),  of  which  beef 
and  veal  103  (122),  pork  82  (136).  Fisheries:  total  catch  ('000  metric 
tons,  1948;  1949  in  brackets)  70*9  (68-3). 

Industry.  Industrial  establishments  (Jan.  1948):  248,128;  persons 
employed  1,000,010.  Fuel  and  power  (1949;  1950,  six  months  in 
brackets):  coal  ('000  metric  tons)  27,852  (14,179);  manufactured  gas 
(million  cubic  metres)  1,632  (729-6);  electricity  (million  kwh.)  8,160 
(4,002).  Raw  materials  ('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in 
brackets):  pig  iron  3,744  (1,756);  steel  ingots  and  castings  3,840  (1.767); 
copper  smelter  133  (65);  zinc  177  (84);  lead  79  (37);  tin  9-1  (5-5); 
aluminium  2-3  (!•!).  Manufactured  goods  ('000  metric  tons,  1949; 
1950,  six  months,  in  brackets):  cement  2,928  (1,501);  woven  cotton 
fabrics  60  (30)-  cotton  yarn  84  (45);  wool  yarn  36  (19);  rayon  cloth 
5  (3);  paper  264-6  (145-1). 


Foreign  Trade.  (Belgo- Luxembourg  Economic  union,  million  francs, 
1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets):  import  81,720  (44,195);  export 
79,788  (39,291).  Main  sources  of  imports  (1949;  1950  in  brackets) 
U.S.  18% (17%);  France  10%  (11%);  Netherlands  9%  (10%);  U.K.  9% 
(10%).  Main  destinations  of  exports:  Netherlands  15%  (24%); 
Western  Germany  11%  (6%);  U.K.  9%  (7%);  France  8%  (11%). 
Main  imports  (1949):  machinery  and  mechanical  apparatus  9-6%; 
cereals  7- 1  %;  meat  and  dairy  products  5-9%.  Main  exports  (1949): 
iron  and  steel  manufactures  31-2%;  wool  and  cotton  manufactures 
14-4%;  railway  equipment  5-9%. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Roads  (1949):  6,648  mi.  Licensed 
motor  vehicles  (bee.  1949):  cars  226,961;  commercial  132,987.  Rail- 
ways (1949):  3,209  mi.;  passenger-mi.  4,071  million;  freight  net  ton-mi. 
3,520  million;  freight  carried  ('000  tons)  60,132.  Shipping  (July  1949): 
number  of  merchant  vessels  over  100  gross  tons  215;  total  tonnage 
435,656.  Total  length  of  navigable  waterways  967  mi.  Air  transport 
(1949):  number  of  flights  (arrivals)  10,417;  passenger-mi.  120  million; 
cargo  net  ton-mi.  3,25 1 ,000 ;  air  mail  carried  (metric  tons)  662.  Telephones 
(1949):  subscribers  438,157.  Wireless  receiving  sets  (1949)  1,374,400. 

Finance  and  Banking.  (Million  francs)  budget:  (1950)  revenue 
57,810,  expenditure  64,431;  (1951  est.)  revenue  58,208,  expenditure 
63,745.  National  debt  (July  1949;  July  1950  in  brackets):  244,627 
(250,521).  Currency  circulation  (Sept.  1949;  Sept.  1950  in  brackets): 
91,100  (90,000).  Gold  and  foreign  exchange  (million  U.S.  dollars, 
Sept.  1949;  Sept.  1950  in  brackets):  952  (781).  Bank  deposits  (Aug. 
1949;  Aug.  1950  in  brackets):  69,800  (68,300).  Monetary  unit:  Belgian 
franc  with  an  exchange  rate  of  Fr.  140-00  to  the  pound  and  Fr.  50-50 
to  the  U.S.  dollar. 

BENELUX:  see  BELGIUM;  NETHERLANDS;  LUXEMBOURG. 

BENTON,  WILLIAM,  United  States  senator  and 
publisher  (b.  Minneapolis,  Minnesota,  April  1,  1900), 
graduated  from  Yale  university  in  1921.  In  1929,  in  partner- 
ship with  Chester  Bowles,  he  founded  the  advertising  agency 
of  Benton  and  Bowles.  Benton  retired  from  the  agency  in 
1936,  and  in  1937  became  vice  president  of  the  University 
of  Chicago  on  a  part-time  basis.  At  his  instance  the  university 
acquired  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  Inc.,  in  1943,  He  financed 


Senator  \\iiiuun  /fvi/.-:?,  ,i , •.-//  His  wife,  before  setting  out  for  a 
helicopter  tour  of  Connecticut  during  his  1950  election  catnpaign. 

the  company,  became  chairman  of  its  board  and  shared  its 
ownership  with  the  university.  He  launched  it  into  the 
classroom  motion-picture  field  and  served  as  chairman  of 
Encyclopaedia  Britannica  Films  Inc.  During  World  War  II, 
in  collaboration  with  Paul  Hoffman,  he  helped  to  found  the 
Committee  for  Economic  Development,  and  he  was  active  in 
inter-American  affairs.  Benton  was  appointed  assistant 
secretary  of  state  by  President  Truman  on  Aug.  31,  1945, 
and  served  until  Sept.  30,  1947,  He  developled  the  first 
United  States  peacetime  programme  of  international  informa- 
tion and  educational  exchange  and  took  responsibility  for 
U.S.  participation  in  the  United  Nations  Educational, 
Scientific  and  Cultural  organization.  In  Dec.  1949  Benton 


BERLIN 


95 


was  appointed  a  senator  from  Connecticut,  where  he  had 
lived  for  17  years,  by  Governor  Bowles,  to  succeed  Raymond 
E.  Baldwin,  who  had  resigned.  His  first  year  in  the  senate  was 
marked  by  his  proposal  of  a  4t  Marshall  plan  of  ideas"; 
by  his  vigorous  espousal  of  the  Hoover  commission  recom- 
mendations on  government  reorganization  and  by  his 
activities  on  behalf  of  small  business.  On  Nov.  7,  1950,  he 
was  elected  to  the  senate  for  two  more  years. 

BEQUESTS:   see  DONATIONS  AND  BEQUESTS. 

BERLIN.  Capital  of  the  German  Reich  from  1871  to 
1945,  Berlin  was  still  by  1950  the  largest  city  of  Germany. 
Area:  343-6  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1939  census)  4,321,500;  (1946 
census)  3,179,200  or  24-4%  less.  From  June  6,  1945,  to  June 
24,  1948,  Berlin  was  administered  by  an  inter-Allied  govern- 
ment authority  (in  Russian,  Kommandatura)  consisting  of  the 
commandants  of  the  four  sectors  of  Berlin.  After  June  24, 
1948,  when  the  Soviet  commandant  proclaimed  the  dissolution 
of  the  Kommandatura,  Berlin  was  in  fact  divided  into  two 
opposing  administrations.  The  three  western  sectors  (pop., 
1950  census,  2,142,391)  in  1950  were  under  the  authority 
of  the  three  following  Allied  commandants:  Great  Britain, 
Major  General  G.  K.  Bourne;  United  States,  Major  General 
Maxwell  D.  Taylor;  France,  General  Pierre  Carolet.  In  the 
Soviet  sector  (pop.,  mid- 1950,  1,179,000)  the  civil  adminis- 
trator was  Serghey  A.  Dienghin  (who  on  June  7  succeded  the 
military  commandant,  Major  General  Aleksandr  G.  Kotikov). 
There  were  also  two  rival  German  city  governments  and  two 
lord  mayors:  Professor  Ernst  Reutcr,  appointed  on  Dec.  7, 
1948,  Oberburgermeister  by  a  city  assembly  elected  by  the 
population  of  the  three  western  sectors;  Fritz  Ebert,  appointed 
on  Nov.  30,  1948,  provisional  Oberburgermeister  of  the 
Soviet  sector  by  a  meeting  summoned  by  the  S.E.D. 
(Communist)  party. 

History.  During  1950,  two  city  councils  and  two  lord 
mayors  still  functioned.  The  fiction  of  unity  was,  however, 
maintained  by  all  four  occupying  powers.  Western  Berlin 
remained  outside  the  western  federal  republic  and  elections 
in  the  eastern  Democratic  republic  did  not  include  eastern 
Berlin. 

The  Eastern  German  government,  which  collaborated 
closely  with  the  Soviet  authorities,  made  no  large-scale 
attempts  to  capture  western  Berlin  such  as  led  to  the  airlift 
in  1948-49.  Whitsuntide  demonstrations  were  a  fiasco  in  this 
respect.  Pinpricks  such  as  hold-ups  on  the  international 
highway  from  Berlin  to  Western  Germany  and  in  barge  traffic 
on  rivers  and  canals  were  intermittent  and  with  as  little 
justification  as  formerly. 

Communist  attempts  to  interfere  with  the  Dec.  3  election 
in  the  western  sectors  were  unsuccessful.  Their  proposals  for 
postponement  until  "  free  democratic  elections  "  could  be 
held  throughout  the  whole  city,  in  March  1951,  were  rejected 
by  both  the  western  Berlin  government  and  the  three 
western  Allied  commandants.  These  proposals,  similar  to 
those  unsuccessfully  put  forward  in  June,  were  made  on  Nov. 
26,  in  a  letter  to  the  four  commandants  and  the  German 
administrations  in  western  and  eastern  Berlin.  They  would 
have  opened  a  way  to  Communist  control  since  they  demanded 
withdrawal  of  all  occupation  forces.  Soviet  troops  and 
German  Volkspolizei  would  still  be  on  the  outskirts  of  the 
city  but  the  nearest  Allied  troops  would  be  100  mi.  away. 

Western  Sectors.  More  than  90  %  of  the  1 ,664,09 1  electors 
in  western  Berlin  refused  on  Dec.  3  to  obey  the  Eastern 
German  government's  instructions  to  boycott  the  municipal 
elections.  Having  received  653,974  votes  or  44-7%  (instead 
of  848,100  or  64-5%  on  Dec.  5,  1948)  the  Social  Democrats 
remained  the  largest  party.  The  Christian  Democrats 
increased  their  vote  from  253,496  (19  -4%)  to  360,829  (24  -6%) 


German  youth  in  front  of  the  Russian  war  memorial  in  fieri  in,  during 
the  youth  rally  at  Whitsun,  1950. 

and  the  Liberals  or  Free  Democrats  from  214,224  (16-1%) 
to  337,477  (53-0%). 

Grave  economic  problems  continued  to  worry  the  city 
authorities  and  western  Allies.  Basically  they  were  political 
since  this  formef  capital  could  only  flourish  in  a  united 
Germany.  Any  measures  taken  meanwhile  could  only  be 
palliatives,  What  was  needed  was  a  substitute  for  markets 
denied  to  western  Berlin  in  the  east.  Foreign  and  western 
German  orders  had  in  the  meantime  helped  to  restore  normal 
economic  and  political  conditions.  The  labour  force  in  the 
three  western  sectors  amounted  to  1,168,000  men  and  women, 
with  about  30%  either  unemployed  or  in  makeshift  jobs. 
The  city  budget  was  Dm.(w)  1,500  million,  with  a  deficit  of 
Dm.  655  million.  But  for  charges  resulting  from  World 
War  II,  this  was  about  the  same  as  the  normal  budget  before 
1933  but  without  the  former  sources  of  wealth.  Federal 
republic  aid  amounted  to  Dm.  540  million  annually.  Invest- 
ment needs  in  1950-51,  according  to  city  authorities,  totalled 
Dm.  1,134  million.  Of  this  it  was  estimated  that  Dm.  160 
million  could  be  met  from  public  and  Dm.  319  million  from 
private  sources.  This  left  Dm.  650  million  to  be  supplied  from 
E.R.P.  and  G.A.R.I.O.A.  (Government  Appropriation  and 
Releases  in  Aid  of  Occupied  Areas)  funds. 

Great  strides  in  industrial  production  however  were  made 
during  the  year.  In  January  this  was  valued  at  Dm.  95  million, 
and  in  September  at  Dm.  175  million  (42-7%  of  1936).  One 
important  achievement  was  the  completion  of  the  electric 
power  station  which  made  the  western  sectors  independent  of 
Eastern  German  supplies.  * 


96 


BERMUDA-BETTING  AND  GAMBLING 


The  exchange  rate  of  western  and  eastern  marks  varied  from 
1:8  to  1:4-5.  In  November  it  was  Dm.(w)  l=Dm.(o)  5. 
Resulting  price  differences  created  serious  problems  to  the 
western  sectors.  The  prolonged  attempt  to  ruin  western 
Berlin  bakers  by  cheap  bread  in  the  eastern  sector  was  one 
outstanding  instance. 

Western  Berlin's  position  as  an  outpost  of  democracy 
behind  the  **  iron  curtain  "  received  greater  consideration 
from  the  Federal  republic  in  1950.  On  Feb.  3  H.  Vockel  took 
up  residence  as  official  representative  in  Berlin  of  the  Bonn 
government.  On  March  24  the  federal  parliament  decided 
that  the  federal  administrative  court  and  certain  other  federal 
organs  should  be  transferred  to  western  Berlin  and  on  April 
17  a  Bundeshaus  was  opened  by  Konrad  Adenauer. 

The  new  western  Berlin  constitution  was  promulgated  on 
Oct.  1,  in  the  presence  of  President  Theodor  Heuss,  members 
of  the  federal  government  and  parliament  and  the  three 
western  commandants.  When,  on  Aug.  29,  the  constitution 
was  approved  by  the  three  western  commandants  it  was  stated 
that  western  Berlin  would  have  the  status  of  a  Land  and  a  city, 
but  would  not  be  legally  recognized  as  the  12th  Land  of  the 
federal  republic.  In  a  speech  on  Nov.  28  Adenauer  declared 
however  that  he  would  do  everything  to  secure  this  recognition. 

A  number  of  exhibitions  and  congresses  held  in  western 
Berlin  during  1950  attracted  world  attention.  Among  them 
were  a  motor  car  show  (June  4)  and  an  international  exhibition 
of  industry  (Oct.  1-14).  The  latter  drew  more  than  a  million 
visitors  and  was  a  special  attraction  during  the  fortnight 
preceding  the  Eastern  German  election.  The  International 
Congress  for  Cultural  Freedom  (June  26)  brought  to  Berlin 
world-prominent  anti-Communist  spokesmen,  and  on  Oct.  24 
a  Freedom  Bell  was  unveiled  in  the  tower  of  the  Schoneberg 
Rathaus  (present  headquarters  of  the  western  Berlin  city 
council).  The  ceremony  was  performed  by  General  Lucius 
D.  Clay,  former  U.S.  military  governor  in  Germany  and 
president  of  the  organization  "  Crusade  for  Freedom  "  which 
presented  the  bell. 

An  exhibition  dedicated  to  the  achievement  of  Germans 
from  territories  east  of  the  Oder-Neisse  line  was  opened  by 
Jacob  Kaiser,  federal  minister  of  all-German  affairs  (Nov.  24). 
He  maintained  that  the  problems  raised  in  this  issue  could  be 
settled  within  a  European  framework,  but  added  that 
**  Germany  cannot  and  should  not  renounce  this  territory." 

Soviet  Sector.  Indications  of  food  and  other  shortages 
were  shown  by  the  manner  in  which  eastern  Berliners  took 
every  opportunity  to  cross  over  into  western  sectors  to  buy 
food,  though  prices  there  were  much  higher  because  of  the 
low  rate  of  the  eastern  mark.  Indicative  of  the  political  feelings 
of  eastern  Berliners  was  their  response  to  the  invitation  from 
western  Berlin  authorities  to  show  whether  they  favoured  a 
united  Berlin  on  the  basis  of  free  and  secret  elections  by 
sending  in  their  used  ration  cards  for  September  to  the 
Schoneberg  Rathaus.  From  an  electorate  of  850,000,  as  many 
as  375,712  responded  (Oct.  3-10). 

About  60,000  western  Berliners  worked  in  the  eastern 
sector  and  were  paid  in  eastern  marks,  but  had  to  pay  most 
of  their  bills  in  western  marks.  This  was  a  great  hardship 
since  the  western  sector  authorities  could  compensate  only  in 
part  for  the  loss.  Communists  attempted  by  all  kinds  of 
pressure  to  get  these  people  to  transfer  their  homes  to  the 
Soviet  sector. 

Greatest  activity  during  the  year  was  in  clearing  away 
rubble  and  in  building;  not  so  much  private  dwellings  as 
enormous  public  structures.  Many  historical  monuments 
were  destroyed  or  removed  elsewhere.  Berlin  Schloss  was 
taken  down  to  make  place  for  huge  tribunes  where  hundreds 
of  thousands  of  spectators  could  watch  demonstrations  on  the 
great  parade-ground  of  the  Lustgarten.  The  monument  of 
Frederick  ttfe  Great,  formerly  on  Unter  den  Linden,  was 


removed  to  Potsdam;  and  a  new  Soviet  embassy  replaced  on 
Unter  den  Linden  the  former  one,  destroyed  during  World 
War  II.  (J.  E.  Wi.) 

BERMUDA.  British  colony,  c.  300  small  islands  in  the 
western  Atlantic  about  580  mi.  east  of  Cape  Hatteras  in 
North  Carolina.  Area:  21  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1939  census) 
34,027,  incl.  11,481  white;  (1948  est.)  36,169,  incl.  13,173 
white.  Language:  English.  Religion:  Christian.  Chief 
towns:  Hamilton  (cap.,  c.  3,500);  St.  George  (c.  1,300). 
Administration:  governor;  executive  council,  4  official  and  3 
unofficial  members;  Legislative  Council  of  3  official  and  6 
unofficial  members  and  House  of  Assembly  of  36  elected 
members.  Governor,  Lieut.  General  Sir  Alexander  Hood. 

History.  The  Admiralty  announced  that  for  reasons  of 
economy  it  had  decided  to  close  the  dockyard  by  the  end  of 
March  1951.  It  was  stated  that  Bermuda  would  continue 
to  be  the  headquarters  of  the  America  and  West  Indies 
station  but  that  in  future  ships  of  the  station  would  be 
maintained  by  ships  from  the  Home  Fleet  and  refits  and 
repairs  would  normally  be  carried  out  in  the  United  King- 
dom. The  colonial  legislature  set  up  a  permanent  joint 
committee  to  handle  problems  arising  out  of  the  dockyard's 
closure.  Another  problem  that  faced  the  colony  was  the 
replacement  of  its  cedar  trees  largely  destroyed  by  disease; 
the  director  of  agriculture  stated  that  it  would  be  necessary 
to  spend  more  than  £1  million  on  re-afforestation.  On  the 
credit  side  there  was  a  record  tourist  season  and  work  began 
on  a  new  civilian  airport  at  Kindley  Field.  A  census  was 
held,  of  which  the  results  were  still  awaited. 

Finance  and  Trade.  Currency:  Bermuda  pound  (at  par  with  sterling). 
Budget  (1949):  revenue  £1,885,548;  expenditure  £1,706,587.  Foreign 
trade  (1949):  imports  £7,182,178;  domestic  exports  £40,451;  re- 
exports £902,670.  Lilies  and  lily  bulbs  were  the  only  important  domestic 
exports,  the  economy  of  the  colony  being  primarily  dependent  on 
the  tourist  industry.  (J.  A.  Hu.) 

BETTING  AND  GAMBLING.  In  1950  the  Royal 
Commission  on  Betting,  Lotteries  and  Gaming,  which  was 
appointed  in  1949  under  the  chairmanship  of  H.  U.  Willink, 
completed  the  hearing  of  evidence.  Its  report  was  expected 
in  1951. 

A  vast  amount  of  material  had  been  presented  for  the 
consideration  of  the  royal  commission,  and  at  the  end  of  1950 
it  was  still  not  possible  to  provide  a  complete  and  accurate 
picture  of  the  extent  of  gambling  in  Great  Britain.  There  was 
no  evidence  as  to  the  number  of  bookmakers  engaged  in 
business,  what  number  of  people  they  employed  or  how  large 
was  their  turnover  in  money.  No  evidence  was  presented  to 
show  how  large  the  betting  industry  really  was:  the  total 
amount  of  money  involved,  the  number  of  people  employed 
and  the  social  and  economic  effects  of  gambling  were  all 
matters  of  guesswork. 

Those  who  control  the  totalizators  on  racecourses  and  dog 
tracks  are  obliged  by  law  to  disclose  their  turnover,  and  from 
the  duty  paid  by  pool  promoters  it  is  possible  to  assess  the 
amount  spent  on  pools  during  a  year.  There  are  no  statistics 
for  the  business  carried  on  by  bookmakers.  They  operate  in 
competition  with  the  pools  and  totalizators,  off  the  course 
and  on  ths  course,  legally  and  illegally,  and  they  are  not 
obliged  to  publish  accounts. 

The  only  official  statistics  for  betting  in  Great  Britain  are: 

1950  1949  1948 

(£  million) 

Totalizator  at  racecourses:  .  .  £25-5*  £25-8*  £26-3* 
Totalizator  at  dog  tracks:  .  .  £70 -5f  £85-6*  £99-5* 
Pools  (all  forms) :.  .  .  .  £52 '3f  £64  f  £61  | 

SOURCES:  *  Race  Course  Betting  Control  board,  t  Customs  and  Excise 
return.  J  Home  Office. 

These  statistics  show  the  continued  decline  in  betting  that 
was  apparent  in  1949.  The  changing  economic  situation  may 


BEVIN 


97 


have  contributed  to  this,  for  the  excess  money  of  the  years 
immediately  after  World  War  II  was  absorbed  in  the  higher 
cost  of  living  and  the  more  plentiful  supply  of  consumer 
goods.  The  taxation  imposed  onnhe  totalizator  at  dog  racing 
tracks  may  have  diverted  money  to  bookmakers  operating 
off  the  course,  where  better  prices  can  be  offered. 

Despite  the  slight  decline  in  turnover  on  pools,  1950  would 
be  remembered  for  its  record-breaking  pool  prizes.  In  a 
period  of  less  than  two  months,  from  Sept.  to  Nov.  1950,  a 
series  of  winners  drew  sums  ranging  from  £68,420  to  £104,417. 
Three  of  the  wins  were  of  over  £100,000  and  there  were  three 
of  over  £90,000.  At  the  peak  win  it  was  decided  by  the  pool 
concerned  to  limit  future  prizes  to  a  maximum  of  £75,000. 
By  the  end  of  the  year  this  new  maximum  had  not  been  won. 
These  wins  created  great  interest  and  it  is  possible  that  the 
increased  participation  in  football  pools  during  the  months 
of  Nov.  and  Dec.  1950,  compared  with  the  same  period  in 

1949,  was  not  unconnected  with  a  potential  prize  of  £75,000. 
The  fact  remains  that  during  1950  there  was  slightly  less 

active  interest  in  betting,  and  that  those  participating  were 
spending  less  than  in  previous  years.  With  over  70%  of  the 
adult  population  indulging  in  a  regular  gamble  it  was  not 
possible  to  assess  whether  this  decline  was  of  a  temporary  or 
permanent  nature.  In  horse-racing  the  attraction  remained 
constant.  In  dog  racing  the  decline  in  interest  closed  a 
number  of  tracks.  In  1948  there  were  209  licensed  totalizators, 
The  number  was  reduced  to  127  in  1949;  and  at  March  31, 

1950,  it  had  fallen  to   120  and  the  number  of  pools  had 
fallen  from  135  in  1948  to  54  in  1950.    Those  pools  which 
dropped  out  represented  a  small  fraction  of  the  total  business. 

In  Australia  there  was  no  sign  of  a  decline  in  betting,  which 
was  carried  on  by  more  than  80%  of  the  population.  In  three 
of  the  six  states  there  was  a  government  lottery  every  month 
(every  week  in  Western  Australia),  where  the  prizes  ran  as 
high  as  £15,000  tax  free.  Only  in  Victoria  and  South  Australia 
were  lotteries  forbidden.  The  betting  turnover  for  the  whole 
country  was  over  £250  million  a  year.  In  New  Zealand  the 
interest  in  betting  was  as  great  as  in  Australia.  The  govern- 
ment ran  ten  lotteries  each  year  and  also  took  a  large  percen- 
tage from  the  totalizator  at  race  courses.  In  India  and 
Pakistan  there  were  no  lotteries  but  football  pools,  based 
on  the  British  games,  had  been  started.  South  Africa,  in 
contrast,  had  made  all  dog  racing  and  football  pools  illegal. 

Europe.  The  Netherlands  had  joined  Norway  and  Sweden 
in  sponsoring  state-owned  football  pools  based  on  the  results 
of  British  games.  There  was  little  interest  in  betting  as  a 
commercial  organization  in  these  countries.  (H.  C.  LN.) 

United  States.  Gambling,  both  in  terms  of  money  and 
in  incidence,  was  much  reduced  during  1950.  This  was 
chiefly  because  of  political  pressure  and  investigations  which 
sent  many  professional  gamblers  into  hiding  or  caused  them 
to  reduce  their  operations.  Early  in  the  year  the  Brooklyn 
district  attorney,  Miles  McDonald,  began  an  investigation 
of  alleged  "  protection  pay-offs  "  by  gamblers  to  New  York 
city  police.  Continued  investigation  and  prosecutions  in 
New  York  led  to  the  sentencing  of  Frank  Erickson,  popularly 
considered  one  of  the  biggest  U.S.  bookmakers,  to  a  two-year 
prison  term.  Erickson  pleaded  guilty  to  conspiracy  and 
bookmaking. 

The  murder  in  April  of  Charles  Binaggio,  Kansas  City, 
Montana,  politician,  and  his  assistant,  Charles  Gargotta, 
was  generally  reported  to  be  attributable  to  warfare  within 
a  gambling  syndicate  which  was  nation-wide  in  scope.  Largely 
as  a  result  of  this,  the  U.S.  Senate  in  May  appointed  a 
committee  to  investigate  nation-wide  crime,  with  Senator 
Estes  Kefauver,  Tennessee,  Democrat,  as  chairman.  This 
committee's  early  findings  linked  gambling  more  than  any 
other  form  of  crime  to  political  corruption.  The  committee 
travelled  to  Miami,  Florida,  to  Los  Angeles,  California,  to 

E.B.Y.— 8 


New  York  and  twice  to  Chicago,  Illinois.  At  the  year's  end 
it  was  in  Tampa,  Florida,  with  New  Orleans,  Louisiana, 
next  on  the  list.  Much  violence  and  corruption  was  attri- 
buted to  the  investigation;  prospective  witnesses  disappeared 
and,  in  Chicago,  two  investigators  employed  by  the  com- 
mittee were  killed.  The  revelations  of  this  committee  were 
thought  to  have  had  some  influence  on  the  November 
elections,  contributing  to  the  defeat  of  some  Democratic 
candidates  in  Chicago  and  New  York. 

Few  corrective  laws  were  passed,  though  in  December 
President  Harry  S.  Truman  signed  a  bill  prohibiting  the 
inter-state  shipment  of  gambling  slot  machines.  However, 
efforts  to  legalize  gambling  were  generally  unsuccessful. 
California  and  Arizona  voters,  in  the  November  elections, 
refused  amendments  that  would  have  made  gambling  in 
various  forms  legal.  Massachusetts  voters  turned  down  a 
proposed  state  lottery.  The  proposal  that  bookmakers  be 
licensed,  made  early  in  the  year  by  Mayor  William  O'Dwyer 
of  New  York,  was  opposed  by  Governor  Thomas  E.  Dewey, 
and  no  further  action  was  taken  on  it. 

Many  gambling  houses  closed,  and  many  more  reduced 
their  staffs  because  of  diminished  play.  It  was  a  moot  point, 
however,  whether  this  entrenchment  was  caused  more  by 
fear  of  arrest  or  by  increased  cost  of  living.  The  betting 
totals  at  the  nation's  race  tracks,  where  betting  was  legal, 
fell  by  an  estimated  10%;  betting  away  from  the  track  was 
thought  to  have  been  reduced  by  as  much  as  50%  from  1949 
totals.  There  was  less  betting  on  sports  events.  Forms  of 
gambling  remained  the  same,  with  almost  the  only  develop- 
ment a  revival  of  interest  in  keno  in  the  south  and  southwest. 
This  represented  little  more  than  a  substitution  of  keno  for 
bingo  games,  however,  and  the  two  games  arc  very  similar, 
both  being  forms  of  lotto.  (A.  H.  MD.;  M.  ML.) 

BEVIN,  ERNEST,  British  statesman  (b.  Winsford, 
Somerset,  March  9,  1881),  became  national  organizer  of  the 
Docker's  union  in  1910  and  in  1921  secretary  of  the  newly 
formed  Transport  and  General  Workers'  union.  From 
1925-40  he  was  a  member  of  the  general  council  of  the  Trades 
Union  congress  and  in  1937  was  chairman.  In  May  1940  he 
became  minister  of  labour  in  Winston  Churchill's  coalition 
government  and  entered  the  House  of  Commons  for  Central 
Wandsworth.  He  became  secretary  of  state  for  foreign 
affairs  in  the  Labour  government  in  July  1945.  In  1949  he 
signed  the  North  Atlantic  treaty  and  the  statute  of  the  Council 
of  Europe  on  behalf  of  the  United  Kingdom.  In  Jan.  1950,  he 
attended  the  first  Commonwealth  Foreign  Ministers'  con- 
ference at  Colombo;  during  his  visit  he  received  an  honorary 
doctorate  of  laws  from  Ceylon  university.  On  his  return 
journey  in  February  he  visited  Egypt  and  Italy  to  confer  with 
the  premiers  and  foreign  ministers  of  those  countries;  in 
Cairo  he  was  received  by  King  Farouk  and  in  Rome  he  was 
received  by  President  Einaudi  and  had  an  audience  with  the 
Pope.  On  Feb.  23,  the  foreign  minister  was  elected  M.P. 
for  East  Woolwich,  and  on  Feb.  28  was  re-appointed  foreign 
secretary.  In  March  he  had  discussions  with  the  French 
foreign  minister,  Robert  Schuman,  when  the  latter  was  in 
London  in  connection  with  President  Vincent  Auriol's  state 
visit.  In  April  he  went  to  Strasbourg  to  attend  a  meeting  of 
the  European  Committee  of  Ministers  and  to  Paris  to  attend 
an  O.E.E.C.  council  meeting.  During  May  he  had  several 
discussions  with  the  U.S.  secretary  of  state,  Dean  Acheson, 
including  one  on  the  question  of  an  Austrian  peace  treaty  at 
which  Robert  Schuman  was  also  present.  The  British  foreign 
secretary  also  attended  the  meetings  of  the  Atlantic  Treaty 
council,  conferred  with  the  Benelux  foreign  ministers  and 
received  the  U.N.  secretary  general,  Trygve  Lie.  On  three 
occasions  during  the  year,  in  March,  April  anjl  June,  he 
underwent  surgical  treatment;  on  June  5,  the  prime  minister 


98 


BHUTAN-BIOCHEMISTRY 


visiting  the  Sphinx  in 
Jan.  1950  during  his  return  journey 
from  the  Commonwealth  foreign 
ministers*  conference  in  Colombo. 

denied  rumours  that  he  would  be 
replaced.  The  foreign  secretary 
attended  the  Consultative  council 
of  the  Brussels  treaty  powers  at 
The  Hague  on  Aug.  1  and  took 
part  in  the  meeting  of  the  com- 
mittee of  ministers  at  Strasbourg 
which  began  on  Aug.  3.  On  Sept. 
7,  he  sailed  for  New  York  where 
he  conferred  with  Dean  Acheson 
and  Robert  Schuman  on  Sept.  12 
and  attended  a  meeting  of  the 
Atlantic  council  before  the  open- 
ing of  the  U.N.  general  assembly 
on  Sept  19.  In  early  December 
he  had  discussions  with  the 
Egyptian  foreign  minister  on 
Anglo-Kgyptian  political  differen- 
ces. He  went  to  Brussels  for  the 
fifth  meeting  of  the  North  Atlantic 
Treaty  council  on  Dec.  18-19  and 
of  the  consultative  council  of  the 
Brussels  treaty  on  Dec.  20.  While  there  he  r  M  further  talks 
with  Acheson  and  Schuman. 

BHUTAN.  Semi-independent  state  in  the  eastern  Hima- 
layas lying  between  Tibet  and  India.  Area:  c.  18,000  sq.mi. 
Pop.  (no  census  ever  taken,  1947  unofficial  est.):  300,000. 
Language:  a  dialect  of  Tibetan.  Religion:  mainly  Buddhist. 
Capital,  Punakha.  Ruler,  Maharaja  Jigme  Wangchuk. 

By  virtue  of  the  treaty  of  friendship  between  the  union  of 
India  and  Bhutan,  the  text  of  which  was  presented  to  the 
Indian  Constituent  Assembly  on  Dec.  14,  1949,  India  in 
1950  became  responsible  for  the  external  relations  of  Bhutan 
but  undertook  to  exercise  no  interference  in  the  internal 
administration  of  the  state,  which  in  effect  acceded  to  India. 
There  was  at  one  time  the  thought  that  Bhutar.  might  attain 
to  the  status  of  Nepal,  but  in  fact  the  new  arrangement 
with  India  represented  a  continuance  of  the  relations  which 
existed  between  Bhutan  and  the  former  Fritish  government 
of  India.  On  the  transfer  of  power  in  India  in  1947  Bhutan 
at  once  entered  into  a  stand-still  agreement  with  India  pending 
the  conclusion  of  negotiations  which  came  about  in 
1949. 

A  mountainous  state  with  a  population  mainly  of  Tibetan 
origin,  Bhutan  was  disturbed  by  events  in  Tibet  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  year;  but,  although  there  was  the  bugbear 
of  imperfectly  defined  boundaries,  the  position  of  this  by 
no  means  easily  accessible  country  under  the  Indian  umbrella 
did  not  cause  its  people  great  anxiety.  The  system  of  govern- 
ment continued  to  be  that  of  a  secular  autocracy,  the  ruler's 
possession  of  absolute  authority  being  tempered  by  the 
considerable  powers  retained  by  the  leading  chiefs.  (E.  HD.) 

BILLIARDS  AND  SNOOKER.  These  games  con- 
tinued to  flourish  during  the  season  1949-50:  Walter  Donald- 
son won  the  world's  professional  snooker  championship, 
beating  Fred  Davis  by  51  frames  to  46  (each  player  now  had 
two  victories  to  his  credit  in  this  event).  The  United  Kingdom 
professional  billiards  title  went  to  the  26-year-old  John 
Barrie,  of  Wisbech,  who  beat  K.  Kennerley,  of  Birmingham. 
Willie  Smith,  the  64-year-old  Leeds  veteran,  displayed  fine 
form  but  just  lost  to  Barrie  in  the  semi-final. 

The  AVuv  of  the  World  £1,500  snooker  tournament  (pro- 
fessional) was  won  by  Joe  Davis,  who  also  carried  off  the 


"  Sporting  Record  Masters "  snooker  tournament.  Joe 
Davis  retired  from  championship  play  in  1947.  During  the 
season  he  took  his  total  of  centuries  at  snooker  to  373. 

In  the  amateur  sphere,  the  billiards  championship  was 
secured  by  the  brilliant  Stourbridge  player,  Frank  Edwards, 
for  the  second  year  running.  Alfred  Nolan,  of  Newcastle, 
a  fine  young  player,  won  the  amateur  snooker  championship 
with  a  victory  over  Gary  Owen,  of  Great  Yarmouth,  who  was 
however  thought  to  have  a  professional  future.  (R.  Ho.) 

United  States.  Willie  Hoppe,  a  world  billiards  champion 
as  far  back  as  1906,  again  won  the  world  three-cushion 
championship  in  1950.  Willie  Mosconi  regained  the  world 
pocket-billiard  title  and  set  a  world  tournament  record  for 
a  4^  ft.  by  9  ft.  table  with  a  grand  average  of  18  •  34.  Mosconi 
and  Irving  Crane,  who  took  the  national  title,  tied  for  world 
honours,  Mosconi  winning  the  play-off  to  gain  his  fifth 
world  title.  (P.  BR.)  , 

BIOCHEMISTRY.  Intracellular  Distribution  of 
Enzymes.  Progress  was  made  during  1950  in  studying  the 
relationship  between  cell  structure  and  cell  chemistry. 
Investigators  developed  centrifugation  procedures  which 
permitted  the  separation  of  four  cell  fractions  from  tissue 
homogenates.  The  four  fractions  were:  (1)  cell  nuclei;  (2) 
microscopically  visible  sub-cellular  bodies  (mitochondria); 
(3)  sub-microscopic  particles  (microsomes);  and  (4)  a  soluble 
protein  fraction.  An  important  feature  of  the  fractionation 
technique  was  the  use  of  hypertonic  or  isotonic  sucrose 
solutions  as  the  suspending  medium. 

Using  mainly  rrfice  and  rat  liver  and  kidney  it  was  shown 
that  the  enzymes  which  convert  glucose  to  lactic  acid  are  in 
the  soluble  fraction  of  the  cytoplasm.  The  oxidation  of 
pyruvic  acid  and  of  fatty  acids  is  carried  out  by  enzymes  which 
are  components  of  the  large  sub-cellular  particles — the 
mitochondria.  The  mitochondria  also  contain  enzymes  which 
can  transfer  the  energy  released  during  the  oxidation  of 
pyruvic  acid  and  fatty  acids  into  high  energy  phosphate  ester 
bonds.  The  energy  stored  in  these  phosphate  ester  bonds  can 
later  be  used  to  synthesize  compounds  needed  by  the  cell. 
Assays  of  these  cell  fractions  showed  that  such  enzymes  as 
succinoxidase,  oxaloacetic  oxidase  and  isocitric  dehydrogenase 
which  catalyse  the  aerobic  oxidation  of  glucose  are  in  mito- 
chondria. However,  large  amounts  of  isocitric  dehydrogenase 


BLISS— BOLIVIA 


99 


also  occur  in  the  soluble  protein  fraction.  Cytochrome  c,  a 
soluble  conjugated  protein,  also  occurs  in  the  mitochondria; 
it  was  the  first  protein  that  had  been  extracted  in  a  soluble 
form  from  what  was  considered  to  be  the  insoluble  portion 
of  the  cell.  These  results  emphasized  the  importance  of 
mitochondria  as  the  centres  of  respiration  in  the  cell. 

Amino  Acid  Requirements  of  Man.  Using  diets  containing 
known  amounts  of  the  various  amino  acids  W.  C.  Rose  and 
his  co-workers  established  the  minimum  amino  acid  require- 
ments for  man.  The  balance  between  N  intake  and  N  excre- 
tion was  used  as  the  criterion  for  the  adequacy  of  various  diets 
fed  to  adult  men.  On  a  diet  lacking  an  essential  amino  acid 
the  amount  of  N  excreted  was  more  than  was  consumed  in 
the  diet.  On  a  complete  diet  the  amount  of  N  excreted  was 
equal  to  the  amount  of  N  consumed.  The  essential  amino 
acids  and  the  tentatively  recommended  daily  intake  (which 
is  twice  the  minimum  daily  requirement)  were  found  to  be: 
tryptophane,  0  •  5g. ;  phenylalanine,  2  •  2g. ;  lysine,  1  •  6g. ; 
threonine,  l*0g.;  valine,  l'6g.;  methionine,  2-2g.;  leucine, 
2  •  2g. ;  and  isoleucine,  1  •  4g.  The  adult  man  does  not  need  the 
remaining  amino  acids  including  histidine  or  arginine.  That 
he  can  synthesize  all  the  histidine  he  needs  was  unexpected. 

Hormones.  ACTH,  which  is  produced  by  the  pituitary 
gland  and  which  functions  by  stimulating  the  production  of 
cortisone  by  the  adrenal  glands,  was  shown  by  C.  H.  Li  to  be  a 
protein  of  molecular  weight  about  20,000.  Subsequently, 
Li  showed  that  small  peptide  fragments  of  molecular  weight 
as  low  as  1,200  retain  their  biological  activity.  If  the  structure 
of  these  fragments  could  be  determined  and  the  fragments 
synthesized  it  would  aid  studies  of  the  mechanism  of  hormone 
action  and  immeasurably  supplement  the  limited  amount  of 
ACTH.  This  was  desirable  since  even  the  partial  synthesis  of 
the  steroid  cortisone  was  so  complex  that  it  would  probably 
long  remain  prohibitively  costly  on  an  industrial  scale. 

Numerous  steroid  compounds  were  tested  without  success 
for  cortisone  activity.  The  tissues  of  the  body  cannot  elaborate 
cortisone  from  closely  related  compounds  even  by  the  intro- 
duction of  ketone  or  hydroxyl  groups  or  a  double  bond  at 
C4:CB  in  the  cortisone  nucleus.  The  adrenal  gland  itself 
appears  to  be  the  site  of  the  enzymes  that  synthesize  the  active 
compounds.  The  many  steroids  that  are  found  in  the  gland 
are  possibly  intermediate  compounds  which  are  retained 
within  the  gland  and  are  not  released  upon  stimulation  until 
they  have  been  converted  into  cortisone  or  the  closely  related 
Compound  F.  This  conclusion  was  based  on  the  fact  that 
dehydrocortisone  (Compound  A)  is  almost  devoid  of  physio- 
logical activity  in  the  human  being  and  on  the  fact  that  only 
cortisone  and  Compound  F  are  found  in  the  urine.  It  was 
also  found  that  perfusion  of  the  adrenal  gland  results  in  the 
release  only  of  Compound  F  and  not  of  any  of  the  other 
steroids  known  to  be  in  the  gland. 

Experiments  by  W.  C.  Stadie  and  his  co-workers  cast  doubt 
on  the  earlier  suggestion  from  C.  F.  Cori's  laboratory  that 
insulin  acts  by  relieving  the  inhibition  caused  by  pituitary  or 
cortical  hormones  on  the  hexokinase  reaction.  This  reaction 
in  which  glucose  is  enzymically  converted  into  glucose-6- 
phosphate,  is  obligatory  in  the  metabolism  of  glucose. 
Stadie  found  that  neither  insulin  nor  adrenal  cortical  extracts 
affected  the  rate  of  the  hexokinase  reaction  in  extracts  from 
depancreatized  cats.  He  also  obtained  a  similar  negative 
result  with  muscle  extracts  from  rats  made  diabetic  with 
alloxan.  Stadie  suggested  that  the  earlier  work  on  the  effect 
of  insulin  on  the  hexokinase  reaction  was  misleading  because 
no  correction  had  been  made  for  the  presence  of  glycogen  or 
glycogen  breakdown  products  which  interfere  with  the  usual 
methods  of  measuring  the  hexokinase  reaction.  (See  also 
ARTHRITIS;  PHYSIOLOGY.)  (L.  M.  K.) 

BIOLOGY  :      see     BACTERIOLOGY  ;     BIOCHEMISTRY  ; 


BOTANICAL  GARDENS;  BOTANY;  ENDOCRINOLOGY;  GENETICS; 
MARINE  BIOLOGY;  PALAEONTOLOGY;  PHYSIOLOGY;  ZOOLOGY. 

BIRTH  STATISTICS:  see  VITAL  STATISTICS. 
BISMARCK  ISLANDS:   see  TRUST  TERRITORIES. 

BLISS,  SIR  ARTHUR,  British  composer  (b.  Lon- 
don, Aug.  2,  1891),  was  educated  at  Rugby  school  and  at 
Pembroke  college,  Cambridge.  His  studies  at  the  Royal 
College  of  Music,  London,  under  Sir  Charles  Stanford, 
Ralph  Vaughan  Williams  and  Gustav  Hoist  were  inter- 
rupted by  World  War  I  during  which  he  was  wounded  and 
mentioned  in  dispatches.  His  "  first  period  "  may  be  said  to 
have  extended  from  1918  to  1922,  when  his  composition, 
mainly  for  voice  and  small  instrumental  ensembles,  showed 
affinities  to  that  of  "  Les  Six  "  (Auric,  Durey,  Honeggcr, 
Milhaud,  Poulenc  and  Satie)  and  Igor  Stravinsky;  his  best 
known  work  of  this  time  was  A  Colour  Symphony  (1922). 
In  1921  he  taught  composition  at  the  R.C.M.  After  writing 
theatre  music  in  California  for  a  while,  he  composed  Pastoral 
(1928),  settings  of  poems  by  Ben  Jonson,  John  Fletcher, 
Politian,  Theocritus  and  Robert  Nichols.  Bliss's  "  grand 
manner  " — the  use  of  dramatic  harmonies  and  clearly  stated 
rhythms — was  already  apparent  in  Morning  Heroes  (1930)  a 
work  for  orator,  chorus  and  orchestra  in  memory  of  his 
brother,  killed  in  action;  in  April  1950  this  work  was  again 
performed  with  Sir  Ralph  Richardson  as  orator.  Music  for 
Strings  (1935),  first  performed  at  Salzburg,  had,  too,  an  elegiac 
character.  In  1935  Bliss  wrote  the  music  for  the  H.  G.  Wells 
film  Things  to  Come.  Later  he  composed  the  music  for  three 
Sadler's  Wells  ballets:  Checkmate  (1937),  Miracle  in  the 
Gorbals  (1944)  and  Adam  Zero  (1946)  In  1939  his  Pianoforte 
Concerto  was  first  performed,  at  the  Carnegie  hall  in  connec- 
tion with  the  New  York  World  fair,  by  Solomon  and  the  New 
York  Philharmonic  orchestra  conducted  by  Sir  Adrian  Boult. 
From  1942  to  1944  Bliss  was  director  of  music  of  the  British 
Broadcasting  corporation.  In  1948  he  produced  his  first  opera 
The  Olympians  (with  libretto  by  J.  B.  Priestley).  In  the  1950 
Birthday  Honours,  Bliss  was  knighted.  At  Edinburgh,  on 
Sept.  1,  the  Griller  quartet  gave  the  first  performance  of  his 
Quartet  No.  2. 

BOLIVIA.  Larld-locked  republic  in  central  South 
America  and  one  of  the  highest  inhabited  areas  of  the  world. 
Area:  416,040  sq.mi.  Pop.:  (1900  census)  1,816,271;  (mid- 
1949  est.)  3,990,000.  Estimated  racial  distribution:  Indian 
52%;  mestizo  28%;  white  13%;  Negro  0'2%;  unspecified 
6-8%.  Language:  Spanish,  but  the  Indians  speak  Quechua 
andAymard.  Religion :  predominantly  Roman  Catholic.  The 
legal  capital  is  Sucre  (pop.,  1946  est.,  32,000);  the  actual  seat 
of  government  is  La  Paz  (pop.,  1 946  est.,  30 1 ,000).  Other  chief 
towns  (pop.,  1946  est.):  Cochabamba  (80,000);  Oruro 
(50,000);  Potosi  (40,000).  President  of  the  republic,  Mamerto 
Urriolagoitia. 

History.  Both  the  political  and  economic  history  of  Bolivia 
continued  to  be  strongly  influenced  by  its  pre-eminent  industry 
which  is  mining.  The  latter  included  about  16%  of  the  world 
production  of  tin,  which  was  in  1950  being  exported  in  almost 
equal  amounts  to  the  United  States  and  the  United  Kingdom. 
Miners'  unions,  with  memberships  estimated  at  about 
310,000  were  especially  active  in  political  affairs  during  the 
year  and  represented  the  principal  strength  of  the  two  more 
aggressive  minority  parties,  the  leftist  Partido  de  la  Izquierda 
Revolucionaria  and  the  rightist  Movimiento  Nacionalista 
Revolucionario.  Extensive  strikes,  political  feuds  that  were 
sometimes  violent  and  a  revolution  in  force  which  disrupted 
mine  operations  in  many  areas  during  1949  tended  to  abate 
during  1950. 


100 


BOOK  COLLECTING  AND  BOOK  SALES 


Despite  political  tension,  1950  marked  many  notable 
advances  in  Bolivia.  The  new  petroleum  industry  produced 
more  than  600,000  bbl.  Improvements  in  primary  education, 
now  compulsory,  were  believed  to  have  reduced  adult 
illiteracy  to  about  75%  as  compared  with  an  estimated  85% 
in  1945.  The  Ministry  of  Health  established  the  first  clinics 
in  six  frontier  areas  which  had  never  before  had  health 
services.  (C,  M.  Wi.) 

Education.  (Schools,  1944):  rural  1,513,  pupils  110,000;  elementary 
1,740,  pupils  144,056;  secondary  55,  pupils  17,496.  There  were  univer- 
sities at  Cochabambu,  La  Paz,  Ororo,  Potosi  and  Sucre. 

Agriculture.  Bolivia  continued  to  be  dependent  on  imports  of  food- 
stuffs.  Main  crops  included  maize,  barley,  wheat,  rice  and  potatoes. 
Livestock  (1946  est.):  cattle  3,039,000,  sheep  4,289,000,  goats  1,809,000. 
Forest  products:  rubber  (1949  exports,  about  2.000  short  tons)  and 
cinchona  bark. 

Mineral  production.  Exports  (1949,  short  tons):  tin  38,166;  lead 
29,048;  copper  5,593;  /inc  19,432;  antimony  11,326;  wolfram  (WOa 
content)  1,701  and  silver  (6,622,900  oz.). 

Foreign  Trade.  (1949)  exports  $107,100,000;  imports  $71,400,000. 
Tin  accounted  for  about  two-thirds  of  the  exports. 

Transport  and  Communication.  Railways  (1950):  1,608  mi.  Several 
lines  were  under  construction  in  1950,  including  two  from  Brazil  and 
Argentina,  respectively,  to  Santa  Cruz.  Roads  (1949):  15,420  mi.  of 
which  4,008  mi.  improved.  About  7,300  motor  vehicles  were  in  opera- 
lion  in  1947.  More  than  50%  of  the  8,300  telephones  in  1948  were  in 
La  Pa/.  Wireless  receiving  sets  (1950):  150,000. 

Finance.  Budget  (1950  cst.):  balanced  at  2,783  million  bolivianos. 
Internal  debt  (Nov.  1949):  2,405  million  bolivianos;  external  debt 
(Dec.  1947):  $60,280.923,  plus  arrears  of  interest  totalling  $74,244,100. 
Notes  in  circulation  (Aug.  31,  1950):  2,822  million  bolivianos.  Mone- 
tary unit:  boliviano  with  an  official  exchange  rate  >f  1-65  U.S.  cents 
per  boliviano  or  £1  169-68  bolivianos.  (J.  W.  Mw.) 

BONAIRE:    see  NETHERLANDS  OVERSEAS  TERRITORIES 

BOOK   COLLECTING    AND    BOOK    SALES. 

The  year  1950  was  not  a  conspicuous  one  in  the  auction 
rooms  of  London  or  New  York.  In  London  the  effect  upon 
the  market  of  the  devaluation  of  the  pound  was  at  once 
apparent,  and  there  was  a  marked  rise  in  the  price  of  books 
or  manuscripts  which  were  likely  to  be  bought  for  or  sold  to 
America.  In  spite  of  this  the  number  of  notable  sales  was 
small  and  for  the  most  part  was  made  up  of  miscellaneous 
collections  of  books  of  average  quality  which  at  times  became 
tedious  in  their  similarity.  Among  the  better  s^les  in  London 
were  further  portions  of  Sir  Leicester  Harmsworth's  enormous 
library:  the  sale  of  his  collection  of  Americana,  which  began 
in  1949,  reached  the  letter  H  (it  was  being  <;old  in  alphabetical 
order).  Some  of  the  rare  items  in  this  Held  illustrated  more 
than  anything  else  the  effects  of  devaluation,  and  an  increase 
was  shown  on  the  very  high  prices  reached  at  the  important 
sales  of  Americana  in  the  middle  1920s,  when  Harmsworth 
was  a  heavy  buyer  himself.  Perhaps  the  most  interesting  sale 
in  London  during  the  year  was  that  of  Lord  Malmesbury's 
Hurn  Court  library,  which  was  sold  in  three  portions.  It  had 
been  collected  by  two  owners  and  their  descendants  over  a 
period  of  200  years;  the  books  were  in  fine  state  and  well 
bound;  nearly  all  subjects  were  covered,  including  art, 
science,  literature,  travel,  atlases  and  coloured  plate  books  of 
flowers  and  birds;  and  prices  at  this  sale  were  distinctly  high 
because  an  undisturbed  library  of  this  calibre  always  encour- 
ages spirited  bidding. 

Another  feature  of  the  year's  sales  was  the  high  price 
realized  by  a  few  fine  16th-  and  17th-century  books  of  English 
literature:  a  first  edition  of  the  Mirrourfor  Magistrates  (1559) 
sold  for  £580;  the  first  editions  of  Vaughan's  Silex  Scintillans 
(1650)  and  Olor  Iscanus  (1651)  for  £260  and  £150  respectively 
(the  former  copy  fetched  £68  in  the  Huth  sale  in  1919  and 
the  highest  auction  price  that  a  copy  of  the  latter  had  previ- 
ously made  was  £56  in  1923);  and  a  copy  of  Lyly's  Euphues 
(two  parts  1581-82)  fetched  £680,  having  realized  £120  in 
1932.  The%  popularity  of  bird  and  flower  books  continued  to 
flourish,  although  there  was  a  marked  fall  in  the  works  of 


John  Gould,  whose  large  folios  with  their  brilliant  coloured 
plates  of  birds  appear  too  frequently.  The  interest  shown  in 
genuine  specimens  of  books  with  fore-edge  paintings  was 
unabated  and  a  fine  example  from  the  Edwards  of  Halifax 
bindery,  with  paintings  on  the  reverse  sides  of  the  vellum,  sold 
for  the  remarkably  high  price  of  £240.  Since  World  War  II 
Boswell  and  Johnson  had  been  steadily  regaining  the  favour 
that  they  held  in  the  boom  of  1928-29,  and  high  prices  were 
realized  by  three  of  their  works:  £215  for  a  copy  of  Boswell's 
anonymous  and  trifling  poem  The  Cub  at  Newmarket  (1762) 
£165  for  Johnson's  Miscellaneous  Observations  on  Macbeth 
(1745);  £155  for  an  uncut  copy  in  original  wrappers  of 
Johnson's  Plan  of  a  Dictionary  (1747);  and  £480  for  Boswell's 
Life  of  Johnson  (1791)  with  the  original  leaf  on  conjugal 
infidelity. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  year  a  few  quite  outstanding  books 
were  sold  in  London.  These  belonged  to  the  Marquess  of 
Bute,  a  selection  of  whose  library  had  already  been  sold 
privately  to  a  London  bookseller.  The  most  important  book 
of  the  sale  was  an  illustrated  English  incunable.  The  Con- 
templacyon  of  Synners,  printed  by  Wynkyn  de  Worde  in  1499 
and  bound  in  contemporary  stamped  English  calf;  it  fetched 
£3,800.  An  imperfect  copy  of  Caxton's  edition  of  Gower's 
Confessio  Amantis  (1483)  sold  for  £2,900.  The  first  book 
printed  in  Paraguay,  Nuremberg's  Diferencia  (1705),  fetched 
£1,800.  Among  manuscripts  and  autograph  letters  were  a 
15th-century  illuminated  Parisian  missal  of  fine  quality 
which  realized  £5,000  and  a  most  important  series  of  177 
letters  from  Darwin  to  Sir  Charles  Lyall  relating  to  the 
Origin  of  Species,  which  fetched  £5,200. 

In  New  York  the  most  notable  sale  took  place  at  the  end 
of  the  year  when  the  first  portion  of  Lucius  Wilmerding's 
library,  comprising  the  English  literature  and  colour-plate 
books,  was  sold.  His  English  books  consisted  of  first  editions 
of  famous  works  in  English  literature,  mostly  rebound  in 
morocco,  and  many  of  the  "  high  spots  "  beloved  by  book 
collectors  for  now  nearly  100  years  were  included.  The 
general  impression  was  that  the  English  books,  particularly 
those  of  the  17th  century,  sold  very  well.  On  the  other  hand, 
most  of  the  prices  of  the  colour-plate  books  showed  a  marked 
fall.  The  French  books  and  bindings  in  this  remarkable 
library  were  to  be  sold  in  1951. 

During  the  year  certain  activities  took  place  in  the  anti- 
quarian book  trade  which  are  worth  recording.  The  Inter- 
national League  of  Antiquarian  Booksellers  held  their 
second  conference  in  Paris  in  September.  The  American 
association,  which  had  sent  an  observer  to  the  previous 
conference,  applied  for  membership  and  was  elected  to  the 
league.  In  England  the  Antiquarian  Booksellers'  association 
held  a  second  series  of  lectures  for  its  members;  and  for  the 
second  time  since  its  foundation  in  1906  a  woman  was 
elected  its  president.  For  the  first  time  in  England  a  series  of 
broadcasts  devoted  to  book  collecting  was  given  by  the 
B.B.C.  Certain  regulations  controlling  the  import  and 
export  of  rare  books  continued  to  hamper  trade  between 
countries,  but  it  was  hoped  that  the  committee  set  up  to 
advise  on  the  policy  to  be  adopted  by  the  government  in 
controlling  the  export  of  works  of  art,  including  books, 
would  be  able  to  make  recommendations  for  easing 
controls. 

The  ascendancy  of  the  American  university  library  over  the 
private  collector  in  nearly  all  fields  of  book  collecting,  which 
had  been  evident  in  the  market  since  1939,  was  again  marked 
in  1950.  Its  influence  was  shown  in  an  increasing  number  of 
booksellers'  catalogues  by  the  quoting  of  library  holdings  and 
by  the  ranging  of  books  under  subjects  to  attract  the  library 
research  worker.  More  than  one  American  librarian  during 
the  year  publicly  declared  the  debt  of  U.S.  libraries  to  the 
British  antiquarian  book  trade.  (C.  D.  M.) 


BOOK   PUBLISHING— BOTANICAL  GARDENS 


101 


BOOK  PUBLISHING,  During  1950  book  publishers 
in  Great  Britain  produced  17,072  titles  of  which  5,334  were 
reprints  and  new  editions.  It  was  considered  that  the  1950 
total,  slightly  larger  than  the  1949  total  of  17,034  titles  and 
slightly  smaller  than  the  1937  total  of  17,137  titles,  which  was 
the  highest  figure  ever  recorded,  might  indicate  that  book 
publishing  had  attained  its  full  rate  of  output  after  ten  years 
of  restricted  production. 

The  period  April  1949-March  1950,  after  nine  years  of 
paper  rationing,  was  the  first  year  in  which  British  book 
publishers  were  wholly  free  from  the  governmental  control  of 
their  chief  raw  material.  Reviewing  that  first  year  of  freedom, 
the  Publishers'  association  in  a  report  issued  in  March  1950 
said:  "  After  a  decade  of  restraint  of  output  on  the  one  hand 
and  unprecedented  ease  of  selling  on  the  other,  they  [the 
publishers]  discovered  themselves  free  once  more  as  individual 
publishers  and  as  a  trade  to  exercise  the  old  virtues  and  the 
old  vices,  to  enjoy  advantages  and  to  ignore  or  take  arms 
against  dangers  which  since  1939  had  lost  much  of  their 
reality.*' 

The  two  most  fundamental  problems,  this  report  stated, 
were  4*  a  perceptible  though  not  yet  alarming  "  fall  in  the  sale 
of  individual  titles  and  the  disquieting  and  consistent  rise  in 
the  costs  of  production.  In  Nov.  1950  paper,  once  \^d.  a 
pound,  was  10^7.  a  pound,  printing  was  four  times  what  it 
was  in  1938  and  the  rise  in  binding  costs  was  higher  still.  By 
contrast,  the  published  prices  of  many  categories  of  books  in 
1950  were  only  one  and  a  half  times  what  they  had  been  before 
World  War  11.  The  reason  for  this  apparent  anomaly  was  that 
publishers,  during  the  years  of  restricted  output,  had  been  able 
to  sell  every  copy  of  every  book  they  could  manufacture. 
Risk,  the  costliest  factor  in  book  publishing,  was  absent;  but 
once  output  was  no  longer  restricted  and  supplies  became 
greater  than  the  demand,  the  risk  returned. 

The  pattern  of  book  publishing  suddenly  took  on  a  new 
shape:  at  the  beginning  of  the  year  the  papermakers  had 
complained  of  a  rapid  and  unexpected  change  from  the 
seller's  to  the  buyer's  market,  but  by  the  summer  of  1950  the 
position  had  reversed  itself  once  more.  The  world  shortage 
of  raw  materials  and  the  heavy  demand  for  Scandinavian  pulp 
by  the  U.S.  brought  about  a  dramatically  sudden  and  sharp 
deterioration  in  the  paper  supply  situation  in  Britain.  In 
November  the  president  of  the  Publishers'  association  stated 
that  the  "  drastic  and  dangerous  reduction  "  in  the  amount 
of  paper  available  for  book  production  and  an  impending 
shortage  of  strawboard  for  bookbinding  which  was  scarcely 
less  serious  might  mean  that  once  more  many  books  would 
be  out  of  print  for  long  periods. 

Despite  all  these  difficulties  the  publishing  business  con- 
tinued quarter  by  quarter  to  beat  all  previous  records  in  the 
volume  of  business  done.  The  amount  of  trade  done  by 
publishers  in  1949  had  reached  the  unprecedented  figure  of 
£34,297,252  (the  prewar  average  annual  total  was  approxi- 
mately £10  million).  During  the  first  six  months  of  1950 
publishers'  total  sales  amounted  to  £16,683,895,  an  increase 
by  more  than  £834,000  on  the  turnover  of  the  corresponding 
period  of  1949.  Since  the  book-trade  business  had  invariably 
been  greater  in  the  second  half  of  the  year  than  in  the  first, 
there  was  little  doubt  that  the  1950  total  would  surpass  the 
1949  record.  An  analysis  of  publishers'  output  made  by  the 
Bookseller  showed  the  average  price  of  books  published 
during  the  first  six  months  of  1950  to  be  \2s.  whereas  in  the 
following  six  months  it  was  \2s.  3d.  These  statistical  averages 
are  based  on  titles  only :  many  of  the  books  most  in  demand 
cost  much  less  than  \2s.  each.  One  of  the  most  welcomed 
results  of  increased  production  facilities  was  the  restoration 
during  the  year  of  several  famous  series  which  offered  the 
world's  greatest  literature  in  attractive  volumes  for  45.  6d.  or 
5$.  each.  (E.  SE.) 


United  States.  New  books  and  new  editions  issued  in  the 
United  States  in  1950  were  up  130  over  the  total  of  1949,  an 
increase  of  1  %;  but  the  1950  total  of  1 1,022  was  only  slightly 
below  the  record  of  1940  when  1 1,328  titles  were  issued,  and 
about  10%  more  than  the  1930  total.  Fiction,  representing 
17%  of  the  year's  output,  showed  the  largest  net  increase  of 
the  year,  followed  by  juveniles,  general  literature  and  technical 
books.  The  largest  net  decreases  were  for  the  categories  of 
domestic  economy  and  business.  About  13%  of  the  titles 
handled  during  the  year  were  imports.  Pocket  books  showed 
an  increase  of  281  new  titles  over  the  1949  total  of  659. 

Heading  the  best-seller  list  for  fiction  in  1950  based  on 
trade  sales  alone,  was  The  Cardinal  by  Henry  Morton 
Robinson,  the  only  novel  on  the  list  with  a  religious  theme. 
Second  was  Joy  Street,  by  Francis  Parkinson  Keyes,  which 
did  not  appear  in  the  bookstores  until  the  last  month  of  the 
year.  Third  to  tenth  on  the  list,  in  that  order,  were  Across  the 
River  and  into  the  Trees,  by  Hrnest  Hemingway;  The  Wall,  by 
John  Hersey;  Star  Money,  by  Kathleen  Winsor;  The  Parasites, 
by  Daphne  du  Maurier;  F/oodru/e,  by  Frank  Yerby;  Jubilee 
Trail,  by  Gwen  Bristow;  The  Adventurer,  by  Mika  Waltari; 
and  The  Disenchanted,  by  Budcl  Schulberg. 

The  list  of  nonfictional  best  sellers  for  the  year,  based  on 
trade  sales  alone,  was  topped  by  Betty  Crocker's  Picture  Cook 
Hook,  followed  in  second  place  by  The  llah\\  a  book  of 
humorously  captioncd  photographs. 

One  publishing  innovation  of  the  year  was  Simon  & 
Schuster's  experimental  issuance  of  new  titles  in  full-priced 
hard-cover  and  low-priced  ($1)  paper-covered  editions 
simultaneously.  This  was  done  with  The  Cardinal,  leading 
fictional  best-seller  of  the  year,  with  encouraging  results. 
Among  booksellers,  however,  as  shown  after  questioning 
by  the  American  Book  Publishers  council,  the  preference 
was  for  a  one-year  lag  between  first  editions  of  fiction  and 
hard-cover  reprints,  and  for  a  year  and  a  half  between  hard- 
cover and  paper-bound  reprints.  Price  news  in  the  pocket- 
book  field  included  the  issuance  of  giant-sized  reprints  at 
35  cents  instead  of  the  usual  25  cents,  a  notable  example 
being  the  two-volume  reprint  of  Robert  H.  Sherwood's 
Roosevelt  and  Hopkins.  (X.) 

BORNEO:   see  BRITISH  BORNEO;  INDONESIA. 

BOTANICAL  GARDENS.  The  year  1950  was  one 
of  the  wettest  for  several  decades  and  was  in  marked  contrast 
to  1949  which  was  one  of  the  driest  and  hottest.  Growth  in 
practically  all  gardens  was  luxuriant,  though  the  flowering 
of  many  sun-loving  plants  was  not  up  to  normal  standards. 

The  large  influx  of  Himalayan  seeds  received  late  in  1949 
and  early  in  1950  from  the  collections  in  Nepal  of  O.  Polunin 
and  in  Bhutan  of  G.  SherrifiF  and  F.  Ludlow,  caused  great 
activity  in  the  propagation  departments  of  all  botanic  gar- 
dens, and  the  damp  summer  was  favourable  to  the  growth  of 
seedlings  from  this  region.  By  the  end  of  October  several 
interesting  plants  had  already  flowered  from  among  the  bulbs 
and  tubers  sent  back  from  Bhutan,  notably  Lilium  Wallt~ 
chianum  and  a  new  species  of  Codonopsis. 

The  strikes  in  the  printing  industry  affected  considerably 
the  usual  publication  of  reports  and  information  from  the 
Royal  Botanic  garden  at  Kew  and  other  gardens.  Part  I  of 
the  Kew  Bulletin  for  1950,  however,  contained  an  important 
further  contribution  from  E.  M.  Marsden-Jones  and  W.  B. 
Turrill,  the  keeper  of  the  Herbarium  at  Kew,  dealing  with 
their  researches  on  Silene  nwritima  and  S.  vulgaris.  This 
part  contained  an  account  of  their  genetical  experiments 
involving  plants  from  the  French  Alps.  W.  B.  Turrill  was 
also  president  of  the  botany  section  of  the  British  Association 
for  1950  and  delivered  an  address  on  experimental  methods 
in  taxonomy.  Representatives  of  the  main  botanic  gardens 


102 


BOTANY 


in  Great  Britain  attended  the  International  Botanic  congress 
at  Stockholm  held  in  July.  The  discussions  held  there  on 
nomenclature  of  plants  were  of  particular  interest  and 
importance. 

A  brief  report  of  the  tour  in  Australia  in  1949  of  the 
director  of  the  Royal  Botanic  gardens,  Kew,  Sir  Edward 
Salisbury,  is  contained  in  part  I  of  the  Kew  Bulletin  for  1950. 
He  was  able  to  make  recommendations  for  the  establish- 
ment of  a  botanical  garden  in  Western  Australia  and  to 
inspect  a  potential  site,  which  he  said  would  serve  admirably 
to  establish  a  collection  of  the  extremely  rich  and  scientifically 
interesting  native  flora. 

At  the  Cambridge  Botanic  garden,  H.  Gilbert-Carter 
retired  from  the  post  of  director  and  university  lecturer  in 
botany  after  many  years'  service.  He  marked  his  year  of 
retirement  by  the  publication  of  a  valuable  Glossary  of  the 
British  Flora  (Cambridge,  1950).  J.  S.  L.  Gilmour,  the 
director  of  the  Royal  Horticultural  society's  gardens  at  Wisley, 
was  appointed  to  succeed  him.  At  Edinburgh,  Roland  E. 
Cooper  retired  from  his  post  as  curator  after  long  service 
and  was  succeeded  by  E.  E.  Kemp.  The  new  Peatwall  garden 
in  the  Edinburgh  Botanic  garden  attracted  much  attention, 
and  proved  particularly  favourable  for  the  establishment  of 
difficult  species  of  Himalayan  Primulas  and  Meconopsis. 

(P.  M.  S.) 

United  States.  The  secretary  of  agriculture,  Charles  Bran- 
nan,  dedicated  a  memorial  tree  (Cedrus  Seodara)  on  the 
grounds  of  the  National  arboretum  in  Washington,  D.C., 
during  the  50th  anniversary  of  the  American  Association  of 
Nurserymen  in  July,  while  the  Morris  arboretum  in  Philadel- 
phia started  extensive  studies  in  breeding  rhododendrons  and 
azaleas.  Plants  and  Gardens,  publication  of  the  Brooklyn 
Botanic  garden,  reached  nearly  10,000  subscribers  during  the 
year.  The  Long  Island  Agricultural  and  Technical  institute 
at  Farmingdale,  New  York,  began  to  conduct  a  few  studies 
in  plant  materials  on  the  400-ac.  W.  R.  Coe  estate  in  Brook- 
ville,  now  under  its  general  supervision.  The  American 
Association  of  Botanic  Gardens  and  Arboretums  withdrew 
its  affiliation  with  American  Institute  of  Park  Executives  and, 
at  the  close  of  the  year,  was  urlattached  to  any  other  organiza- 
tion. (See  also  HORTICULTURE.)  .  (D.  W.) 

BOTANY.  The  most  notable  event  of  1950  was  the 
seventh  International  congress  held  at  Stockholm,  July  12-20, 
ten  years  later  than  originally  proposed,  under  the  presidency 
of  Professor  C.  Skottsberg.  F.  T.  Wahlen  spoke  on  "  Botany 
and  World  Husbandry  "  and  pointed  out  the  relationship 
between  botanical  science  and  world  energy  and  the  import- 
ance of  achieving  a  better  balance  between  consumption  and  . 
production.  At  the  second  plenary  session  F.  Verdoorn 
spoke  on  **  The  History  of  International  Botanical  Con- 
gresses "  and  F.  W.  Went  on  "  The  Effect  of  Climate  on 
Plant  Growth  and  Distribution  "  describing  the  work  done 
at  Pasadena,  California.  The  presence  of  a  delegation  from 
the  U.S.S.R.  naturally  aroused  great  interest.  The  Soviet 
delegates  described  new  work  on  graft  hybrids  and  claimed 
it  confirmed  T.  D.  Lysenko's  view  that  the  chromosome  theory 
of  heredity  was  erroneous.  The  authors  and  titles  of  the 
Soviet  communications  were:  I.  E.  Glyschenko,  **  Hybridiz- 
ation of  Plants  by  Grafting  ";  K.  S.  Sukhor,  "  The  Directed 
Influence  of  the  Pathogenic  Viruses  on  Plants";  N.  V. 
Turbin,  **  New  Experiments  Elucidating  the  Nature  of 
Fertilization";  V.  N.  Stoletov,  "The  Nature  of  Hybrid 
Plants  ";  P.  A.  Baranov,  "  Cultivated  Plants  during  Extreme 
Conditions  of  Life";  and  V.  N.  Sukachev,  "On  the 
Exploration  of  the  Vegetation  of  the  Soviet  Union."  It  was 
evident  that  the  Michurin  influence  was  still  paramount  in 
the  U.S.S.R* 
The  section  on  nomenclature  did  much  useful  work  in 


clarifying  and  improving  the  international  rules,  particularly 
with  regard  to  the  naming  of  hybrids  and  methods  of  typifi- 
cation.  Botanists  were  co-operating  with  horticulturists  in 
formulating  a  code  for  plants  of  horticultural  origin.  Pro- 
posals for  a  list  of  Nomina  Specifica  Conservanda  were  rejected 
by  a  large  majority. 

It  was  agreed  that  future  international  botanical  congresses 
should  be  held  alternately  in  Europe  and  outside  Europe  at 
three-  or  four-year  intervals  and  that  the  next  one  should  be 
in  Paris  in  1954.  It  was  also  decided  that  a  bureau  of  plant 
taxonomy  and  nomenclature  should  be  set  up  and  that  an 
international  society  of  plant  taxonomy  should  be  established. 
After  the  congress  there  were  a  number  of  excursions,  those 
to  Lapland  being  particularly  popular  and  well  attended  by 
taxonomists  and  ecologists. 

The  fifth  International  Congress  for  Microbiology  was 
held  at  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Aug.  17-24.  It  included  an  exhibition 
on  microbiology,  parasitology  and  hygiene  and  another  on 
the  life  and  works  of  Louis  Pasteur.  Aspects  of  medical 
mycology  received  attention  as  the  gravity  of  granulomas  in 
South  America  and  the  frequency  of  other  fungal  diseases 
had  given  to  mycology  a  special  importance  there.  It  was 
decided  to  hold  the  next  congress  in  Rome  in  1953. 

W.  B.  Turrill  gave  the  presidential  address  to  the  botany 
section  of  the  British  Association  meeting  at  Birmingham  in 
August.  He  spoke  on  "  Modern  Trends  in  the  Classification 
of  Plants,"  saying  that  plant  taxonomy  was  tending  towards 
a  synthesis  of  the  older  methods  based  on  external  mor- 
phology with  those  due  to  newer  developments  in  the  know- 
ledge of  plants.  Anatomical  techniques  made  it  possible  to 
determine  incomplete  specimens;  associations  of  chemical 
compounds  threw  light  on  taxonomy  where  attention  to 
single  substances  might  lead  to  error;  and  cytological  studies 
might  provide  valuable  evidence,  though  there  might  be 
danger  if  the  cytologist  did  not  take  proper  care  in  identifying 
and  preserving  the  specimens  on  which  his  work  was  based. 
Genetical  research  was  giving  the  greatest  assistance  to 
taxonomy  especially  in  proof  or  disproof  of  hybrid  origin. 
Thus  many  so-called  species  of  Centaurea  had  been  proved 
by  analysis  and  synthesis  to  be  hybrids. 

At  a  joint  discussion  on  "  The  Present  Position  of  the 
Theory  of  Continental  Drift,"  which  aroused  much  interest, 
Professor  R.  D'O.  Good  gave  the  main  features  of  Angiosperm 
distribution  that  were  difficult  to  explain  without  assuming 
that  the  chief  land  masses  were  once  closer  together. 

At  a  joint  meeting  on  "  Cytology  and  Genetics  in  relation 
to  the  Classification  of  Plants  and  Animals,"  L.  Sachs  gave 
an  account  of  the  combination  of  a  study  of  gross  mor- 
phology with  a  detailed  chromosome  investigation  in  the 
Triticinae,  a  subtribe  of  Gramineae,  and  there  was  an  import- 
ant discussion  on  the  rehabilitation  of  derelict  areas  at  which 
W.  J.  Rees  talked  on  "  The  Vegetation  of  Derelict  Areas  " 
and  W.  B.  Newton  on  "The  Afforestation  of  Opencast 
Mining  Areas." 

At  the  Linnean  society  there  was  a  joint  discussion  with 
the  Systematics  association  on  biometrica  and  systcmatics. 
R.  Melville  spoke  on  the  discrimination  between  taxonomic 
groups  in  which  the  morphological  characters  overlap  by 
the  determination  of  mean  values  with  their  standard  devia- 
tions of  probable  error  and  the  use  of  Cartesian  co-ordinates 
for  the  definition  of  leaf-shape.  Simple  mathematical  treat- 
ment of  co-ordinate  systems  enabled  related  series  of  shapes 
to  be  obtained  which  could  be  compared  with  those  occurring 
in  nature.  At  a  discussion  at  the  Linnean  society  on  succulent 
plants,  E.  M.  Delf  gave  an  account  of  their  principal  biological 
features.  Professor  T.  A.  Bennet-Clark  described  their 
physiology,  mentioning  their  very  low  rate  of  transpiration 
per  unit  area  of  assimilating  surface  and  saying  that  their 
most  striking  feature  was  biochemical,  carbohydrates  being 


BOWLS-BOXING 


103 


converted  into  organic  acid  in  the  dark,  the  acid  disappearing 
and  carbohydrate  re-forming  on  illumination. 

In  the  "  Biological  Flora  of  the  British  Isles,"  D.  A.  Webb 
dealt  with  the  "  mossy "  saxifrages  (Saxifraga  L.  Sect. 
Dactyloides  Tausch.).  He  recognized  only  four  species  in  the 
British  Isles:  S.  caespltosa  L.;  S.  Harttt  D.  A.  Webb;  S. 
hypnoides  L.;  and  S.  rosacea  Moench;  with  many  interspecific 
hybrids.  S.  Hartii  is  confined  to  the  island  of  Arramore  in 
County  Donegal.  In  the  same  series  ("  Biological  Flora  ") 
V.  C.  Chapman  described  Halimione  portulacoides  (L.)  Aell., 
and  J.  R.  Sealy  and  D.  A.  Webb  gave  an  account  of  Arbutus 
Unedo  L.,  which  was  confined  to  Kerry  but  formerly  had  been 
much  more  abundant  in  Ireland. 

The  Scottish  Seaweed  Research  association  reported  that 
the  survey  of  the  seaweed  resources  of  the  sublittoral  zone 
had  been  continued  in  the  Shetlands,  Outer  Hebrides,  Teree, 
west  Kyntyre  and  Arran.  They  had  considered  the  possibility 
of  introducing  foreign  buoyant  types  such  as  Macrocystis 
into  British  inshore  waters  and  sporelings  were  being  culti- 
vated from  spores  flown  from  British  Columbia.  Further 
methods  had  been  developed  for  the  harvesting  of  seaweeds 
and  for  investigating  the  chemical  composition  and  properties 
of  seaweeds  and  seawater. 

W.  A.  P.  Black  studied  the  seasonal  variation  in  weight  and 
chemical  composition  of  common  British  Laminariaceae  and 
found  that  it  should  be  possible  to  predict  the  approximate 
composition  in  future  years.  E.  J.  H.  Corner  produced 
44  A  Monograph  of  Clavarla  and  Allied  Genera,"  the  first  of  a 
series  to  be  published  by  the  Annals  of  Botany  company. 
This  gave  detailed  accounts  of  the  developmental  morphology 
of  these  fungi  as  well  as  diagnostic  descriptions  and  some  keys. 
The  author  considered  that  a  number  of  natural  groups  could 
be  separated  from  the  old  groupings  under  Clavaria,  Lac/mo- 
cladium,  etc.,  and  recognized  27  genera  instead  of  the  custo- 
mary 11  or  12. 

E.  Gaumann's  important  work  "  Principles  of  Plant 
Infection,"  originally  published  in  German  in  1943,  appeared 
in  an  English  translation  by  Professor  W.  B.  Brierley  and 
several  assistants.  It  gave  an  account  of  the  general  theories 
and  principles  of  plant  pathology  and  surveyed  the  whole 
biological  problem  of  infection. 

A.  R.  Gemmell  showed  that  fruiting  was  more  frequent  in 
monoecious  than  dioecious  mosses,  that  sterile  species 
produced  very  few  varieties,  that  dioecious  mosses  were  more 
widely  distributed  than  monoecious  or  sterile  forms  and  that 
a  species  was  more  likely  to  be  widely  distributed  in  propor- 
tion to  the  number  of  varieties  produced  by  it,  even  if  the 
range  of  the  varieties  was  excluded.  The  outbreeding  system 
was  the  operative  factor:  it  allowed  the  display  of  one  mutant 
against  a  variety  of  genie  backgrounds,  thus  leading  to 
greater  genetic  diversity  and  hence  to  greater  versatility. 

C.  Leighton  Hare  described  the  structure  and  development 
of  Eriocaulon  septangular -e.  The  seedling  showed  a  clear 
correlation  with  environmental  conditions,  possessing  a 
peculiar  anchoring  device  which  secured  it  to  the  substratum 
before  the  radicle  appeared.  C.  Thomas  described  a  new 
orchid,  Epipactus  cambrensis,  from  Kenfig  Barrows,  Glamor- 
gan. T.  G.  Tutin  described  species  pairs  in  Anthoxanthum, 
Dactyl  is  and  Phleum  in  which  the  members  of  each  pair 
differed  in  chromosome  numbers  (one  diploid,  the  other 
tetraploid)  and  had  somewhat  different  ecological  preferences 
and  geographical  distributions.  (See  also  HORTICULTURE.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY.  R.  S.  Adamson  and  T.  M.  Sailer,  Flora  of  the  Cape 
Peninsula  (Capetown  and  Johannesburg,  1950);  F.  W.  Andrews,  The 
Flowering  Plants  of  the  Anglo-Egyptian  Sudan  (Arbroath,  1950); 
D.  I.  Arnon  and  L.  Machlis,  Annual  Review  of  Plant  Physiology,  vol.  I 
(Stanford,  Connecticut,  1950);  M.  L.  Fernald,  Gray's  Manual  of 
Botany,  8th  ed.  (New  York,  1950);  E.  Gaumann,  Principles  of  Plant 
Infection  (London,  1950);  Eric  Hulten,  Atlas  of  the  Distribution  of 
Vascular  Plants  in  N.W.  Europe  (Stockholm,  1950);  C.  R.  Metcalfe  and 


L.  Chalk,  Anatomy  of  the  Dicotyledons  (Oxford,  1950);  H.  J.  Scoggan. 
The  Flora  of  Bic  and  the  Gaspe  Peninsula,  Quebec,  National  Museum 
of  Canada  Bulletin,  no.  115,  Ottawa,  1950.  (A.  W.  E.) 

BOWLS.  In  1950,  2,117  clubs  were  affiliated  to  the 
English  Bowling  association.  In  the  national  championships 
held  at  Paddington  B.  C.,  Aug.  14-22,  J.  Thompson  (North 
Shields  West  End)  won  the  singles,  L.  H.  Pipler  and  E.  P. 
Baker  (Poole  Park,  Dorset)  the  pairs,  Hereford  the  triples 
and  Richmond  Park  Hampshire,  the  rinks. 


Women  bowler^  ttikinx  /><;//  in  f/ic  unmti'nr  naiinnnt  < "hu 
which  were  held  at  Wimbledon  in  Aug.  195U. 

The  International  tournament  for  the  News  of  the  World 
trophy,  played  at  Queens  Park,  Glasgow,  on  July  5-7  was 
won  by  Scotland.  England  beat  Australia  in  the  test  match 
at  Oxford  by  35  shots  (1 18-83). 

Devon  won  the  Middleton  cup  for  the  third  successive 
year,  thus  creating  a  record.  The  London  and  Southern 
Counties  Bowling  association  gold  badge  was  won  by 
G.  F.  Trieb  (Mansfield),  and  the  Lonsdale  tournament  by 
F.  E.  Thompson  (Barnes  Lonsdale).  The  National  Welsh 
B.  A.  singles  was  won  by  A.  Thomas  (Daffen-Llanelly),  the 
pairs  by  Ivor  Davies  and  F.  L.  Cottle  (Sophia  Gardens, 
Cardiff)  and  the  rinks  by  Newport  Athletic.  The  Scottish 
B.  A.  singles  was  won  by  J.  C.  Irving  (Lockerbie),  the  pairs 
by  W.  Elliot  and  E.  Winning  (Catrine)  and  the  rinks  by 
Crosshouse.  The  Irish  B.  A.  singles  was  won  by  S.  J.  Thomp- 
son (Willowfield),  the  pairs  by  Musgrave  and  the  rinks  by 
Leinster.  Mrs.  Buckland  (Surrey)  won  the  English  Women's 
B.  A.  championship.  (See  also  EMPIRE  GAMES.)  (J.  W.  FR.) 

BOXING.  Four  British  championships  changed  hands 
during  1950.  The  main  event  of  the  year  was  the  defeat  of 
Bruce  Woodcock  on  Nov.  14  by  Jack  Gardner,  a  24-year-old 
small-holder  and  former  guardsman  from  Market  Har- 
borough  in  Leicestershire,  who  had  previously  been  an 
amateur  champion. 

Gardner's  ability  to  "  swallow "  punches  which  would 
have  knocked  the  senses  out  of  most  of  his  adversaries 
brought  him  through  his  early  trials  as  a  professional.  Hi& 


104 


BOY   SCOUTS 


Jack  Gardner  (right)  xcen  during  his  contest  with  Bruce  Woodcock 
in  Nov.  1950,  in  which  he  became  the  British  and  Empire  heavy- 
weight champion. 

victory  over  the  Welshman  Johnny  Williams,  a  young  man  of 
immense  talent  but  short  of  the  desired  stature  for  a  heavy- 
weight, was  the  bitterest,  most  savage  and  most  discussed 
fight  of  the  year.  A  gash  sustained  a  month  beiore  above  his 
high,  prominent  cheek-bone  had  interfered  with  Williams's 
preparation  for  the  fight  with  Gardner;  and  he  was  too  often 
out  of  distance  with  his  left-hand  leads.  After  six  rounds 
Gardner,  who  was  using  his  feet  and  weaving,  slipping  leads 
and  riding  punches  in  something  like  the  style  of  a  champion, 
was  well  in  front.  Williams  had  not  only  the  cut  under  his 
left  eye  opened  but  also  one  under  his  right  eye  and  finally 
saw  that  his  only  chance  was  to  go  for  a  knock-out:  in  a 
savage  assault  he  cut  and  blacked  both  Gardner's  eyes, 
lacerated  his  mouth  and  had  him  reeling  helplessly  against  the 
ropes.  Gardner's  capacity  for  4t  taking  it  "  was  established 
then  if  ever  it  was,  and  his  earlier  advantage  won  him  the  fight. 
Williams  collapsed  and  was  taken  to  hospital  suffering  from 
nervous  and  physical  exhaustion,  narrowly  defeated  on  points. 

Woodcock  was  proved  to  have  gone  back  a  long  way  when 
he  and  Gardner  met  for  the  championshipt.  When  his  left 
eye  was  closed,  it  appeared  that  his  right  eye  had  been 
sightless  since  his  calamitous  light  with  the  American  Joe 
Baksi  in  1947;  he  was  blind  when  he  surrendered,  but  he  had 
already  been  well  outpointed. 

Freddie  Mills,  like  Gardner  a  man  of  magnificent  physique  and 
an  iron  frame,  lost  the  world  light-heavyweight  championship  to 
the  American  Joey  Maxim.  He  then  retired,  and  Don  Cockill  de- 
feated Mark  Hart  for  the  vacant  Britishchampionshipatl2st.71b. 

The  middleweight  championship  changed  hands  twice: 
first  Albert  Finch  won  it  from  Dick  Turpin;  then  Randolph 
Turpin,  Dick's  young  brother,  knocked  out  Finch,  who  had 
had  to  waste  to  make  the  weight  and  was  so  weak  at  1 1  st. 
8  Ib.  that  this  defeat  could  be  disregarded  in  a  survey  of  his 
prospects  in  the  cruiserweight  class.  Randolph  Turpin,  a 
22-year-old  natural  middleweight,  was  a  great  and  ruthless 
puncher  but  neglected  the  methods  of  softening  up  an 
opponent  and  boxing  for  the  winning  opening. 

Eddie  Thomas  did  not  have  to  defend  his  welterweight 
championship  in  1950,  but  Terry  Ratcliffe,  the  former 
amateur  champion,  seemed  likely  to  develop  into  a  strong 
challenger.  Billy  Thompson  retained  the  lightweight  chanv 
pionship  against  the  challenge  of  Tommy  McGovern. 
Danny  O'Sullivan,  the  bantamweight  champion,  was  badly 
punished  by,  the  Spaniard  Luis  Romero,  in  a  European 
championship  match.  There  was  no  British  flyweight 


champion.  Since  the  retirement  of  the  Ulsterman  Rinty 
Monaghan,  Terry  Allen  won  the  world  and  European  titles 
and  later  lost  both  to  Dado  Marino  (Hawaii)  and  Jean 
Sneyers  (Belgium).  (L.  WD.) 

United  States.  An  attempt  by  Joe  Louis  to  regain  the  world 
heavyweight  championship  title  from  Ezzard  Charles, 
Cincinnati  Negro,  highlighted  boxing  during  1950.  Charles 
won  in  15  rounds  in  New  York,  on  Sept.  27,  and  became 
recognized  as  champion  in  the  United  States. 

Four  new  champions  were  produced.  In  addition  to  Sandy 
Saddler,  the  Harlem  Negro  who  on  Sept.  8,  in  New  York, 
lifted  the  world  featherweight  championship  from  Willie  Pep 
(Hartford,  Connecticut),  they  were:  Dado  Marino,  Hawaii, 
in  the  flyweight  class;  Vic  Towecl,  South  Africa,  in  the 
bantamweight  class;  and  Joey  Maxim,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  in 
the  light-heavyweight  class. 

Jake  La  Motta,  the  world  middleweight  champion,  suc- 
cessfully defended  his  title  against  Tiberio  Mitri,  Italy,  in 
New  York  (July  12),  and  against  Laurent  Dauthuille,  France, 
at  Detroit  (Sept.  13). 

Marino  acquired  the  world  flyweight  title  on  Aug.  1  by 
winning  a  15-round  decision  over  Terry  Allen,  Great  Britain, 
at  Honolulu.  Toweel  succeeded  Manuel  Ortiz,  El  Centro, 
California,  as  world  bantamweight  champion,  by  winning  a 
15-round  decision  in  a  bout  held  on  May  31  at  Johannesburg, 
South  Africa.  (J.  P.  D.) 

BOY  SCOUTS.  Scouting  in  Great  Britain  and  the 
Commonwealth  continued  to  make  progress  during  1950. 
In  Britain  membership  amounted  to  471,364.  The  figure  of 
43,771  adult  leaders  showed  an  increase  of  2,287  on  the 
previous  year;  but  despite  this  a  headquarters  committee  on 
manpower  requirements  placed  the  deficiency  of  scout 
leaders  at  25,400. 

More  than  6,000  British  scouts  went  abroad  and  more 
than  3,000  scouts  from  21  countries  visited  the  United  King- 
dom: a  record  number  for  a  year  in  which  no  world  jamboree 
was  held.  Area  jamborees  attended  by  overseas  scouts  were 
held  in  Herefordshire,  Nottinghamshire,  Lancashire  and 
Perthshire.  A  contingent  of  1,300  scouts  made  the  Holy 
Year  pilgrimage  to  Rome;  and  a  specially  selected  party  of 
eight  King's  scouts  with  a  scout  commissioner  represented 
the  United  Kingdom  at  the  American  jamboree  at  Valley 
Forge,  Pennsylvania. 

During  the  year  it  was  announced  that  42  •  1  %  of  scout 
groups  were  ki  open,"  while  28-1  %  were  sponsored  by  the 
Church  of  England,  6-7%  by  the  Methodist  Church,  3-8% 
by  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  10-9%  by  schools  and 
hospitals  and  the  remainder  by  other  churches  and  organiza- 
tions. In  September  the  Air  Ministry  agreed  to  recognize 
air  scout  troops  which  reached  a  sufficient  standard  and  to 
help  them  wherever  possible.  (RLN.) 

United  States.  In  1950  the  crusade  to  "  Strengthen  Liberty," 
which  was  inaugurated  in  1949,  was  continued,  with  emphasis 
on  patriotism,  good  citizenship  and  the  traditions  of  America. 
A  "  Report  to  the  Nation  "  on  scout  service  throughout  the 
country  was  presented  to  President  Harry  S.  Truman  by  12 
representative  scouts.  A  similar  report  was  made  to  the 
United  Nations  on  the  service  to  scouting  abroad.  After  a 
conference  with  civil  defence  officials  in  Washington  the 
scouts  adopted  a  plan  of  co-operation  with  local,  national 
and  civil  defence  agencies. 

The  Boy  Scouts  of  America  was  formed  as  an  organization 
in  1910  and  the  40th  annual  meeting  of  the  National  council 
was  held  in  Philadelphia  on  June  29  and  30.  This  was 
followed  by  a  jamboree  at  Valley  Forge  attended  by  47,163 
boys  and  leaders.  The  speakers  at  the  jamboree  included 
General  Dwight  D.  Eisenhower  and  President  Truman. 

Membership  on  Sept.  30,  1950,  was  2,603,424  men  and 


BRAZIL 


105 


i>oys  organized  in  75,639  units.  There  were  1,920,946  boys 
and  682,478  leaders.  The  world  scout  membership  was 
4,416,306  in  46  countries  (1949  census).  (L.  W.  B.) 


The  chief  scout,  Lord  Rowallan,  seen  with  Southern  Rhintesian  cubs 
at  Urn  tali  during  his  visit  to  Africa  in  1950. 

BRAZIL.  Largest  of  the  Latin  American  republics, 
the  United  States  of  Brazil  has  a  common  frontier  with  all 
South  American  countries  except  Ecuador  and  Chile.  Area: 
3,286,170  sq.mi.  (48-3%  of  the  whole  of  South  America). 
Pop.:  (1940  census)  41,236,315;  (mid-1949  est.)  49,350,000. 
The  nationality  of  the  population  as  shown  by  the  1 940  census 
was:  Brazilian-born  39,822,487,  naturalized  122,735,  foreign 
1,283,833,  nationality  unknown  7,260.  Among  the  foreign- 
born  residents  there  were  c.  354,300  Portuguese,  285,000 
Italians,  147,900  Spaniards,  141,600  Japanese,  71,000  Ger- 
mans, 41,000  Poles  and  245,000  citizens  of  other  countries. 
Among  the  Brazilian-born  population,  about  half  was  of 
European  stock;  the  remainder  included  8,744,400  mulattoes 
(21%),  6,035,700  Negroes  (14-6%),  5,500,000  Indians  and 
mestizos  ( \  3  %),  and  250,000  Asiatics.  Language :  Portuguese. 
Religion:  predominantly  Roman  Catholic  (94-4%),  with  over 
one  million  Protestants  of  various  denominations  and 
110,750  Jews.  Capital,  coterminous  with  the  federal  district: 
Rio  de  Janeiro  (1949  est.)  2,091,394.  Other  chief  towns 
(pop.,  1940  census):  Sao  Paulo  (1,253,943);  Recife  (327,753); 
Salvador  or  Baia  (293,278);  Porto  Alegre  (262,694);  Belo 
Horizonte  (179,770);  Belem  (166,662);  Santos  (159,648). 
President  of  the  republic  in  1950,  Eurico  Caspar  Dutra. 

History.  1950  was  a  lively  year  for  the  Brazilians.  The 
world  football  championship  was  played  in  Brazil,  in  an 
atmosphere  of  frenzied  excitement,  during  June  and  July. 
Presidential  elections  were  held  in  October.  Throughout  the 
year  inflation  continued  to  increase.  To  finance  schemes  for 
the  development  of  the  country's  natural  resources,  large 
sums  were  allocated  by  the  government  and  substantial  loans 
raised  at  home  and  abroad.  In  the  second  half  of  the  year 
Brazil's  primary  products  fetched  ever-rising  prices  in  the 
markets  of  the  world.  The  Labour  courts  were  inundated 
with  claims  for  higher  wages  but  there  was  an  absence  of 
labour  disputes. 


The  year  began  with  a  message  from  President  Dutra, 
who  expected  a  record  budgetary  deficit  of  £70  million,  about 
half  of  which  would  consist  of  funds  needed  for  financing  the 
Suite*  plan  to  increase  national  production.  Salic  expenditure 
would  cover  health,  food,  transport  and  power.  The  develop- 
ment  of  transport  was  considered  the  principal  key  to  econo- 
mic progress,  and  this  part  of  the  budget  provided  for  improve- 
ments in  railways,  roads,  pipelines,  harbours,  river  navigation, 
the  merchant  navy  and  airways.  There  were  to  be  large 
investments  in  the  development  of  hydro-electric  power  and 
in  the  exploitation  of  petroleum  deposits  and  the  building  of 
refineries.  Agriculture  was  to  be  encouraged  and  modernized. 
The  campaign  for  better  health  would  include  measures  for 
rendering  the  tropical  regions  habitable.  The  president 
recognized  that  the  government  could  not  indefinitely  issue 
more  money  to  meet  the  annual  deficits.  Already,  living 
costs  in  the  cities  had  doubled  since  1945  and  were  four  times 
as  high  as  in  1939.  Inflation  in  the  past  few  years  hud  had  the 
effect  of  stimulating  urban  industry  and  the  growth  of  cities, 
with  a  consequent  decline  in  agricultural  production.  Presi- 
dent Dutra  hoped  that  the  Salie  plan  would  counteract  this 
tendency.  During  1950,  however,  inflation  was  unchecked. 
As  in  the  past,  Brazilian  industrialists  and  merchants  con- 
tinued to  over-price  their  goods,  earning  excessively  high 
profits.  After  vanishing  because  of  real  or  alleged  scarcity, 
foodstuffs  returned  to  the  shops  at  inflated  prices.  Wages 
were  moved  upward. 

By  means  of  a  stringent  control  of  imports,  and  a  substan- 
tial increase  in  exports,  Brazil's  commercial  debt  of  $130 
million  to  the  U.S.  was  almost  entirely  liquidated  by  the  end 
of  the  year.  This  satisfactory  achievement  was  facilitated  by 
the  rise,  during  the  first  half  of  the  year,  of  about  100%  in 
the  price  of  coffee,  for  which  the  U.S.  was  Brazil's  principal 
customer.  Great  resentment  was  caused,  however,  by  the 
publication  of  the  report  of  a  U.S.  committee  which,  under 
the  chairmanship  of  Guy  M.  Gillette,  senator  from  Iowa, 
investigated  the  reasons  for  the  rise  in  coffee  prices.  The 
Gillette  report  accused  Brazil  (and  Colombia)  of  having 
speculated  in  coffee;  recommended  that  E.C.A.  funds  should 
not  be  used  for  the  purchase  of  coffee;  and  suggested  that 
coffee  sales  should  be  subject  to  control  and  to  a  profits  tax. 
Coffee  prices  remained  firm  during  the  second  half  of  the  year, 
and  it  was  estimated  that  the  world  demand  for  coffee  would 
exceed  the  available  supplies  in  the  immediate  future. 

Brazilian  trade  with  Europe  was  greatly  favoured  by  the 
spectacular  rise  in  the  world  price  of  another  important  local 
product,  cotton,  which  came  into  exceptional  demand  as  a 
consequence  of  the  outbreak  of  war  in  the  far  east  and  of  the 
subsequent  restrictions  imposed  by  the  U.S.  government  on 
the  export  of  cotton.  Many  bi-lateral  commercial  agreements 
were  signed,  and  extensive  use  was  made  of  barter  arrange- 
ments with  other  countries  because  of  the  lack  of  foreign 
currency.  Trade  was  resumed  with  Japan  for  the  first  time 
since  World  War  II . 

Trade  between  Brazil  and  the  United  Kingdom  was  a 
disappointment  to  exporters  in  both  countries.  During  the 
remaining  term  of  the  1949  Anglo-Brazilian  trade  agreement, 
which  expired  in  the  middle  of  1950,  Brazil  was  unable  to 
supply  the  total  quantities  of  rice  and  sugar  required  by 
Britain,  and  Britain  was  unwilling  to  pay  the  Brazilian  price 
for  cotton  with  the  result  that  the  full  quota  was  not  taken  up. 
Brazil  therefore  had  an  unfavourable  trade  balance  with  the 
U.K.  and  possessed  insufficient  sterling  for  the  importing 
of  British  non-essential  goods.  On  Sept.  18  the  two  govern- 
ments exchanged  notes  establishing  new  trade  schedules  for 
the  12  months  ending  June  30,  1951.  The  notes  provided  for 
U.K.  exports  to  Brazil  to  the  value  of  £33  million  and  for 

*  The  Suite  plan  for  the  development  of  Bra/il  over  the  period  1949-53  was 
approved  in  June  1948,  the  word  salt?  being  coined  from  the  initial  letters  of 
the  words  xaudt  (health),  atimentacao,  transport?  and  fncrttia. 


06 


BREAD  AND  BAKERY  PRODUCTS 


razilian  exports  to  the  U.K.  totalling  £51  million.  The 
rincipal  Brazilian  exports  were  to  be  raw  cotton  (£1 8,650,000), 
rffec,  cocoa,  timber,  hides,  rice  and  meat.  The  chief  British 
cports  were  to  be  petroleum  (£11,460,000),  machinery  for 
sxtile  industries  and  passenger  automobiles.  The  import 
f  British  textiles  was  strongly  opposed  by  the  local  manu- 
icturers  and  a  minimum  amount  of  sterling  was  therefore 
[located  for  this  purpose.  The  volume  of  trade  on  either  side 
as  to  be  subject  to  agreement  on  price  and  quality  and  to 
le  maintenance  of  a  reasonable  equilibrium  in  sterling 
ayments.  The  British  negotiators  pointed  out  that  one  of 
ic  main  obstacles  to  an  expansion  of  Brazilian  exports  to 
;erling  countries  was  the  high  price  of  local  products  because 
f  the  non-devaluation  of  the  cruzeiro.  In  November  the 
ritish  chancellor  of  the  exchequer  announced  that  the 
razilian  authorities  were  about  to  devote  £10  million  of 
ieir  sterling  resources  towards  the  liquidation  of  commercial 
ebts  owing  to  firms  in  the  U.K.  and  that  Brazil  hoped  to 
ntle  the  remainder  of  those  arrears  early  in  1951. 

In  the  period  Jan.-June  1950  Brazil  had  a  favourable  overall 
ade  balance.  Exports  were  Cr.$  9,097  million  and  imports 
'r.$  7,966  million,  the  comparative  figures  for  the  same  period 
i  1949  being  Cr.$  8,156  million  and  Cr.$  10,423  million. 

In  September  the  Brazilian  government  offered  a  sum  of 
'r.$  50  million  as  the  country's  contribution  to  the  war  effort 
i  Korea.  This  sum  was  to  be  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the 
LN.  for  the  purchase  in  Brazil  of  exportable  surpluses  of 
>odsturTs,  raw  materials  or  manufactured  ^oods.  The 
3vernment  emphasized  that  any  offer  of  military  assistance 
ould  be  impracticable  because  of  the  great  distance  sepa- 
iting  Brazil  from  the  scene  of  operations. 

In  July  Brazil's  wartime  dictator,  Getulio  Vargas  (q.v.)t 
scepted  nomination  by  his  so-called  Brazilian  Labour  party 
*artido  Trabalhista  Brasileiro)  to  stand  as  presidential 
mdidate  in  the  October  election.  It  had  long  been  apparent 
mt  Vargas  was  preparing  a  new  bid  for  power,  though  the 
nly  propaganda  issued  by  his  supporters  was  the  slogan 
He  will  come  back,"  plastered  on  walls  throughout  the 
>untry.  Meanwhile  "  the  father  of  the  poor  "  (as  he  styled 
imself)  had  been  living  quietly  in  retirement  in  southern 
razil.  Every  rise  in  the  cost  of  living  increased  his  prestige 
rcd  he  was  aware  that  a  majority  of  the  poorer  people, 
>membering  the  labour  laws  which  he  made  during  his 
ictatorship,  would  probably  welcome  *rm  return.  Vargas 
egan  his  new  campaign  in  August,  when  h'e  was  cheered  by 
uge  crowds  in  Sao  Paulo.  He  began  his  first  electioneering 
jeech  with  the  cry:  "  Workers  of  Brazil!"  and  he  promised 
lat,  if  elected,  he  would  introduce  more  social  legislation. 
here  were  rumours  that  the  Brazilian  Labour  party  was 
reiving  financial  support  from  President  Juan  Peron  of 
Tgentina,  but  no  evidence  was  produced  to  support  these 
isertions.  Vargas  duly  defeated  his  three  rivals  at  the  polls 
n  Oct.  3.  The  president-elect  then  made  several  statements 
n  the  policy  that  he  would  pursue  during  his  five  years  in 
ffice.  Regarding  social  welfare,  he  said: 

**  It  has  become  necessary  that  a  national,  systematic  plan  be 
ndertaken  to  raise  the  nutritional  and  living  standards  of  the  working 
usscs.  Before  anything  else  we  must  raise  their  purchasing  power, 
icrcasc  the  minimum  wage,  establish  the  worker  on  the  soil  and 
caic  an  organization  which  will  handle  all  social  welfare.** 

He  drew  the  attention  of  all  farmers  to  the  need  for  intensi- 
/ing  agricultural  production.  He  stated  that  he  would 
repress  the  illicit  gains  of  the  speculators  and  the  exaggerated 
rohts  of  30%  and  40%  and  correct  the  scandalous  tax 
yasion."  Vargas  said  that  he  was  prepared  to  co-operate 
'ith  the  U.S.  "  on  condition  that  they  help  us  to  solve  our 
roblems  according  to  our  own  interests"  and  that  he 
ivoured  foreign  investments  "  provided  they  come  to 
D-operate  in  the  development  of  our  existent  basic  industries 
nd  in  the  creation  of  new  industries.**  He  affirmed  that 


under  his  government  Brazil  would  continue  to  support  the 
western  nations.  Vargas  also  announced  that  he  intended  to 
maintain  the  parity  of  the  cruzeiro,  and  he  added,  in  defiance 
of  the  Gillette  report:  "We  must  obtain  from  coffee  the 
maximum  of  foreign  currencies,  selling  it  abroad  at  the  best 
prices  obtainable."  (G.  P.) 

Education.  Schools  (1947):  primary  58,502,  teachers  112,412,  pupils 
4,336,437;  secondary  1,004,  pupils  302,000;  industrial  213,  apprentices 
53,000;  vocational  2,700,  pupils  200,000.  Institutions  of  higher  edu- 
cation 305,  students  25,000,  professors  4,500;  state  universities  7; 
private  (Catholic)  universities  3.  Illiteracy  (1947):  approximately  57%. 

Agriculture.  Main  crops  ('000  metric  tons,  1948;  1949  in  brackets): 
coffee  1,341  (1,184);  cotton  331  (369);  rice  2,648  (2,980);  maize  5,650 
(5,700);  sugar,  raw  value,  1,751  (1,732);  cocoa  125  (161);  tobacco  116 
(118);  beans  1,170  (1,245);  cassava  12,610;  nuts  (1949)  32,109.  Live- 
stock ('000  head):  cattle  (Dec.  1948)  50,178;  sheep  (1948)  16,000; 
pigs  (Dec.  1949)  23,881;  horses  (Dec.  1948)  6,928;  chickens  (1948) 
60,000. 

Industry.  Registered  industrial  establishments:  (1943)  80,633. 
Fuel  and  power:  coal  ('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in 
brackets)  2,112  (930);  consumption  of  gas  in  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  Sao 
Paulo  (million  cu.  metres,  1949)  198;  consumption  of  electrical  energy 
in  Rio  de  Janeiro  and  SiXo  Paulo  (million  kwh,  1949)  2,712;  crude  oil 
('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets)  14  (16).  Raw 
materials  ('000  metric  tons,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets):  pig- 
iron  499  (331);  steel  ingots  and  castings  608  (361);  manganese  ore 
(1948)  472;  gold  (fine  ounces,  1949)  119,179.  Manufactured  goods: 
cotton  piece-goods  (million  yards,  1948)  306-1;  cement  ('000  metric 
tons,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brackets)  1,248  (623). 

Foreign  Trade.  (Million  cruzeiros,  1949;  1950,  six  months,  in  brac- 
kets) imports  20,648  (7,966);  exports  20,153  (9,097).  Main  sources  of 
imports  (1949):  U.S.  43%;  U.K.  13%;  Argentina  11  %.  Main  destina- 
tions of  exports:  U.S.  50%;  U.K.  9%;  Argentina  8%.  Main  imports: 
machinery  and  apparatus  (excluding  vehicles)  26  %,  petroleum  products 
10%,  wheat  9%,  vehicles  7%.  Main  exports:  coffee  58%,  raw  cotton 
10%,  cocoa  beans  5%,  hides  and  skins  3%. 

Transport  and  Communications.  Roads  (1949):  64,294  mi.  Licensed 
motor  vehicles  (Dec.  1949):  cars  133,386,  commercial  169,225.  Rail- 
ways (1949):  22,136  mi.  including  state  railways  19,229  mi.;  passengers 
carried  (1948)  308-6  million;  livestock  (1948)  4-2  million;  freight 
carried  ('000  tons,  1948)  33,933.  Shipping  (July,  1949):  number  of 
merchant  vessels  of  100  gross  tons  and  over  342;  total  tonnage  724,951. 
Air  transport  (1948):  mi.  flown  38  million;  passengers  flown  946,000; 
cargo  and  baggage  carried  26,791  metric  tons;  airmail  carried  712  tons. 
Telephones  (1949):  484,300.  Wireless  licences  (1945):  629,794. 

Finance  and  Banking.  (Million  cruzeiros)  budget:  (1949-50)  revenue 
17,917,  expenditure  20,727;  (1950-51  est.)  revenue  20,394,  expenditure 
21,356.  Internal  funded  federal  debt  (Dec.  1948):  10,410.  Currency 
circulation  (June  1949;  June  1950  in  brackets):  18,050  (20,800):  Gold 
and  foreign  exchange  (million  U.S.  dollars,  July  1949;  July  1950  in 
brackets):  680  (609).  Bank  deposits  (June  1949;  June  1950  in  brackets): 
33,420  (36,990).  Monetary  unit:  cruzeiro  with  an  exchange  rate  of 
Cr.$  52-42  to  the  pound  and  Cr.$  18-72  to  the  U.S.  dollar. 

See  B.  H.  Hunnicutt,  Brazil:  World  Frontier  (London,  1950). 

BREAD  AND  BAKERY  PRODUCTS.  In  1950, 
for  the  first  time  since  World  War  II.  Great  Britain  saw  some 
real  relaxation  of  wartime  regulations  with  respect  to  flour 
and  bread.  In  the  first  place  the  official  rate  of  flour  extraction 
at  last  was  reduced  from  85%  to  81  %  so  that,  with  the  ad- 
mixture of  imported  white  flour,  bread  was  now  made  from 
flour  of  80%  extraction.  This  permitted  a  whiter  flour  to  be 
made,  although  the  colour  was  still  inferior  to  that  prevailing 
in  prewar  days.  This  in  turn  resulted  not  only  in  whiter  but 
also  in  bolder  and  generally  more  pleasing  bread:  the  baker 
had  found  it  almost  impossible  to  produce  a  really  pleasing 
loaf  of  attractive  size  and  structure  with  the  low-grade  dark 
flour  prevailing  when  the  extraction  rate  was  85%. 

Thus  the  public  could  now  have  a  whiter  loaf  and  further- 
more have  it  sliced  and  wrapped,  if  they  wished,  in  fact 
bakers  had  claimed  that  bread  sales  were  dropping  very 
markedly  now  that  other  foods  were  in  freer  supply  and  that 
some  improvement  in  bread  quality  was  urgently  wanted. 
Since  the  government's  White  Paper  (issued  in  1945)  on  the 
postwar  loaf  had  suggested  that  nutritional  requirements 
were  likely  to  be  met  by  an  80%  extraction,  an  official 
instruction  to  mill  to  this  length  was  the  obvious  step,  as 
soon  as  the  dollar  position  permitted  it. 

Good  work  continued  to  be  carried  out  by  the  Research 


BREWING  AND   BEER 


107 


Association  of  British  Millers  and  by  the  newly  formed 
Baking  Industries  Research  association  (both  the  flour 
milling  and  the  baking  industries  had  become  scientifically 
minded);  and  similar  research  bodies  were  already  functioning 
in  other  parts  of  the  Commonwealth.  Great  interest  centred 
round  the  substances  used  for  maturing  and  bleachjng  flour; 
and  a  careful  watch  was  being  kept  on  the  use  of  substances 
which  appear  to  retard  staling,  generally  known  as  "  bread 
softeners."  As  fats  became  in  freer  supply,  it  was  probable 
that  bakers  would  revert  to  prewar  practice  and  use  a  quantity 
such  as  4  Ib.  a  sack,  which  would  make  the  loaf  more  attrac- 
tive and  more  palatable.  The  lower  extraction  and  whiter 
flour  had  also  benefited  the  makers  of  cakes,  pastries  and 
biscuits,  although  with  80%  extraction  it  was  still  impossible 
to  produce  articles  as  good  as  would  have  been  liked. 

A  secondary  but  also  important  result  of  the  reduced 
extraction  rate  was  that  a  larger  quantity  of  the  by-products 
of  milling  (bran,  sharps,  etc.)  could  now  be  used  to  feed 
animals  and  poultry,  which  would  allow  more  meat,  poultry, 
eggs  and  milk  to  be  supplied. 

Of  technical  interest  was  the  introduction  of  pneumatic 
conveying  of  the  various  stocks  in  flour  mills;  the  use  of  a 
more  precise  method  for  judging  and  hence  controlling  flour 
colour;  and  the  employment  of  new  processes  in  the  bakery 
to  replace  the  time-honoured  method  of  greasing  baking 
tins.  Finally,  attention  was  being  paid  to  cleanliness  and 
hygiene  in  all  food  manufacture.  This  last  reflected  the 
publication  of  model  by-laws  for  the  guidance  of  local 
authorities.  (See  also  WHEAT.)  (D.  W.  K.-J.) 

BREWING  AND  BEER.  The  downward  trend  in 
beer  output  from  the  peak  production  in  1945-46  continued 
during  1950.  Although  the  number  of  standard  barrels  of 
beer  produced  for  the  first  ten  months  of  the  year  was 
13,775,130  compared  with  13,509,318  for  the  corresponding 
months  of  1949,  the  number  of  bulk  barrels  was  lower,  being 
21,035,241,  as  compared  with  21,993,984.  The  cause  of  the 
decline  was  stated  by  R.  H.  Butler,  chairman  of  the  Brewers' 
society,  at  the  annual  banquet  of  the  Allied  Brewery  Traders' 
association  on  March  20  to  be  the  excessive  beer  duty. 
Such  high  taxation  kept  the  price  of  beer  at  a  level  which 
beer  drinkers  could  ill  afford.  He  doubted  whether  it  was 
realized  that  they  were  paying  nearly  four  times  as  much  in 
duty  as  in  1939,  Similar  protests  were  made  on  behalf  of  the 
retail  section  of  the  licensed  trade.  It  was  pointed  out  in 
particular  that  the  duty  on  a  pint  of  average  strength  was  over 
8d.  making  the  price  to  the  retailer  Is.  Id.  Retailers  considered 
that  a  reduction  in  the  duty  of  3*/.  or  4d.  a  pint  was  necessary 
if  the  downward  trend  in  consumption  was  to  be  reversed. 

The  budget,  however,  brought  no  relief  in  the  form  of 
reduced  duty.  Instead,  the  chancellor  of  the  exchequer  asked 
the  brewing  industry  to  increase  the  strength  of  all  its  beers 
by  three  degrees.  The  duty  was  adjusted  to  enable  this  to  be 
done  without  any  additional  duty  being  incurred.  The  effect 
of  this  was  to  bring  the  average  strength  of  beer  up  from  about 
80%  of  its  pre-war  level  to  little  over  90%.  The  provisional 
receipts  from  the  beer  duty  in  1949-50  were  £263,086,000  or 
nearly  £4  million  less  than  the  estimate.  The  chancellor's 
estimate  of  revenue  from  the  duty  in  1950-51  was 
£253,900,000.  An  output  of  approximately  25  million  bulk 
barrels  would  be  needed  to  bring  in  this  amount.  This  was 
roughly  a  million  barrels  less  than  the  figure  for  1949-50. 

Exports  to  hard-currency  countries  increased  slightly  in 
1949-50— from  69,000  standard  barrels  in  the  year  ended 
Sept.  30,  1949,  to  71,000  standard  barrels  in  the  following 
12  months.  Total  exports,  however,  declined  from  347,000 
standard  barrels  to  344,000,  the  fall  being  mainly  accounted 
for  by  decreased  supplies  abroad,  to  War  Office  hospitals  and 
to  naval,  army  and  air  force  institutes. 


Following  the  increase  in  the  budget  strength  of  all  beers 
came  a  modification,  a  few  weeks  later,  of  the  system  of 
licences  for  barley  and  malt.  Whereas  brewers  and  maltsters 
had  been  obliged  since  the  Malt  (Restriction)  order  was 
made  in  1940  to  restrict  their  purchases  to  current  needs, 
they  were  now  licensed  to  buy  barley  or  malt  (or  both  in  certain 
cases)  without  restriction  as  to  quantity.  The  delay  in 
bringing  malting  barley  on  to  the  market  caused  by  the 
stormy  weather  at  harvest  time,  combined  with  the  removal 
of  the  maximum  price  limit,  caused  prices  of  the  1950  crop  to 
rise  to  a  disturbing  extent.  Although  the  crop  was  smaller 
than  expected,  there  appeared  to  be  no  reason  for  assuming 
that  there  was  a  serious  shortage  or  that  it  would  be  impossible 
to  meet  brewers*  requirements  in  full. 

The  first  permanent  licensed  house  to  be  built  or  completely 
rebuilt  since  the  outbreak  of  World  War  II  was  opened  in 
January.  This  house,  "  The  Fox,"  Felpham,  Sussex,  was 
rebuilt  on  the  site  of  an  old  inn  built  in  the  first  half  of  the  18th 
century  and  having  associations  with  William  Blake,  the 
poet  and  painter.  The  new  house  bore  much  evidence  of 
the  progressive  architecture  and  the  high  appreciation  of 
craftsmanship  characteristic  of  and  implicit  in  the  many 
fine  new  inns  built  by  the  brewing  industry  during  the  three 
previous  decades.  At  the  end  of  the  year  the  completion  of 
the  roof  and  chimneys  of  the  *'  Festival  Inn,"  Poplar,  London, 
was  celebrated.  This  inn  was  built  by  the  owners  as  part  of 
the  "  Lansbury  scheme  "  and  of  the  "  live  "  architectural 
exhibit  during  the  Festival  of  Britain. 

Brewers  were  almost  the  only  manufacturers  still  operating 
on  a  local  basis  and  among  the  very  few  who  distributed 
their  own  product.  There  was  no  "  middle  man,"  generally 
speaking,  in  the  licensed  trade.  As  a  result,  the  relations 
between  the  wholesale  and  retail  sections  had  always 
been  of  a  special  character  and  particularly  close  and 
friendly.  A  practice  of  ironing  out  difficulties  by  free,  if 
informal,  discussion  by  representatives  of  both  sides  had 
existed  for  many  years.  During  1950,  however,  the  trade 
reached  a  new  objective  by  extending  its  system  of  local 
panels  of  wholesalers  and  retailers  to  cover  the  whole  country. 
The  primary  purpose  of  the  panel  was  to  afford  a  ready 
means  of  ctyscussion  between  the  wholesaler  and  the  retailer 
of  all  subjects  of  common  interest.  The  panel  could  also 
arbitrate,  when  the  need  arose,  in  individual  disputes. 

The  great  ramifications  of  the  brewing  industry  were 
shown  at  the  Brewers'  exhibition  at  Olympia,  in  London, 
during  the  first  fortnight  in  October.  A  great  range  of 
brewing  plant,  much  of  it  of  a  strikingly  novel  character, 
was  displayed.  Special  interest  was  shown  in  new  or  improved 
machines  for  yeast  rousing,  motorized  malt  turning,  racking, 
automatic  bottle-crating,  loading,  filling,  crowning,  labelling, 
conveying,  glass  and  cask  washing  and  bottle  cleaning  and 
pasteurizing.  The  Bottled  Beer  competition,  which  in  prewar 
days  was  an  outstanding  feature,  was  held  again  after  a 
lapse  of  11  years.  There  were  580  entries  with  a  total  of 
nearly  14,000  bottles.  Nearly  100  entries  came  from  the 
Commonwealth.  (X.) 

United  States.  Beer  and  ale  sales  in  the  United  States  for 
the  fiscal  year  ended  June  30,  1950,  totalled  84,202,618  bbl., 
the  third  highest  production  on  record  for  a  fiscal  year.  The 
highest  figure  was  86,992,795  bbl.  in  1948. 

Bottled  and  canned  beer  accounted  for  70-8%  of  the 
nation's  total  consumption,  compared  with  a  rate  of  about 
25%  in  1934  and  prior  years.  Early  in  1950  the  results  of  a 
nation-wide  consumer  survey  made  in  1949  by  Crossley, 
Incorporated,  were  published,  which  showed  that  52-4% 
of  the  adult  civilian  population  of  the  U.S.  were  consumers 
of  beer  and  ale. 

The  brewing  industry  in  1950  enjoyed  an  abundance  of 
raw  materials — particularly  malt,  the  basic  ingredient,  and 


108 


BRIDGES 


The  new  steel  bridge  over  the  n  »•<•/•  Khun-  <u    I /•////<•/// 

destroyed  in  \\\*rld  MV/r 


Netherlands^  which  was  opened  in  May  J950.   The  old  bridge  of  similar  design  wa.\ 
II  during  the  attack  by  British  airborne-troops  in  1944. 


corn,  used  as  a  malt  adjunct.  Purchases  of  agricultural 
products  were  estimated  at  nearly  $300  million  mainly  for 
malt,  corn  products,  rice  and  hops.  Purchases  of  containers, 
labels  and  various  items  of  supplies  and  equipment,  and  the 
cost  of  services  and  transport  were  also  important  contribu- 
tions to  the  national  economy. 

The  industry  pay  roll  reached  a  peak  in  1949,  with  weekly 
earnings  for  production  workers  averaging  $69-25,  as  com- 
pared with  averages  of  $53  57  for  all  foods  and  $54  90  for 
all  manufactures. 

Federal  excise,  at  $8  a  barrel,  and  special  taxes  on  malt 
beverages  for  the  fiscal  year  1950  totalled  $672,084,794, 
bringing  the  cumulative  total  since  the  end  of  prohibition 
(April  7,  1933)  tQ  $7,502,692,208,  State  and  local  taxes 
and  licence  fees  in  fiscal  year  1950  were  estimated  at  $215 
million,  raising  the  cumulative  figure  for  that  revenue  to 
about  $2,515  million.  Combined  public  revenues  since  1933 
had  thus  passed  the  $10,000  million  mark,  (See  also  HOPS.) 

(E.  V.  LH.) 

BRIDGES.  The  policy  of  limiting  the  number  of  roads 
and  bridges  under  construction  was  continued  in  Great 
Britain  during  1950;  and  of  the  bridges  constructed  only  a 
few  are  worthy  of  special  note. 

Construction  was  advanced  on  the  viaducts  to  bypass 
Neath,  in  Glamorganshire,  on  the  main  road  from  Cardiff  to 
Swansea.  There  were  two  bridges:  the  smaller  consisted  of 
1 1  spans,  with  a  total  overall  length  of  970  ft.;  the  larger  had 
16  spans,  with  a  total  length  of  1,610  ft.,  including  a  300-ft. 
span  over  the  river  Neath,  where  the  bridge  was  90  ft.  above 


the  high-water  level.  Both  viaducts  were  composed  of  plate 
girder  spans  with  dual  roadways  each  22  ft.  wide  and  canti- 
levered  footpaths  and  cycleways  on  each  side. 

Progress  was  made  with  the  structural  steel-work  required 
for  a  pontoon  bridge  to  replace  the  similar  structure  which 
had  served  for  70  years  as  the  approach  from  street-level  to 
the  Liverpool  floating  landing-stage:  it  was  to  carry  two  lines 
of  heavy  vehicular  traffic,  with  footpaths  on  each  side;  the 
roadway  was  to  float  between  two  masonry  walls  and  rise 
and  fall  with  a  maximum  30-ft.  range  of  tide;  and  the 
pontoons  towards  the  shore  end  would  ground  at  low  water 
on  a  paved  ramp  between  the  walls.  The  structure  was 
designed  to  deal  with  tidal  conditions  and  considerable  wave 
action,  while  combining  articulation  with  the  maximum 
stability  under  moving  vehicles.  There  were  to  be  six  pontoon 
rafts  and  seven  suspended  spans  of  41  ft.  8  in.;  the  bridge 
would  have  a  total  length  of  551  ft.  2  in. 

A  pioneer  aluminium  structure  was  completed  for  the 
North  of  Scotland  Hydro- Electric  board  in  connection  with 
their  Tummel  Garry  scheme.  This  was  a  lattice  girder 
footbridge  with  a  172  ft.  6  in.  main  span  and  two  cantilever 
end-spans  each  69  ft.  long. 

Belgium.  A  bridge  over  the  Meuse  at  Sclayn  was  opened 
to  traffic  by  Auguste  Buisseret,  the  Belgian  minister  of  public 
works,  on  Feb.  10,  1950.  This  prestressed  bridge,  having  two 
main  spans  of  206  ft.  each,  was  an  important  engineering 
structure  and  also  remarkably  beautiful:  duality  has  always 
presented  great  difficulty  to  the  bridge-designer,  and  few 
bridges  cdnsisting  of  two  equal  main  spans  have  an  entirely 
satisfactory  appearance. 


BRIDGES 


109 


Germany.  Progress  was  made  in  the  construction  of  a  new 
bridge  over  the  Port  canal  at  Heilbronn,  to  replace  the 
notable  structure  built  in  1931  by  the  Wayss  and  Freytag 
company  and  destroyed  in  1944.  The  design  for  the  new 
bridge  was  like  that  of  the  old,  but  the  constructional  methods 
were  based  on  more  modern  practice.  The  clear  span  was 
351  ft.,  the  width  between  parapets  41  ft.;  there  were  four 
three-hinged  arch  ribs,  prestressed  by  steel  wires  having  an 
ultimate  strength  of  227,200  Ib.  a  sq.in.  (the  amount  of  pre- 
stress  in  the  wires  was  calculated  to  be  approximately 
1 25,000  Ib.  a  sq.in.). 

Portugal.  Progress  was  made  in  the  construction  of  the 
Vila  Franca  bridge  over  the  Tagus.  The  bridge  comprised 
five  fixed  spans  of  102  m.  each  and  had  an  overall  width  of 
roadway  and  footway  of  12  m.  The  spans  were  of  structural 
steel  of  stiffened  arch-construction;  the  cost  of  the  steel  super- 
structure amounted  to  £480,000.  The  permanent  steelwork 
was  erected  on  a  service  span  and  floated  into  each  opening 
in  turn. 

Sweden.  Sweden  had  a  large  programme,  including  several 
structures  of  exceptional  size  and  interest.  Bridges  on  which 
progress  was  made  included  one  over  the  Skuru  channel  at 
Skuru  in  the  county  of  Stockholm,  This  had  an  overall  length 
of  935  ft.,  a  width  of  80  ft.  and  a  main  span  of  258  ft.  The 
three  principal  spans  were  of  reinforced  concrete  arch- 
construction. 

The  bridge  over  the  bay  of  Lulefjardin  at  Lulea  was  planned 
to  have  an  overall  length  of  2,980  ft.,  a  width  of  43  ft.,  two 
spans  of  approximately  287  ft.  and  five  spans  of  approximately 
274  ft.,  with  a  large  number  of  smaller  approach-spans,  as 
well  as  an  opening  channel  of  approximately  99  ft.  clear  width; 
the  large  spans  were  each  to  be  carried  by  two  bow-shaped 
lattice  girders. 

The  bridge  over  Lake  Malaren  at  Hjulsta  had  a  total  length 
of  1,710  ft.,  a  width  of  approximately  20  ft.  9  in.  and  11  steel 
girder  spans  of  approximately  125  ft.;  there  were  also  two 
navigation  channels  of  about  1 15  ft.  each  clear  width  provided 
by  means  of  a  lattice-girder  swing  bridge. 

Finland.  The  Rovaniemi  bridge  for  the  Finland  state 
railways  was  nearing  completion  in  1950.  It  was  to  carry  a 
road  and  a  railway  and  to  consist  in  the  main  part  of  three 
70-m.  continuous  steel  lattice-girder  spans,  with  approaches 
of  three  35-m.  and  four  16-m.  spans. 

Iceland.  Pjorsa  bridge  was  constructed  with  a  stiffened 
steel  arch-structure  of  83-m.  span  carrying  a  4  •  1-m.  roadway. 

Egypt.  The  new  railway  bridge  over  the  Nile  at  Kafr  el 
Zayat,  on  the  main  line  between  Cairo  and  Alexandria,  was 
opened  at  the  beginning  of  the  year.  It  has  six  fixed  steel 
girder  spans  each  70  m.  long  and  a  swing  span  70  m.  long; 
the  piers  and  abutments  were  founded  on  caissons  sunk  under 
compressed  air. 

Gold  Coast.  Progress  was  made  with  the  construction  of  a 
structural  steel  bridge  to  replace  the  Ancobra  bridge  on  the 
Gold  Coast  railways.  The  main  span  was  170ft.,  and  the 


new  bridge  was  so  designed  that  traffic  would  in  fact  be 
stopped  only  for  a  period  of  three  weeks  while  the  old  bridge 
was  being  dismantled  and  the  new  one  erected. 

Australia.  Two  bridges  were  constructed  over  the  Swan 
River  estuary,  near  Perth:  one  with  an  overall  length  of 
737  ft.,  the  other  with  an  overall  length  of  380  ft.,  both  with 
a  deck  width  of  72  ft.  3  in.  The  individual  span  between  the 
piers  was  62  ft.  in  the  shorter  bridge  and  61  ft.  in  the  longer. 
The  deck  construction  consisted  of  welded  stfcel  plate  girders 
with  square  bars  welded  on  to  the  top  flanges  to  transfer  the 
shear  at  the  junction  between  the  girder  and  the  concrete 
deck  slab,  thus  providing  a  composite  structure  in  which  the 
concrete  slab  provided  the  compression-flange  of  the  girders 
(this  resulted  in  a  very  large  saving  in  cost). 

New  Zealand.  Considerable  progress  was  made  during  the 
year  with  an  ambitious  programme  of  construction.  This 
included  the  Tuki  Tuki  bridge,  with  an  overall  length  of 
1,080  ft.,  consisting  of  12  reinforced  concrete  girder  spans 
of  80  ft.,  with  two  end-spans  each  of  60  ft.  and  a  roadway 
width  of  24  ft.  Another  fairly  large  bridge  constructed  was 
that  over  the  Kokotahi  river,  having  an  overall  length  of 
1,015  ft.  and  consisting  of  13  reinforced  concrete  girder  spans 
of  70  ft.  and  two  end-spans  each  of  52  ft.  6  in.  in  length  and 
12  ft.  in  width.  A  new  harbour  bridge  was  projected  for 
Auckland. 

Thailand.  Construction  proceeded  with  three  large  bridges 
of  structural  steelwork.  The  Rama  VI  bridge  was  of  cantilever 
construction  and  comprised  two  spans  of  80  m.,  two  spans  of 
100  m.  and  a  central  span  of  120  m.;  it  was  designed  to  carry 
a  single  rail-track,  a  6-m.  roadway  and  two  footways 
1  •  5  m.  wide.  Surat  bridge  comprised  one  span  of  80  m.  and 
two  spans  of  60  m.,  with  accommodation  similar  to  that  of 
the  Rama  VI  bridge,  but  with  one  footway  only.  Bandara 
bridge  was  of  cantilever  construction,  comprising  two  spans 
of  80  m.  and  a  central  span  of  100  m.,  with  a  single  rail-track 
and  a  footway.  (W.  A.  FT.) 

United  States.  The  new  $14  million  suspension  bridge  of 
2,800-ft.  main  span  over  the  Tacoma  narrows  west  of  Tacoma, 
Washington,  was  opened  to  traffic  on  Oct.  14,  1950,  to  replace 
the  slender  $6-4  million  structure  that  collapsed  on  Nov.  7, 
1940,  as  a  result  of  aerodynamic  oscillations  during  a  42- 
m.p.h.  wind.  The  piers  were  salvaged  from  the  original 
construction  and  altered  to  support  the  new  structure,  which 
was  widened  to  four  lanes  and  was  provided  with  deep 
stiffening  trusses  and  slotted  roadways.  The  new  2,800-ft. 
span  is  the  third  longest  in  the  world.  A  56-m.p.h.  wind  in 
June  1950  caused  vertical  oscillations  of  42  in.  in  the  deck  of 
the  4,200-ft.  span  of  the  Golden  Gate  bridge  at  San  Francisco, 
California.  This  was  the  largest  amplitude  oscillation  recorded 
since  motion-recording  instruments  were  installed  on  the 
biidgc  in  1946. 

Construction  was  speeded  in  1950  on  the  $40  million 
Delaware  River  Memorial  bridge  near  Wilmington,  sched- 
uled to  open  by  July  1,  1951.  The  project  length  of  3£  mi. 


The  new  road  bridge  over  the  river  Meuse  at  Sclayn.  Bel.trinm,  which  wa\-  completed  in  1950. 


110 


BRITISH  ARMY 


included   a   suspension   bridge   of   2,150-ft.    main   span. 

Construction  progressed  in  1950  on  the  $44  million  Chesa- 
peake Bay  bridge,  2 1 ,286  ft.  long,  connecting  the